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Dementia due to Head Trauma
a. is usually progressive in cases of moderate to severe trauma.
b. is usually progressive only in cases of repeated head trauma.
c. unlike other forms of Dementia, does not usually involve disturbances in executiv


b. is usually progressive only in cases of repeated head trauma.
Positive and negative life events are likely to have which of the following types of effect on a person's sense of satisfaction and well-being?
a. neither short-term nor long-term effects
b. short-term but not long-term effects
c. long-term b


b. short-term but not long-term effects
The purpose of rotation in factor analysis is to facilitate interpretation of the factors. Rotation:
a. alters the factor loadings for each variable but not the eigenvalue for each factor
b. alters the eigenvalue for each factor but not the factor

c. alters the factor loadings for each variable and the eigenvalue for each factor
To determine whether or not the doctrine of comparable worth is lived up to in an organization, one would rely on
a. the perceptions of employees.
b. a job description.
c. a job evaluation.
d. a task analysis.





c. a job evaluation
11. By the time an individual diagnosed with __________________ reaches middle age, particularly the fourth decade of life, the symptoms often become less evident or remit to no longer meeting all the diagnostic criteria.
a. Histrionic Personality Di
c. Antisocial Personality Disorder
13. The Solomon four-group design is:
a. a quasi-experimental design
b. used to analyze the difference scores among four different treatment groups
c. used to reduce practice effects
d. used to evaluate the effects of pretesting





d. used to evaluate the effects of pretesting
14. A MANOVA is used to statistically analyze data when:
a. a study includes two or more independent variables
b. a study includes two or more dependent variables
c. there are more than two levels of a single independent variable
d. a stu



c. there are more than two levels of a single independent variable
15. The Larry P. v. Riles case is important because it:
a. defined the relationship between standard intellectual assessments and placement in Mental Retardation classes.
b. was the first time a court addressed bias in job selection in private in

a. defined the relationship between standard intellectual assessments and placement in Mental Retardation classes.
17. An advantage of using a MANOVA over multiple one-way ANOVAs is that
a. the use of a MANOVA reduces the experiment-wise error rate.
b. a MANOVA can be used when the study involves more than one dependent variable.
c. a MANOVA is the more a


a. the use of a MANOVA reduces the experiment-wise error rate.
20. The major threat to internal validity of a time-series quasi-experiment would be
a. maturation
b. selection.
c. regression.
d. history.





d. history
25. In an experiment, a psychologist establishes a conditioned startle response to a flashing red light by pairing presentation of the light with a loud noise that naturally elicits a startle reaction. Subsequently, the red light is simultaneously presen
c. the strong odor will not produce a startle response because blocking will have occurred.
28. Children with Generalized Anxiety Disorder most frequently worry about:
a. being away from home or close relatives
b. being embarrassed in public
c. performance in school or sporting events
d. having an illness





c. performance in school or sporting events
29. According to the central limit theorem,
a. as sample size increases, the shape of a sample distribution becomes more normal.
b. as the size of a sampling distribution of means increases, its distribution becomes more normal.
c. as sample


c. as sample size increases, the shape of a sampling distribution of means becomes more normal.
30. The most effective behavioral technique to reduce a school-aged child’s temper tantrums is:
a. modeling
b. extinction
c. positive reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement





b. extinction
31. Thinning refers to the process of:
a. switching from a fixed interval to a fixed ratio schedule
b. switching from a variable interval to a variable ratio schedule
c. switching from an intermittent to a continuous schedule
d. switching



d. switching from a continuous to an intermittent schedule
33. A therapist working from the perspective of Minuchin's school of thought would examine a family system in terms of
a. multigenerational transmission processes.
b. subsystems and boundaries.
c. fusion and differentiation.
d. communicat



b. subsystems and boundaries.
34. An older brother helps his younger brother to build a fort by giving his brother verbal explanations and suggestions as they go. The researcher who would use this as an illustration of his theory is:
a. Piaget
b. Patterson
c. Vygotsky




c. Vygotsky
35. You are seeing a client who exhibits all the major symptoms of a Major Depressive episode. You should
a. invite his wife in to aid in completing a more comprehensive family history.
b. assess for early child abuse.
c. refer him to a psych


c. refer him to a psychiatrist for a medical evaluation.
36. A patient suffers damage to the spinal cord severe enough to cause numbness and tingling. However, the spinal cord is not severed. The patient is most likely experiencing:
a. paresis.
b. hemiplegia.
c. quadriplegia.
d. paraplegia.





a. paresis
38. Linnehan's dialectical behavioral therapy is a combination of psychoeducation and cognitive therapy that involves
a. intensive individual sessions.
b. family therapy.
c. individual and group sessions.
d. group therapy.





c. individual and group sessions.
39. Which of the following is most true of Type I Schizophrenia as described by Timothy Crow?
a. There will be a poor prognosis.
b. The symptoms are due to a neurotransmitter abnormality.
c. A majority of symptoms will begin in adolescence.


b. The symptoms are due to a neurotransmitter abnormality.
40. A multivariate analysis of variance would be used to analyze collected data when:
a. the researcher wants to analyze the effects of an extraneous variable
b. the researcher wants to remove the effects of an extraneous variable
c. the stud


d. the study includes two or more dependent variables
41. Working Memory is an expansion of the WISC-III Freedom from Distractibility factor. It is comprised of which of the following scales?
a. Coding, symbol search, digit span
b. Arithmetic and digit-span
c. Perceptual organization, comprehen


b. Arithmetic and digit-span
42. When undertaking token economies with seriously disturbed individuals in mental institutions, one of the major problems with the program's efficacy has to do with
a. generalization of behaviors.
b. choice of reinforcers.
c. exchange ratio


a. generalization of behaviors.
44. You have been seeing a client for several months and believe that treatment has been a success. When you suggest termination to the client, he expresses a desire to continue therapy. Both you and the client are unable to come up with additional treat
b. terminate treatment after a period of pretermination counseling, in which the client's reasons for not wanting to terminate are explored.
45. One of the criteria for the diagnosis of autism is:
a. Difficulty with phonemes
b. Difficulty with morphemes
c. Reversal of pronouns
d. Reversal of sentences





c. Reversal of pronouns
47. When looking at an item characteristic curve (ICC), which of the following provides information about how well the item discriminates between high and low achievers?
a. the Y-intercept
b. the slope of the curve
c. the position of the curv


b. the slope of the curve
48. An intervention targeting Bronfenbrenner's microsystem will focus on
a. family members.
b. family members and/or classmates.
c. school and church.
d. parents’ work and friends.





b. family members and/or classmates.
49. Raising the cutoff score on a predictor test would have the effect of
a. increasing true positives
b. decreasing false positives
c. decreasing true negatives
d. decreasing false negatives.





b. decreasing false positives
53. All of the following statements regarding item response theory are true, except
a. it cannot be applied in the attempt to develop culture-fair tests.
b. it's a useful theory in the development of computer programs designed to create tests tail

a. it cannot be applied in the attempt to develop culture-fair tests.
Dexedrine is used in the treatment of what disorder?
ADHD
Tegretol and Depakote are used in the treatment of what disorder?
Bipolar
Dolophine is used in the treatment of what disorder?
Heroin addiction
58. If you want to keep a borderline patient involved with group therapy, what would be the best technique?
a. You have them consult with a psychiatrist for a medication evaluation.
b. You help the patient with the defense mechanism of splitting.

d. Offer individual therapy in addition to group therapy.
62. When a multiple regression analysis is employed to predict outcome, there should be
a. low intercorrelations among the predictors and high correlation of each predictor with the criterion.
b. high intercorrelations among the predictors and

a. low intercorrelations among the predictors and high correlation of each predictor with the criterion.
65. Huntington's Disease is most associated with decreased amounts of:
a. dopamine
b. epinephrine
c. GABA
d. norepinephrine





c. GABA
67. Wernicke’s, Broca’s and conduction aphasia share which of the following difficulties?
a. repeating what is said
b. word prosody
c. reception
d. expression





a. repeating what is said
68. Which of the following models of leadership provides a "decision tree" to help a leader determine whether an autocratic, consultative, or consensual decision-making approach is best given the nature of the work situation?
a. Fiedler's contingency
c. Vroom and Yetton's normative model
70. The drug most often abused by teenagers is
a. alcohol.
b. tobacco.
c. marijuana.
d. cocaine.





a. alcohol.
71. An elevated F score on the MMPI-2 (i.e., the F is greater than 70 and the K is very low) indicates that the:
a. person is answering in a socially desirable manner.
b. score should be considered in relation to the total profile.
c. person


c. person is likely being careless or deliberately malingering.
72. Premature termination would be most likely to occur when
a. an African-American client has a Caucasian therapist.
b. an African-American client has an African-American therapist.
c. a Caucasian client has an African-American therapist.


