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Glossary of Measurement and Appraisal

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Created by erikasalls

Assessment
collecting info
evaluating
making valued judgement
-good/bad
-strong/poor

measurement
attaching a # to an assessment
Formal vs. Informal assessment
Formal:
specific rules and directions to follow

informal:
no rules



supply vs. fixed (selection)
Supply:
open ended, short answer or essay

fixed:
answer there pick it (mult. choice)



Max performance vs. typical
max: best you can do

typical: your performance on a regular average day
ex. pop quiz


individual vs. group
individual:one on one test

group: multiple people can take their own test at the same time

speed vs. power
speed:
how quickly you answer on the test matters (TIME MATTERS)

Power: There is a time limit, but not a factor in scoring


objective vs. subjective
objective: right/wrong factual (true/false)

subjective: interpretation required (short answer/essay)

Norm vs. Criterion
Norm:
based on how other did on the test

Criterion: based on some kind of standard or criteria rubric


Criterion Referenced Tests
standards based directions

Mastery: mastered completely
Minimal: minimally competent

Absolute:
A 90-100
B 80-89
C 70-79







Norm Referenced Tests
All comparative to others
- grading on curve, porportional
grade equivlents/age equivlents
Grade Equivilents:
Average performance of students in that grade

Average performance of students of that age level


percentile ranks
percentage of people that fall at or below a score based on stand. deviation
z score formulat
Number of standard deviations your score is from the mean

z= x-mean / SD

T score formula
stand. dev is 10

T= 10z+50

iq scores formula
15z+100=IQ
CEEB formula
100z+500=CEEB (GRE)
NCE
21.06z+50= NCE
stanine
1/2 stand. deviation wide
Nature of Scores
Norms
-race
-ethnicity
-gender
-geography
-sample size




Nature of Test
what is on the test, what do you do to take it?

Nature of Environment
Environment
-where and when was the test given
Purpose for test
What was the test designed for?
Reliability
gives you the same score every time
-CONSISTENT
Validity
It measures what it is supposed to measure

Can you have reliability and validity
You CAN have a reliable test but it is not valid

You CANNOT have a valid test that is not reliable

Standard error of measurement
x(observed score)=T (true)+Error

-Measuring how much of error we did
-Tells you how far your true score is off from the observed score


confidence interval
tells range of scores which you have certain level of confidence that your true score falls in that range

68%
95%
99%



Test- Retest
do I get the same score over time
Constant error
error is the same
same score, not true score
parallel forms
give version A of test then version B and correlate scores
Test Retest w/parallel forms
Give version A.. two weeks later give version B

More error-->lower reliability coefficient

Internal consistency
way to get reliability coefficient with giving test once
split half reliability
-grade half of test and compare scores
ex: grade odds, grade evens and compare scores
Coefficient Alpha
average of all possible split halves
Criterion Validities: face validity
does it look like what I think its supposed to look like
Empirical validity
(types you can calculate)

predictive
does my test relate to another measure in the FUTURE
Concurrent
Does my test score relate to another test score at THE SAME POINT IN TIME
Cut score
where your setting passing
hit rate
how many people capable?
who have passed?
construct validity
a test is valid if it measures the construct as I define it
construct underepresentation
missing questions on part of your construct
Construct irrevelent variance
have questions not relevent to construct
Test Bias
something making you answer something correctly because of what the test is measuring

Ex: Farm cylo- Some people may know what a cylo is and some may not

differential item functioning
people from one group do not do as well as people in another group
generalization
take test and try to prove its valid for diff. groups then combine that information
Interpreting Reliabilities for individual scores
Standard error of mean gives us confidence interval cause it gives you a range of scores where there is certain level of confidence that your true score falls in that range
Interpreting reliabilities for Tests
reliability coefficients- ranges on what kind of test
-academic .8 or .9
What affects reliability
-variability of a group
-difficulty of items for a group
-length of the test
-method used


Testing Process
Economy:
-computer scoring (rubrics)
-computerized test interpreation (gives and explains scores)

Test administration:
-instructions
-# of subtests (how many tests)
-test format
-materials









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