a. an African-American client has a Caucasian therapist.
73. In the context of expectancy theory, valence refers to:
a. the willingness of a worker to exert effort.
b. the strength of the worker's needs.
c. the desirability of the job itself.
d. the desirability of the consequences of performa



d. the desirability of the consequences of performance.
76. A man is able to achieve erections during sleep, but, has difficulty achieving or maintaining erections during sexual activities. The most appropriate diagnosis would be:
a. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
b. Male Erectile Disorder
c. S


b. Male Erectile Disorder
79. When a psychologist believes that her patient's records will be used in a legal proceeding, she should:
a. rewrite them to meet the higher standards of a forensic setting
b. avoid the use of any psychological terminology in favor of legal ter

d. maintain them in the kind and quality consistent with reasonable scrutiny in an adjudicative forum
90. Beck's cognitive therapy includes all of the following characteristics except:
a. it is referred to as "collaborative empiricism."
b. it is structured and goal-oriented.
c. relapse prevention is a focus throughout.
d. it is based on a



d. it is based on an elaboration likelihood model.
92. Walking through a dark park at night, you hear footsteps behind you. You think it may be a mugger so your breathing deepens and heart beats faster, at the same time you experience fear. This is an example of which theory?
a. Cannon-Bard
b. Ja

c. Lazarus
97. Complex Partial Seizure Disorder, formerly known as Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, is known to originate in the temporal lobe. However, absence seizures, formerly known as petit mal seizures, are believed to originate in the:
a. cerebellum
b. thalam

b. thalamus
98. According to McClelland's Need for Achievement theory, individuals high in Need for Achievement will prefer:
a. difficult tasks which bring very high acclaim when achieved.
b. moderately difficult tasks which are both attainable and difficult

b. moderately difficult tasks which are both attainable and difficult enough to satisfy the person's need to feel a sense of accomplishment.
99. The part of the brain that is compromised in Parkinson's Disease is the
a. basal ganglia.
b. substantia nigra.
c. hypothalamus.
d. frontal lobe.





b. substantia nigra.
100. The tendency to rate all using the low end of the rating scale is referred to as:
a. floor effect
b. contrast effect
c. central tendency bias
d. severity error





d. severity error
101. According to Janet Helms' (1995) White Racial Identity Development Model, the final stage of racial identity development is:
a. autonomy
b. disintegration
c. reintegration
d. immersion-emersion





a. autonomy
102. According to DSM-IV, patients who meet some but not all of the criteria for a particular diagnosis can still be assigned that diagnosis. This reflects the fact that:
a. DSM-IV relies on a dimensional rather than a categorical approach to diagnos
b. DSM-IV relies on a categorical rather than a dimensional approach to diagnosis.
104. You are seeing a family consisting of a mother, a father, and a daughter in therapy. Every time the mother says something, the father and the daughter argue with whatever she says. The behavior of the father and the daughter can be best described by
c. coalition
105. A study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of 3 different reading programs on reading comprehension. The participants are 5th grade students who are divided into 3 levels based on their past reading comprehension (below average, average, an
d. the most effective reading program is dependent on the student's reading level
108. Differences in communication style can act as a barrier in cross-cultural counseling. For example, some cultures have a high-context style, while others are more low-context. Which of the following is true about high-context communication and cultur
b. People belonging to high-context cultures rely heavily on nonverbalcues when communicating with others.
109. According to the theory underlying Gestalt therapy, introjection involves:
a. viewing other people's emotions as one's own
b. failing to develop a healthy "social interest"
c. blaming oneself for the problems of others
d. interpretin



d. interpreting the values of the larger society as one's own
110. Delinquency in adolescence is most associated with:
a. low income families and low IQ score.
b. a mother who works outside the home and an unemployed father.
c. weak parental supervision and parental rejection.
d. harsh physical pun



c. weak parental supervision and parental rejection.
111. The best initial strategy for teaching complex motor skills that require speed and accuracy to be successfully performed is to:
a. emphasize accuracy over speed
b. emphasize speed over accuracy
c. emphasize accuracy and speed equally




b. emphasize speed over accuracy
112. To reduce a child's aggressive behavior, the best approach is to:
a. punish the aggression consistently and harshly.
b. use differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors.
c. identify the consequences of the behavior and alternative


c. identify the consequences of the behavior and alternatives to it.
113. The recurrence of hallucinations long after intoxication is most likely to result from the use of:
a. Mescaline
b. PCP
c. Methamphetamine
d. Cocaine





a. Mescaline
114. Consuming foods containing tyramine while taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor would most likely result in:
a. depression
b. hypotension
c. hypertension
d. no adverse reactions





c. hypertension
115. Which of the following is not true about members of self-directed work teams?
a. Each member of a self-directed team has unique, specialized works skills to contribute to the group product.
b. Members plan the group's work processes and set

a. Each member of a self-directed team has unique, specialized works skills to contribute to the group product.
116. The theory that proposes convergent and divergent thinking as dimensions of intelligence is associated with:
a. Galton
b. Thurstone
c. Guilford
d. Cattell





c. Guilford
117. Following a stroke or head trauma, which of the following memory functions is most likely to be affected?
a. iconic memory
b. long-term store
c. memory for newly learned information
d. verbal memory





c. memory for newly learned information
120. A researcher studying the relationship between age and job satisfaction collects data for a group of young, middle-aged, and older workers. The researcher can expect to find that
a. the young people are most satisfied with their jobs.
b. the

c. the older people are most satisfied with their jobs.
121. If a man and a woman are each heterozygous for phenylketonuria (PKU), the probability that their next child will have PKU is:
a. 0%
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. 100%





b. 25%
122. Although conclusions will vary across different studies, which of the following statements is most supported by the overall body of research on therapy outcome for African-American and Caucasian patients?
a. There is no significant difference in
a. There is no significant difference in outcome between African-American and Caucasian patients.
123. Stimulus A is paired with stimulus B. Stimulus B is then paired with stimulus C until stimulus C elicits the same response that was elicited by stimulus A. This is an example of:
a. chaining
b. shaping
c. secondary reinforcement
d. h



d. higher-order conditioning
124. Recent longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between menopause and psychological well-being have suggested that:
a. women experiencing menopause are more likely to report significant depression than pre-menopausal or post-menopausa
d. there is no evidence that menopause is linked to either depression or psychological well-being.
126. Holland's approach to vocational guidance is based on the assumption that:
a. interests motivate occupational choice
b. behavior is a function of personality-environment congruence
c. job satisfaction and performance are related to a mat


b. behavior is a function of personality-environment congruence
128. A person's reactions to stress are most negative when the stress is unexpected. Moreover, a person's reactions are most affected by
a. his or her actual capacity to cope with the stress.
b. his or her beliefs regarding his or her ability to

b. his or her beliefs regarding his or her ability to cope with the stress.
131. Alzheimer's is related to an under production of
a. serotonin
b. GABA
c. Acetylcholine
d. Glutamate





c. Acetylcholine
132. According to recent meta-analyses of child psychotherapy outcome studies, which of the following statements is most true?
a. There are no differences between the effectiveness of behavioral and non-behavioral interventions in the treatment of
b. Girls respond better to psychotherapy than boys, with adolescent girls responding best.
134. According to Huesmann et al. (2003), the long-term effects of TV violence on children growing up in the 1970-80’s, indicate childhood exposure to media violence:
a. predicts young adult aggressive behavior only for males
b. predicts young

b. predicts young adult aggressive behavior for males and females
136. The cortex is the least developed part of the brain at birth. Subsequent development is due primarily to:
a. the growth of new neurons
b the growth of new neurons and glial cells.
c. increases in the size of existing neurons.
d. myel



d. myelination of existing neurons.
137. The symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder can be alleviated through cognitive-behavioral treatments and medication interventions that reduce activity in the
a. reticular activating system.
b. inferior colliculus.
c. caudate nucleus.


c. caudate nucleus.
139. Memory for the rules of logic and inference is part of
a. procedural memory.
b. semantic memory.
c. episodic memory.
d. read-only memory





b. semantic memory
141. A diagnosis of Mental Retardation requires the person to have subaverage intelligence and:
a. an I.Q. score of 55 or below
b. two or more Learning Disorders
c. onset before age 18
d. clinically significant deficits in social skills



c. onset before age 18
142. The factor loading for Test A and Factor II is .80 in a factor matrix. This means that:
a. only 80% of variability in Test A is accounted for by the factor analysis
b. only 64% of variability in Test A is accounted for by the factor analysis

d. 64% of variability in Test A is accounted for by Factor II
144. A pianist comes to your office for therapy after having sustained a head injury in a recent car accident. He has lost sensation in the fingers of his left hand and feels he "must be going crazy" because this is such a strange occurrence. Before you
b. postcentral gyrus.
145. Which of the following is one of the first signs of AIDS-related dementia?
a. loss of abstract thinking functions
b. mild memory loss for recent events
c. seizures
d. apathy





b. mild memory loss for recent events
148. Approximately 50% of children with Autism fail to speak or develop language skills. Those that do speak are most likely to show
a. pronoun reversal.
b. phoneme omissions.
c. phonological errors.
d. syllable reversal.





b. pronoun reversal.
149. The technique which allows a researcher to identify the underlying (latent) factors that relate to a set of measured variables and the nature of the causal relationships between those factors is:
a. structural equation modeling (SEM)
b. clus

a. structural equation modeling (SEM)
150. ___________________ may result in a job performance measure having low validity, even though it is reliable.
a. differential validity
b. criterion contamination
c. criterion deficiency
d. researcher deficiency





c. criterion deficiency
151. In a job selection decision, age can be used as an exclusionary criterion
a. never.
b. if there is a ruling from the appropriate federal agency allowing it.
c. if there is a significant difference in mean ages of incumbents and applicant


d. if age is directly related to job performance.
153. If a job selection test has lower validity for Hispanics as compared to White or African-Americans, you could say that ethnicity is acting as a:
a. confounding variable
b. criterion contaminator
c. discriminant variable
d. moderator



d. moderator variable
154. Which of the following would be used to determine the probability that examinees of different ability levels are able to answer a particular test item correctly?
a. criterion-related validity coefficient
b. item discrimination index
c. i


d. item characteristic curve
155. The suicide rate for African-American adolescent males over the past few decades has been:
a. higher than the rate for white adolescent males, but there has recently been an increase in the rates for both groups.
b. lower than the rate for w

b. lower than the rate for white adolescent males, but there has been an increase in the rates for both groups.
156. As an organizational psychologist, Dr. Jobb will recommend frame-of-reference training in order to
a. improve the accuracy of selection decisions.
b. enhance communication among team members.
c. reduce rater biases on performance appra


c. reduce rater biases on performance appraisals.
157. Korsakoff's syndrome is a form of Alcohol-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder that is due to
a. dehydration.
b. thiamine deficiency.
c. vitamin C deficiency.
d. sensory impairment.





b. thiamine deficiency.
158. If someone achieves a score of 30 on a standardized test with a standard error of measurement of 5 points, what is the approximate probability that the person's true score is between 20 and 40?
a. 2/3
b. 4/5
c. 9/10
d. 19/20





d. 19/20
160. The primary associated feature of the Somatoform Disorders is
a. panic attacks.
b. anxiety and depression.
c. addiction to analgesics or mild tranquilizers.
d. somatic delusions.





b. anxiety and depression.
161. A patient with right hemisphere damage is most likely to respond to jokes with which of the following reactions?
a. indifference
b. indifference or exaggerated jocularity
c. frustration and irritation
d. rage





b. indifference or exaggerated jocularity
163. Research by Sue and his colleagues (1991) suggests that which of the following clients is most likely to return for a second session of psychotherapy?
a. an African-American client
b. a Latino-American client
c. an Anglo-American client


d. an Asian-American client
164. A patient uses similar phonemes or words instead of the specific words required. What impairment does the patient have?
a. apraxia
b. dysarthria
c. paraphasias
d. dysprosody





c. paraphasias
166. Stuart's operant interpersonal therapy:
a. is based on object relations theory
b. encourages couples to focus on positive aspects of one's partner
c. discourages the use of a "quid pro quo" approach among couples
d. maintains that su



b. encourages couples to focus on positive aspects of one's partner
167. The research has shown that, in the treatment of nicotine dependence, adding a behavioral intervention to nicotine replacement therapy
a. has little or no effect in terms of either short- or long-term abstinence.
b. has little additional eff

b. has little additional effect in terms of short-term abstinence but does improve long-term abstinence.
170. National surveys comparing rural and urban areas rates of mental disorders indicate:
a. prevalence rates are not statistically different
b. prevalence rates are significantly higher in rural areas for most mental disorders
c. prevalence


a. prevalence rates are not statistically different
172. Meta-analyses on gender differences in leadership have found that female leaders are:
a. more effective than male leaders overall
b. less effective than male leaders overall
c. equally effective as male leaders overall
d. more effect



c. equally effective as male leaders overall
174. Children with a history of bilateral otitis media score lowest on which of the following WISC subtests?
a. freedom from distractibility
b. perceptual organization
c. processing speed
d. verbal comprehension







d. verbal comprehension
181. In old age, the best predictor of adaptation would be:
a. health.
b. number of grandchildren.
c. marital status.
d. SES level.





a. health
182. Patterson's coercive family interactive model would predict
a. parents who "bribe" their children to act appropriately will meet with limited success.
b. hostile aggressive children change a parent's disciplinary technique.
c. children i


c. children initially learn aggressive behaviors from their parents.
185. In addition to tolerance and withdrawal, which of the following is a criterion for the diagnosis "Substance Dependence?"
a. daily use of the substance
b. the substance is taken in larger amounts or over a longer period of time than was inten

b. the substance is taken in larger amounts or over a longer period of time than was intended
187. A whisper being audible in a library reading room, but not in a busy cafeteria is explained by:
a. the all-or-nothing principle
b. the “law of effect”
c. Weber’s law
d. the “law of proximity”





c. Weber's law
190. Componential, experiential, and practical are the three aspects of which intelligence model?
a. Gardner
b. Cattell and Horn
c. Sternberg
d. Perkins







c. Sternberg
192. A seizure that begins with uncontrollable twitching of a small part of the body and gradually spreads throughout one side or the entire body is referred to as:
a. partial
b. petit mal
c. tonic-clonic
d. generalized





a. partial
194. Which of the following would most indicate malingering (i.e., an attempt to "fake bad") on the MMPI-2?
a. high K score
b. high F score
c. low F score
d. high L score





b. high F score
197. All of the following are factors that typically distinguish Dissociative Amnesia from amnesia due to known physical causes, except
a. in Dissociative Amnesia, memory loss is primarily for autobiographical information.
b. in Dissociative Amne

d. in Dissociative Amnesia, memory impairment is typically limited to information occurring immediately before an emotional trauma.
199. Behavioral assessments are useful for determining behavioral:
a. contingencies
b. consequences
c. constraints
d. interventions





a. contingencies
200. A culturally-encapsulated therapist:
a. exhibits a bias that involves interpreting all of the presenting problems of minority clients as the direct result of cultural
factors.
b. has had little or no contact with members of minority grou


a. exhibits a bias that involves interpreting all of the presenting problems of minority clients as the direct result of cultural factors.
1. A high LPC leader
a. Treats his least favorite worker well
b. Treats his least favorite worker poorly
c. Treats his favorite worker like his least favorite worker
d. Has an ambivalent style toward his workers.





a. Treats his least favorite worker well
3. You receive a letter from the current therapist of a former client. The therapist wants you to forward a copy of the client's records, and she encloses a signed release from the client. The client still owes you for ten therapy sessions, and you notif
b. may be acceptable if the client's records are not "imminently needed."
6. According to Ellen Berscheid's Emotion-in-Relationships Model partners in long-term relationships are most likely to:
a. underestimate their emotional investment in the relationship when things are running smoothly
b. overestimate their emoti

a. underestimate their emotional investment in the relationship when things are running smoothly
8. Recently the relationship between Frank and one of his adult sons has become increasingly tense, conflicted and distant. Frank considers himself a loving and supportive father. He dismisses the problem as a temporary "phase" to avoid the situation. Fr
a. identity assimilation
9. A factorial design, unlike a two group design:
a. allows more independent variables to be studied
b. requires a larger sample
c. shows the effect of an independent variable on the dependent variable
d. cannot detect a curvilinear relat



a. allows more independent variables to be studied
10. A psychologist is hired as a consultant by an agency which works with homosexual men whose behavior places them at very high risk for the HIV virus. The psychologist is asked to work with groups of the agency's clients, with the goal of decreasing hi
b. providing knowledge to the group about AIDS
13. Recent studies investigating ethnicity and psychotropic medication dosage have found:
a. Therapeutic and side effect differences are not related to race/ethnicity
b. Caucasians and Asians experience the same severity of side effects from the

d. Asians experience more severe side effects from the same dose and require lower doses to obtain the same therapeutic effects.
15. Despite his many accomplishments and positive feedback from his supervisor, a client believes his work performance is below average because he feels like a failure. This is an example of:
a. minimization
b. selective abstraction
c. emotio


c. emotional reasoning
16. Organizations that advocate individual responsibility, consensual-decision making, slow promotion, and holistic knowledge of the organization are using which of the following management philosophies:
a. Theory J
b. Theory A
c. Theory Z


c. Theory Z
21. Medical treatment regimens for chronic illness most often results in:
a. greater compliance for children as compared to adolescents
b. greater compliance for adolescents as compared to children
c. equal compliance for children and adolesc


a. greater compliance for children as compared to adolescents
25. A researcher inquires about the subjects’ performance expectations and beliefs about the purpose of the study at the conclusion of the experiment. The researcher finds the subjects’ actual performance is consistent with their beliefs and expectat
b. demand characteristics
26. Factitious Disorder treatment typically involves symptom management rather than curing the disorder. Which of the following is currently considered to be the most effective treatment?
a. confrontational therapy in an inpatient setting
b. indi

c. supportive psychotherapy in an outpatient setting
28. Individuals with Tourette’s Disorder frequently suffer from a learning disorder in school. The most likely cause is:
a. expressive language disorder
b. attentional and hyperactivity problems
c. social problems
d. environmental stres



b. attentional and hyperactivity problems
29. In Super's theory of career development, the rainbow is used to illustrate:
a. the skills, abilities, and knowledge that a person brings to a job.
b. the different roles a person assumes during the course of his or her life.
c. the stages


b. the different roles a person assumes during the course of his or her life.
31. Which of the following correlation coefficients is used to assess convergent validity:
a. heterotrait-monomethod
b. monotrait-heteromethod
c. heterotrait-heteromethod
d. monotrait-monomethod





b. monotrait-heteromethod
32. The earliest symptoms of Huntington's Disease are usually:
a. memory impairments
b. mild motor disturbances (e.g., mild tremor, incoordination).
c. affective changes (e.g., irritability or depression).
d. confusion and disorientation.



c. affective changes (e.g., irritability or depression).
33. According to House's path-goal theory, the optimal leader style:
a. is a democratic one that allows workers to participate in setting goals and identifying ways for achieving them.
b. is the one that emphasizes a task-oriented (versus person-

c. varies depending on the situation but always involves helping workers achieve their goals.
34. Which form of Multiple Sclerosis is characterized by a slow steady onset, steadily worsening motor dysfunctions and increased disability, as well as a lack of distinct inflammatory attacks?
a. relapsing-remitting phase
b. primary progressive

b. primary progressive
36. A loss of memory for autobiographical information is referred to as:
a. functional amnesia
b. anterograde amnesia
c. retrograde amnesia
d. malingering





a. functional amnesia
43. “Business necessity” and “job relatedness” are related to:
a. personnel training
b. adverse impact
c. comparable worth
d. truth in testing





b. adverse impact
47. The primary symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus are:
a. headache followed by vomiting, downward deviation of the eyes and urinary incontinence
b. a rapid increase in the size of the head, headache followed by vomiting, gait disturbance

d. gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, dementia/mental disturbance
49. A high achiever would most likely attribute failures to
a. internal, unstable, and controllable factors.
b. internal, stable, and uncontrollable factors.
c. external, stable, and controllable factors.
d. external, unstable, and uncont



a. internal, unstable, and controllable factors.
50. The most commonly associated features of Tourette's Disorder are
a. depression and shame
b. academic and social difficulties
c. orthopedic and skin problems
d. obsessions and compulsions





d. obsessions and compulsions
51. You see an elderly male in therapy. In the first session, he breaks down sobbing and admits that he has recently "helped" his wife, who was suffering from incurable cancer, to die. First you need to
a. comfort him as best you can and make a call
c. assess your client's potential for suicide.
52. Two women golfers are competing in a golf tournament. Woman A is told by the coach to do her best. Woman B is told by her coach to try to shoot one under par on Holes 1, 4, and 7 and 11, and make par on all the rest. Which golfer is likely to do the
b. Golfer B
53. In designing a research study, you take a number of steps that have the effect of reducing beta. This means that you have reduced the probability of:
a. retaining a true null hypothesis.
b. retaining a false null hypothesis.
c. rejecting


b. retaining a false null hypothesis.
55. In assessing perceptual abilities in a 3 or 4-month old infant you could use all of the following indicators except:
a. head turning
b. sucking
c. reaching
d. heart rate





a. head turning
57. According to the concept of "homeostasis," if a married woman's depressive symptoms improve, we can expect that which of the following will be most likely to occur?
a. increased support from her husband
b. depressive symptoms in her husband

b. depressive symptoms in her husband
59. Once exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the process of converting from antibody negative to antibody positive is referred to as:
a. retroviral-conversion
b. seroconversion
c. seronegative
d. seropositive





b. seroconversion
60. Narcolepsy is associated with
a. rigid muscle tone.
b. loss of muscle tone.
c. decreased REM sleep.
d. insomnia.





b. loss of muscle tone.
61. A "needs assessment" is used to:
a. identify the worth of a job so that an equitable wage can be determined.
b. determine if and what kind of training is needed in an organization.
c. describe the requirements of a job.
d. identify wh



b. determine if and what kind of training is needed in an organization.
62. Of the following, which would be the most important factor to keep in mind when deciding whether to prescribe tricyclic anti-depressants to a patient?
a. the patient's suicide risk.
b. the patient's history of treatment success or failure wit

a. the patient's suicide risk.
63. In implosive therapy:
a. the client is gradually exposed, through the imagination, to a feared stimulus, one step at a time.
b. a client is immediately exposed, through the imagination, to a feared stimulus at its maximum intensity.
c. th


b. a client is immeidately exposed, through the imagination, to a feared stimulus at its maximum intensity.
66. Which of the following is NOT considered a disability according to the Americans with Disabilities Act?
a. Gender Identity Disorder
b. Paraplegia
c. Schizophrenia
d. Generalized Anxiety Disorder





a. Gender Identity Disorder
70. You have a client who does not want their records released under any circumstances. The attorney has subpoened you. Your best course of action is to:
a. Respond in-person, but don't take the records
b. Take the records, but don't turn them ov

b. Take the records, but don't turn them over
71. A person stops and asks a parking attendant for directions after getting lost while driving to an appointment. The attendant states, "Make a left at the first red light. Go four blocks until you reach a stop sign and turn right onto Main Street. Abou
b. working memory
72. A patient displays apraxia, tactile agnosia, difficulties with movement, and confusion between the left and the right side of the body. Which lobe of the person's cerebral cortex is most likely damaged?
a. parietal
b. frontal
c. occipital


a. parietal
74. Which of the following smoking cessation treatments is least effective for long-term abstinence?
a. hypnosis
b. acupuncture
c. aversive techniques
d. nicotine replacement





d. nicotine replacement
75. Research on goal-setting theory suggests that it is:
a. applicable to the performance of males but not females.
b. applicable only to females in managerial-level jobs.
c. applicable to females when goals are set participatively but not wh


d. applicable to both males and females whether goals are set participatively or are assigned.
76. People diagnosed with PTSD are often successfully treated with psychotherapy and don't need to be referred for medication treatment unless:
a. They also have a high level of cognitive functioning
b. They experience feelings of numbness
c.


d. Their target symptoms of avoidance and derealization interfere with daily life
79. Biofeedback is often part of treatments aimed at lowering tension and arousal and increasing relaxation. For this purpose, biofeedback is being used to control the:
a. sympathetic nervous system.
b. parasympathetic nervous system.
c. soma


b. parasympathetic nervous system.
81. The head of a psychological clinic hires a consultant to help therapists deal with some particularly difficult cases at the agency. This is an example of
a. consultee-centered administrative consultation.
b. client-centered administrative con

d. client-centered case consultation.
82. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence has a male to female ratio of about:
a. 10 to 1
b. 1 to 10
c. 5 to 1
d. 2 to 1.





c. 5 to 1
83. Of the "big 5" personality dimensions one would most expect a sociopathic personality to have the dimension of:
a. Extraversion
b. Openness
c. Conscientiousness
d. Sensing





a. Extraversion
84. Excluding the olfactory nerves, sensory afferent nerves run through which part of the brain?
a. caudate nucleus
b. cerebellum
c. thalamus
d. cingulate gyrus





c. thalamus
88. Extinction treatment paradigms are often limited by:
a. improperly applied reinforcers.
b. accidental reinforcement.
c. client expectations.
d. practical constraints such as time.





b. accidental reinforcement.
89. An adult woman comes to an outpatient clinic. She is foreign-born and has almost no skills in English. She appears depressed. If one were to attempt a standardized assessment of her level of cognitive functioning, the best test would be
a. Stanfo
b. Ravens Progressive Matrices.
91. The item difficulty ("p") index yields information about the difficulty of test items in terms of a(n) _________ scale of measurement.
a. nominal
b. ordinal
c. interval
d. ratio





b. ordinal
94. Which of the following best describes the ethical requirements of a licensed clinical psychologist who tests positive for HIV?
a. inform clients of his/her medical condition “as early as is feasible”
b. obtain supervision to ensure that t

c. refrain from initiating any professional activities that might be adversely affected by the medical condition
95. In children with chronic illness, all of the following have been found to be correlated with the child's level of adjustment, except
a. the child’s age.
b. parental support.
c. parental marital distress.
d. brain involvement in the



a. the child's age.
97. Depression is often accompanied by memory deficits and other cognitive problems. Memory deficits most often involve:
a. recall memory.
b. recognition memory.
c. implicit memory.
d. recall and recognition memory but not implicit memory



a. recall memory.
98. The behavioral technique known as flooding is based on the theoretical principle of
a. reciprocal inhibition.
b. covert desensitization.
c. classical extinction.
d. negative reinforcement.





c. classical extinction.
99. Cognitive behavior therapy, compared to operant behavior treatments, has been found to be:
a. less effective across most diagnostic categories.
b. superior with more intelligent clients.
c. approximately equally effective with all types o


c. approximately equally effective with all types of disorders.
100. A managed care company asks a psychologist to conduct a study on the relative effectiveness of a 10-week therapy program for depression vs. a 20-week therapy program. The company plans to publish the results of the research if no significant differe
d. refuse to conduct the study
101. Which of the following is a non-stimulant medication that alleviates inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in AD/HD?
a. methylphenidate
b. atomoxetine
c. pemoline
d. dextroamphetamine





b. atomoxetine
105. According to the peripheralist theory of emotions, "we feel afraid because we tremble." This approach is reflected in which of the following theories?
a. Cannon-Bard
b. Lazarus-Schachter
c. James-Lange
d. Kuder-Richardson





c. James-Lange
106. Jerome and Jamal have significant problems with their peers. However, while Jerome is rejected by his classmates, Jamal is neglected. If Jerome and Jamal change schools, which of the following is most likely to happen?
a. Jerome may be better ac
b. Jamal may be better accepted by his new classmates, but Jerome will continue to be rejected.
107. Research by Laurence Steinberg, Sanford Dornbusch and their colleagues on the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement has revealed that
a. the positive impact of authoritative parenting applies to children but not adolescen
c. the positive impact of authoritative parenting may apply less to African-American adolescents than to European, Asian, and Hispanic adolescents.
108. A selection test that has a validity coefficient of .50 will have the greatest incremental validity when:
a. the selection ratio is .95 and the base rate is .20
b. the selection ratio is .95 and the base rate is .50
c. the selection rat


d. the selection ratio is .05, and the base rate is .50
110. Which of the following best describes universality of the transactional-transformational leadership theory?
a. universality has been observed in a wide range of organizations within Western culture.
b. universality has been observed in a wid

b. universality has been observed in a wide range of organizations and cultures
111. Primary memory is the same as
a. implicit memory.
b. short-term memory.
c. procedural memory.
d. episodic memory.





b. short-term memory.
113. Which of the following is true regarding Klinefelter's Syndrome?
a. It occurs only in males
b. It occurs only in females
c. It typically results in severe to profound mental retardation
d. Its symptoms are preventable with dietary re



a. It occurs only in males
114. According to Donald Super, job choice, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction are predicated on:
a. the self-concept.
b. personality traits.
c. early childhood experience.
d. biological factors.





a. the self-concept.
118. According to Marlatt and Gordon, which of the following most increases the chance of relapse in a substance abuser?
a. life changes
b. negative affects
c. physiological cravings
d. decreased treatment durations due to the limits set



b. negative affects
123. For the WISC-III, which of the following would have the lowest reliability?
a. Verbal IQ score
b. Performance IQ score
c. subtest scores
d. Verbal-Performance difference score





d. Verbal-Performance difference score
131. An infant is least likely to experience emotional distress due to being separated from his or her parents if the infant is between the ages of:
a. 0-8 months.
b. 8-12 months.
c. 12-16 months.
d. 16-24 months.





a. 0-8 months.
132. In the multitrait-multimethod matrix, a low heterotrait-monomethod coefficient would indicate:
a. low convergent validity.
b. low divergent validity.
c. high convergent validity.
d. high divergent validity.





d. high divergent validity.
133. Which of the following techniques would be most useful for combining test scores when poor performance on one test can be offset by excellent performance on another:
a. multiple baseline
b. multiple hurdle
c. multiple regression
d. m



c. multiple regression
134. A class designed to teach senior citizens how to avoid financial scams, led by former con artists, would be considered:
a. primary prevention
b. secondary prevention
c. tertiary prevention
d. rehabilitative consultation





a. primary prevention
136. You are completing a court-ordered evaluation in order to determine the person's competency to stand trial and during the administration of the MMPI-2 your client jumps out of his seat and shouts "OK, OK, I killed her!" Now you are
a. obligated
d. not obligated to include the confessional information.
138. Michael has a high-pressure legal career that involves frequent altercations with opposing counsel and ongoing stress. He commonly reacts to the stress of anger by clenching his teeth and generally tensing up. His therapist suggests biofeedback and
c. EMG
139. Several demographic characteristics are associated with the risk of divorce. According to the National Survey of Family Growth (2002), divorce rates are highest for women who:
a. have a higher level of education and marry at a younger age
b.

b. have a lower level of education and marry at a younger age
140. Your client is terminating your psychological services by mutual agreement after two years. She's going to be married the following May and would like you to be one of her wedding attendants. You should
a. explain to her that the two of you shou
d. decline the invitation, explaining that that would be a multiple relationship.
142. When developing a treatment plan for a client with a Specific Phobia, it is important to keep in mind that
a. exposure in vivo and exposure in imagination are about equally effective as long as exposure sessions are sufficiently long
in dur

c. for some Specific Phobias (e.g., dental and animal phobias), two to four sessions are often useful for significantly reducing phobic reactions in many people.
143. According to Atkinson, Sue, and Sue, the ideal outcome of racial/cultural identity development is
a. full acceptance of one's own culture.
b. giving individual identity priority over cultural identity.
c. recognizing that all cultures ha


c. recognizing that all cultures have acceptable and unacceptable aspects.
144. Cross's (1991) Black Racial (Nigresence) Identity Development Model includes the stage called Pre-Encounter. At this stage an African-American prefers a therapist
a. of their own race.
b. of the Caucasian race.
c. of a minority group; bu


b. of the Caucasian race.
149. You are investigating whether there is a relationship between the number of years one has been smoking cigarettes and the number of psychotherapy sessions required to quit smoking. The best statistical method to analyze the results is:
a. chi-sq
b. Pearson r
151. Goal setting as a motivational technique is most effective when:
a. performance goals are difficult and specific feedback is provided regarding progress toward the goal
b. performance goals are difficult and general feedback is provided rega

a. performance goals are difficult and specific feedback is provided regarding progress toward the goal
152. According to the DSM-IV-TR, which of the following is related to exposure to sexual abuse, sexual harassment or sexual trauma?
a. Gender Identity Disorder
b. Dyspareunia
c. Female Orgasmic Disorder
d. Vaginismus





d. Vaginismus
155. A colleague of yours is interested in studying the effects of aging on IQ scores. He consults with you for some ideas regarding how to proceed with this research. Which of the following types of research designs would you recommend?
a. longitudi
c. cross-sequential
159. Which of the following is achieved during the operations stages?
a. magical thinking
b. decentration
c. symbolic thought
d. object permanence





b. decentration
161. During an evening interview, a client displays incoherence, disorientation, distractibility, fragmented delusions, and impaired recent memory. When the client is seen the next morning, his symptoms have remitted. The MOST likely diagnosis for this p
b. delirium
162. With parental consent, a psychologist has been providing therapy to a 12-year-old boy for a couple of months. Unexpectedly, both parents suddenly withdraw their consent. The psychologist believes that continuing therapy is in the best interests of t
a. seek judicial intervention
164. Client-therapist matching of ethnicity is a good predictor of
a. treatment length.
b. treatment outcome.
c. both treatment length and outcome.
d. neither treatment length nor outcome.





a. treatment length.
166. An infant born prematurely is most likely to eventually develop:
a. Poor social skills
b. Poor academic performance
c. Low adult body weight
d. None of the above





d. None of the above
167. A therapist routinely waives co-payments for all low income clients. This is
a. unethical, unless the client is on welfare.
b. ethical, if the psychologist is doing this in order to create a sliding scale.
c. unethical.
d. ethical.



c. unethical.
169. According to the recent U.S. Department of Justice’s National Violence Against Women Study, ______________ females have the lowest lifetime rate of victimization by an intimate partner.
a. Asian American
b. American Indians/Alaska Natives

a. Asian American
171. A person who doesn't feel something they are touching probably has damage to:
a. Parietal lobe
b. Occipital lobe
c. Frontal lobe
d. Temporal lobe





a. Parietal lobe
172. When a psychologist working out of the Adlerian model serves as a consultant in a school, they:
a. Work primarily with the school
b. Identify the areas of inferiority within the system
c. Primarily educate the parents and teachers throug


c. Primarily educate the parents and teachers through an emphasis on preventive interventions
173. The research suggests that, to control excessive aggression in children, the best approach is:
a. time-out and similar behavioral techniques.
b. opportunities for catharsis.
c. explaining the consequences of aggressive acts.
d. socia



d. social-skills training.
174. In order to decrease job turnover, an interviewer should:
a. Rely on biodata
b. Rely on cognitive testing
c. Hire only older people
d. Rely on an interest inventory





a. Rely on biodata
178. Coding Personality Disorders on a separate axis, according to the DSM-IV-TR, is due to:
a. the need to reduce the possibility of being overlooked
b. the need to reduce the possibility of prioritization over an Axis I disorder
c. having a


a. the need to reduce the possibility of being overlooked
180. The best prognostic indicator for individuals with Autistic Disorder is:
a. severity of stereotyped behaviors
b. early language ability
c. level of impairment in social interaction
d. presence of symptoms prior to 3 years of age





b. early language ability
182. According to Piaget, a child in the autonomous stage of development believes that
a. rules are absolute
b. rules are useless
c. rules are arbitrary and alterable
d. punishment should be based on the damage caused by a behavior





c. rules are arbitrary and alterable
183. According to Rutter, the risk patterns that are accurate predictors for child psychopathology are:
a. Small family size, parental criminality, marital discord
b. Severe marital discord, low socioeconomic status
c. Large family size, high


b. Severe marital discord, low socioeconomic status
184. Computer-adaptive testing will yield
a. more accurate results for high scorers on a test.
b. more accurate results for low scorers on a test.
c. more accurate results for examinees who score in the middle range of a test.
d. equally



d. equally accurate results across all range of scores on a test.
186. The best explanation for group members’ reluctance to provide negative feedback to one another is:
a. minority influence
b. group think
c. Yalom’s principle
d. the mum effect





d. the mum effect
187. When several individuals are to be compared by a supervisor in a work setting, paired comparisons, as compared to order of merit comparisons, are
a. more precise but more difficult.
b. less precise but easier.
c. more precise and easier.


a. more precise but more difficult.
188. The concept of "identical elements" is most applicable to:
a. personnel selection
b. employee training
c. job analysis
d. Equity Theory





b. employee training
190. In their discussion of mental health services for Latino clients, Rogler et al. (1987) describe three ways to increase the cultural sensitivity of therapy for members of this group. These methods include all of the following except:
a. incorpora
d. obtaining cultural sensitivity training.
191. From a legal standpoint, a charge of malpractice against a psychologist would be held valid if it were proven that the therapist:
a. had a duty of care to the patient, held malevolent intentions toward the patient, and engaged in activity that r
c. had a duty of care to the patient and engaged in activity that resulted in harm to the patient; malevolent intentions need not be present.
193. A rat is placed in a Skinner box which has two levers. Pressing Lever #1 delivers a food pellet on a variable interval schedule on an average of every 30 seconds. Lever # 2 also delivers a food pellet on a variable interval schedule, but on an avera
c. 0.8
194. Which of the following theorists related career development to ego identity development?
a. Anna Freud
b. Super
c. Holland
d. Tiedeman and O’Hara





d. Tiedeman and O'Hara
196. Which one of the following is least likely to attenuate a measure of correlation?
a. restricted range
b. homoscedasticity
c. curvilinear relationship
d. the use of unreliable measures





b. homoscedasticity
197. An effective behavioral treatment to reduce the symptoms of depression is Structured Learning Therapy (SLT). SLT contains all of the following except:
a. social skills training
b. overcorrection
c. modeling
d. role-playing





b. overcorrection
199. Research on subordinates' satisfaction with their leader at work has found that the strongest determinant is:
a. the leader's level of consideration.
b. the leader's use of a participative decision-making style.
c. the leader's provision


a. the leader's level of consideration.
1. The occipital lobe is to the temporal lobe as
a. vision is to hearing.
b. receptive language is to expressive language.
c. vision is o touch.
d. hearing is to smell.





a. vision is to hearing.
What are the three stages of development in the leader-member relationship outlined by Leader-member exchange theory (LMX)?
1. Stranger
2. Acquaintance
3. Partner

3. Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX) emphasizes:
a. the relationships a leader has with members can be divided into two groups referred to as the “in-group” and the “out-
group.”
b. adhering to formal organizational expectations yie


a. the relationships a leader has with members can be divided into two groups referred to as the "in-group" and the "out-group."
6. Significant evidence of retrograde and anterograde amnesia, restlessness, and fluent aphasia are most characteristic of which stage in Alzheimer's Dementia?
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth





b. second
What percentage of scores falls between -1 and +1 SD in a normal distribution?
68%
7. If a student scored between 1 and 2 standard deviations above the mean in a normal distribution of scores, you could conclude that the student's
a. T-score is greater than 70
b. z-score is greater than 2
c. percentile rank is between 68 a


d. percentile rank is between 84 and 98
9. Your client has moved out of state. She has called and left you a voice mail message requesting that you send her records to a new therapist. She leaves her new therapist's number and address but not her own. You have a current written release from he
a. contact the therapist and try to get the client's number.
10. A young child is brought in by his parents because he is having difficulty sleeping through the night. He wakes up frequently, crying that “the big monster” is chasing him. The preliminary diagnosis is:
a. primary insomnia
b. sleep terror

c. nightmare disorder
12. Hypnosis would least likely be used in the treatment of:
a. Substance Abuse.
b. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
c. Specific Phobia.
d. chronic pain.





b. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
13. Failure to recognize one's functional deficits is referred to as:
a. agnosia
b. anosognosia
c. apraxia
d. receptive aphasia





b. anosognosia
15. Overcorrection typically involves:
a. restitution, guided movement, and positive practice.
b. restitution, positive practice, and negative reinforcement.
c. positive practice, cognitive reattribution, and community reintegration.
d. r



a. restitution, guided movement, and positive practice.
17. In a meta-analysis of the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and achievement outcomes, Stajkovic and Luthans (1998) found self-efficacy was positively and strongly related to work-related performance and:
a. the relationship between self-
c. the relationship between self-efficacy and work-related performance is moderated by task complexity and locus of performance
18. You pour water from a short, fat glass into a tall, thin glass. You ask a child if there is more water in the thin glass than there was in the fat glass. The child says, "No. The amount of water has not changed." The child has attained at least the _
d. concrete operational
19. If a psychologist begins treatment with a client knowing that there is a high probability that the records will be subpoenaed, the psychologist should:
a. not maintain any records in order to protect the client's best interests
b. maintain ad

b. maintain adequate records
20. According to Brady, the best treatment for reducing a phobic anxiety reaction is one that entails:
a. actual in-vivo exposure to the anxiety-producing stimulus.
b. systematic desensitization and imagined exposure to the stimulus.
c. hiera


a. actual in-vivo exposure to the anxiety-producing stimulus.
23. The main difference between these types of resampling tests is the way the resamples are computed. Which of the following is computed with replacements?
a. jackknife
b. bootstrapping
c. permutation test
d. cross-validation





b. bootstrapping
26. The second stage of Alzheimer's Dementia is characterized by:
a. loss of implicit memory
b. loss of short-term memory
c. inability to perform complex tasks
d. inability to recognize family or friends





c. inability to perform complex tasks
28. All of the following statements are true of the technique of stress inoculation training, except:
a. its mechanism of action is analogous to that of medical inoculation.
b. it consists of three distinct phases.
c. it is based on the notio


c. it is based on the notion that immediate imaginal exposure to a fearful stimulus at its maximal intensity results in rapid extinction of the fear.
29. From the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy, suicidal individuals are characterized by a high degree of hopelessness coupled with:
a. maladaptive interpretations.
b. poor problem-solving skills.
c. the "cognitive triad."
d. impul



b. poor problem-solving skills.
30. The WAIS-III subtest which is least affected by normal aging processes is
a. comprehension.
b. similarities.
c. arithmetic.
d. vocabulary.





d. vocabulary.
31. A job applicant tells his friend that he's nervous because of his upcoming job interview. When the applicant sees other nervous-looking job applicants in the waiting room before his interview, he believes that they are generally nervous people. This
b. actor-observer effect
32. You see a client for the first time. She is already receiving treatment from another professional, and she is not clear about why she wants additional treatment from you. In this situation, you should
a. treat the client and let her discuss what
c. attempt to discuss with the client the reason she is seeking the services of a second therapist.
33. Research suggests that African-American children's scores on the WISC
a. tend to be lower than those of Caucasian children only when the examiner is Caucasian.
b. tend to be lower than those of Caucasian children only when the examiner is Afr

d. are not related to the race of the examiner.
34. Two applicants score 42 and 45 on an assessment test and the standard error of the difference is 3.5 points. The scores are treated as equivalent allowing the applicant with the score of 42 to be selected on the basis of some other job-related charac
c. banding
36. The parents of two children, Jimmy, 4, and Janie, 11, divorce without exposing their children to overt conflict. Based on the results on research investigating the effects of divorce on children, you would expect that:
a. Janie will experience mo
d. Jimmy will experience more negative effects than Janie initially, but Janie will experience a more negative delayed reaction.
38. Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) indicated the highest prevalence of alcohol abuse was among:
a. Asians
b. Hispanics
c. Whites
d. Blacks





c. Whites
39. A psychologist working for an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) has seen a client who was referred by her supervisor. The supervisor asks the psychologist if the employee has kept the appointment. The psychologist should
a. provide the supervisor
a. provide the supervisor only with this information but nothing else.
41. Which of the following is a mental health service that HMOs must provide under federal requirements?
a. pre- and post-pregnancy counseling.
b. psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy.
c. inpatient psychiatric care.
d. short-term outp



d. short-term outpatient evaluative crisis intervention.
42. A 14-year old is brought to therapy after he is caught stealing from a local store. His parents say they have been having trouble with their son for the past two months – they are constantly fighting, and he is irritable and sullen most of the time
d. Major Depressive Disorder.
43. In late childhood and adolescence, sibling relationships tend to become egalitarian; however, during middle childhood they can best be described as:
a. distant and distrustful
b. conflicted and close
c. abusive and uncaring
d. dominan



b. conflicted and close
44. According to Vygotsky, what has the greatest impact on the development of language?
a. social relationships
b. internal cognitive structures
c. schemas
d. scaffoldings





a. social relationships
47. The four main stages of neural development are:
a. meiosis, mitosis, migration, myelination
b. mitosis, meiosis, differentiation, myelination
c. differentiation, mitosis, migration, myelination
d. proliferation, migration, differentia



d. proliferation, migration, differentiation, myelination
49. Which of the following statements best reflects the cross-cultural findings on emotions?
a. Most researchers have only found fear, anger, and sadness to be universal emotions.
b. Most researchers agree on the existence of 12 basic emotions.

d. Most researchers have agreed on the existence of at least 6 basic emotions, but have disagreed on the inclusion of several other emotions as basic.
50. In Gestalt therapy, introjection, projection, deflection, confluence and retroflection are examples of:
a. layers of neurosis
b. resistances to contact
c. natural anxiety
d. neurotic anxiety





b. resistances to contact
51. An actress portrays a philanthropist in a TV series. In each show, she performs an act of kindness toward a downtrodden individual or group. The actress receives a great deal of mail from fans who tell her what a fantastic person she is because she i
b. the fundamental attribution bias
53. It is estimated that 60 percent of children with Tourette’s syndrome also have AD/HD. In treating Tourette’s and other Tic Disorders, which of the following medications requires the greatest caution when used for treatment?
a. pimozide
b.

d. methylphenidate
57. According to Beck, a depressed man is most likely to believe that:
a. the world is unfair, his future is hopeless, but he is a good person
b. he is worthless, his future is hopeless, but the world is just
c. he is worthless, his future i


c. he is worthless, his future is hopeless, and the world is unfair
58. In Ainsworth's "strange situation," a child exhibits the disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. This pattern is most associated with:
a. a difficult temperament.
b. mental retardation.
c. early maltreatment.
d. early enrollment



c. early maltreatment
59. Which of the WAIS-III factors is most stable across the lifespan?
a. perceptual organization
b. processing speed
c. verbal comprehension
d. working memory





c. verbal comprehension
61. Although Jasper has worked for the same company for nearly 15 years, he has no friends at work and never eats lunch or takes breaks with his coworkers. Jasper hasn't been to a party for eight years. He says he'd like to go to parties but he feels no
c. Avoidant Personality Disorder
62. A social-role theorist might contend that minority clients drop out of treatment more readily when matched with a white therapist, because:
a. the therapist indicates discomfort
b. higher power or status groups are more adept at reading or pe

c. lower power or status groups are more adept at reading or perceiving members of higher status groups that those from higher status groups reading people from lower status groups.
63. Which of the following is either a symptom of or a requirement for the DSM-IV diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder?
a. onset before the age of 2 ½
b. fear that the attachment figure will die
c. symptoms do not persist after the age of


b. fear that the attachment figure will die
64. A person who takes the MMPI-2 obtains a score of 62 on the depression scale. This means that
a. the person is probably clinically depressed.
b. the test results are not valid.
c. the person's score is 1.2 standard deviation units above th


c. the person's score is 1.2 standard deviation units above the mean.
65. Which of the following descriptive words for tests are most opposite in nature?
a. speed and power
b. subjective and aptitude
c. norm-referenced and standardized
d. maximal and ipsative





a. speed and power
66. There is some evidence that children of divorced parents have more academic problems than children from intact families and that
a. girls of divorced families exhibit poorer academic performance than boys of divorced families.
b. boys of divo

b. boys of divorced families exhibit poorer academic performance than girls of divorced families.
69. A group member has idiosyncratic credits. This refers to the idea that the member has:
a. Upward mobility
b. Brownie points
c. Unusual behaviors
d. Referent power





b. Brownie points
70. According to behavioral theory, depression is generally considered to result from:
a. negative punishment
b. noncontingent punishment
c. prolonged extinction
d. having to make finer and finer stimulus discriminations





c. prolonged extinction
71. Alloy, Abramson, and Metalsky have revised the learned helplessness model of depression and de-emphasized the role of
a. punishment.
b. reinforcement.
c. helplessness.
d. attributions.





d. attributions.
72. The mesencephalon does not contain which of the following?
a. substantia nigra
b. hypothalamus
c. inferior colliculus
d. superior colliculus





b. hypothalamus
73. For the prevention and treatment of childhood sleep disorders, Ferber recommends that by six months parents should:
a. provide only verbal comfort or a pat on the back if the child cries
b. rock the child until he/she falls asleep
c. fee


a. provide only verbal comfort or a pat on the back if the child cries
78. Compared to traditional neuroleptics, risperidone:
a. is significantly more effective in treating the "positive" symptoms of psychotic disorders
b. has a higher risk of causing cognitive blunting
c. has a higher risk of extrapyramidal sym


d. has a lower risk of tardive dyskinesia
79. Solomon, Pyszczynski, and Greenberg’s terror management theory proposes anxiety or “terror” results from the conscious awareness that human beings have of the inevitability of their death and is best dealt with by:
a. religious faith
b.

d. self-esteem and a cultural worldview
80. A therapist working from the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy would approach the treatment of Panic Disorder by
a. having the client identify maladaptive thoughts that precede panic attacks and then restructuring those thoughts.
b. con

d. identifying and modifying the client's interpretation of panic attacks and their associated physical symptoms.
81. The psychiatric diagnosis most associated with completed suicide is
a. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed.
b. Bipolar Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed.
c. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent.
d. Major Depressive Dis



d. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, With Psychotic Features.
82. Research has found that flexible work schedules have the greatest impact on:
a. absenteeism
b. job satisfaction
c. productivity
d. self-rated performance





a. absenteeism
83. Individuals with the diagnosis of Seasonal Affect Disorder are most likely to respond to light if they experience:
a. atypical symptoms such as carbohydrate craving and hypersomnia
b. melancholic symptoms such as insomnia and weight loss



a. atypical symptoms such as carbohydrate craving and hypersomnia
85. Which of the following statements is true about the results of meta-analyses investigating the effectiveness of cognitive therapy in the treatment of depression?
a. Cognitive therapy is more effective than insight-oriented and interpersonal therap
b. Cognitive therapy is more effective than insight-oriented therapy but equal in effectiveness to interpersonal therapy and anti-depressant medication.
86. A potential drawback of the SSRIs is that they
a. are cardiotoxic and, consequently, dangerous in overdose.
b. initially cause cognitive impairment, especially in older patients.
c. may trigger mania.
d. may initially worsen sleep and



d. may initially worsen sleep and anxiety symptoms.
87. Evidence of genetic etiological influences is strongest for which of the following disorders?
a. Avoidant Personality Disorder
b. Dependent Personality Disorder
c. Borderline Personality Disorder
d. Antisocial Personality Disorder





d. Antisocial Personality Disorder
88. Cultural differences and factors have an influence on the manifestation of client symptoms. If a psychologist assumes an Asian client’s somatic complaints are really reflective of a mental disorder it is an example of:
a. demand characteristics
b. diagnostic overshadowing
89. In the classical conditioning paradigm, backward conditioning has been found to be:
a. ineffective.
b. moderately effective.
c. more effective than simultaneous conditioning.
d. more effective than delayed conditioning.





a. ineffective.
90. A child diagnosed with Attention -Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is most likely to also be diagnosed with:
a. Tourette’s Disorder
b. Conduct Disorder
c. Enuresis
d. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder





b. Conduct Disorder
91. A linear relationship is an assumption of all of the following, except:
a. structural modeling equation
b. regression analysis
c. Pearson r
d. eta





d. eta
94. A test with limited ceiling would have a ____________ distribution shape.
a. normal
b. flat
c. positively skewed
d. negatively skewed





d. negatively skewed
97. According to Piaget, the concrete operations stage occurs during:
a. 2 to 5 years
b. 5 to 7 years
c. 7 to 11 years
d. 11 to 16 years





c. 7 to 11 years
100. In an operant conditioning experiment, researchers flash a light to signal the subject that she will receive a dollar bill for finding the ace of spades in a deck of cards. This signal is called:
a. a reinforcement.
b. a stimulus.
c. fad


d. a discriminative stimulus.
101. During a grand mal seizure, the clonic phase involves
a. minor abrupt movements of the eyelids, facial muscles, and arms.
b. violent rhythmic contractions of the extremities.
c. extension of the extremities.
d. nonrhythmic jerks of t



b. violent rhythmic contractions of the extremities.
102. Which of the following item difficulty levels maximizes discrimination among test-takers?
a. .10
b. .25
c. .50
d. .90





c. .50
103. The best predictor of therapy success would be
a. symptoms.
b. dependency.
c. previous treatment.
d. misery.





d. misery.
106. In some plagiarism cases, writers may be using what they perceive to be their original ideas, consequently failing to credit the ideas to the proper source, while they are actually retrieved thoughts from memory. This is an example of a phenomenon k
c. cryptomnesia
110. A difference between tangentiality and circumstantiality is that:
a. in circumstantiality, the person is delayed in reaching the point, whereas in tangentiality, the person avoids reaching the
point at all.
b. in tangentiality, the perso


a. in circumstantiality, the person is delayed in reaching the point, whereas in tengentiality, the person avoids reaching the point at all.
111. Which of the following statements is most consistent with Troiden's (1989) model of gay and lesbian identity development?
a. Identity confusion and identity assumption begin somewhat earlier for females than males, but identity commitment begins
b. Identity confusion, identity assumption, and identity commitment begin somewhat earlier for males than females.
112. The most effective intervention for cigarette smoking involves the use of nicotine replacement therapy, skills training and
a. social support.
b. stimulus control.
c. self-help manuals.
d. relaxation training.





a. social support.
114. A quality assurance review would likely focus on all of the following except
a. treatment effectiveness.
b. access to treatment.
c. cost of treatment.
d. patient satisfaction.





c. cost of treatment.
115. The “revolving door” phenomenon of deinstitutionalizing psychiatric patients refers to:
a. placing patients into different facilities, such as halfway houses, as symptomology changes
b. releasing patients to aftercare clinics for psychi

c. required readmission to psychiatric hospitals.
118. A distinguishing characteristic of the Montessori teaching method is
a. children are grouped by developmental level rather than by age.
b. children are free to select their own learning activities.
c. it emphasizes emotional development


b. children are free to select their own learning activities.
119. Early signs of Dementia due to HIV Disease are
a. cognitive slowing and apathy.
b. disorientation and aphasia.
c. impairments in executive functioning.
d. speech impairments and inappropriate social behavior.





a. cognitive slowing and apathy.
121. Driver, Broussseau, and Hunsaker identified which of the following decision-making styles?
a. transformational and transactional
b. rational-economic and administrative
c. decisive, flexible, integrative, systemic, and hierarchic
d.



c. decisive, flexible, integrative, systemic, and hierarchic
125. Some studies indicate that the rate of ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity among identical twins with ADHD to be
a. .20
b. .40
c. .60
d. .80





d. .80
126. A physician refers a patient to you with temporal lobe damage. You would be least likely to expect your patient to exhibit
a. problems understanding what you say.
b. changes in sexual behavior.
c. anterograde amnesia.
d. impulsive st



d. impulsive statements.
129. Ultrasound techniques are least effective for detecting which type of traumatic brain injury?
a. shearing
b. tissue bruising
c. swelling
d. inter-cranial pressure (ICP)





a. shearing
131. "Just noticeable differences" are:
a. psychologically equal intervals.
b. physically equal intervals.
c. psychologically and physically equal intervals.
d. psychologically and physically unequal intervals.





d. psychologically equal intervals.
132. The number of babies born with a chromosomal abnormality is approximately 1 in 200. Characterized by mental retardation and extreme obesity, Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by:
a. a chromosomal deletion
b. a chromosomal translocation
c.


a. a chromosomal deletion
133. When processing data of "low quality," from small samples, or on variables about which nothing is known concerning their distribution, which statistical procedure would be most appropriate?
a. parametric
b. non-parametric
c. path analysi


b. non-parametric
134. Different regression line slopes in a scatterplot suggests:
a. differential validity
b. a lack of factorial validity
c. divergent validity
d. a lack of convergent validity





a. differential validity
137. According to the triarchic theory of intelligence, there are three components of intelligence. How well a person transfers skills to new situations and copes with novelty is referred to as the _________________ aspect.
a. transference
b. exp

b. experiential
138. Which of the following is true regarding Schizophrenia Type I and Schizophrenia Type II?
a. Traditional antipsychotic medications are less effective for Type II than for Type I.
b. Patients with Type II have more "positive" symptoms compared

a. Traditional antipsychotic medications are less effective for Type II than for Type I.
140. An individual imagining others engaging in a variety of alternative or desirable behaviors is using the technique known as:
a. overcorrection
b. simple modeling
c. covert sensitization
d. covert modeling





d. covert modeling
141. Studies examining the predictions of goal-setting theory for work groups suggests that
a. having employees work as a team with team goals results in lower productivity than having employees work as individuals
with individual goals.
b. h


b. having employees work as a team with team goals results in higher productivity than having employees work as individuals with individual goals.
142. Peripheral vision is processed in the:
a. frontal lobe
b. temporal lobe
c. anterior occipital lobe
d. posterior occipital lobe





c. anterior occipital lobe
143. You are conducting a study to examine the differences in reaction time between elderly people and young people. Subjects are asked to view stimuli on a computer screen and to press a lever every time they see certain target stimuli. Your results ind
d. cohort effects.
144. What percentage of children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder continue to exhibit signs of the disorder in adulthood?
a. 5
b. 10
c. 25
d. 50





d. 50
146. Which of the following devices measures cerebral blood flow with a color scale?
a. X-Ray
b. CT
c. MRI
d. SPECT





d. SPECT
148. Head trauma causing damage to the temporal lobes is most likely to produce deficits in
a. procedural memory.
b. episodic memory.
c. semantic memory.
d. implicit memory.





b. episodic memory.
149. The most frequently used projective test is the
a. Thematic Apperception Test
b. Draw-a-Person Test
c. Raven Progressive Matrices
d. Rorschach Inkblot Test





d. Rorschach Inkblot Test
150. The effects of parental discipline on the development of conscience in toddlers is mediated by the toddlers' level of:
a. fearfulness
b. intelligence
c. activity level
d. pain threshold





a. fearfulness
151. Overlearning would be most useful when you are trying to:
a. learn how to play the violin.
b. understand fractal geometry.
c. memorize the state capitals.
d. learn to solve complicated calculus problems.





c. memorize the state capitals.
153. Which of the following groups has the highest rate of completed suicide?
a. Caucasian females
b. Caucasian males
c. African-American females
d. African-American males





b. Caucasian males
154. You are having lunch with a colleague, Dr. O. Timer, who has been a clinical psychologist for over 25 years. You and Dr. Timer start talking about the aspects of your work that are most distressful. Like many psychologists, Dr. Timer mentions that,
a. deciding when it is acceptable to breach client confidentiality.
155. According to equity theory, individuals are most likely to feel content and maintain their level of performance when:
a. they perceive a balance between their contributions and the benefits they receive
b. they perceive their input-output ra

b. they perceive their input-output ratio as equal to others
156. The use of "pooled variance" in statistics assumes that:
a. the sample sizes are equal
b. the sample variances are equal
c. the population sizes are equal
d. the population variances are equal





d. the population variances are equal
157. A Caucasian comes to a stage where he does not want to have racist views. According to Helms, which stage of identity development is this person in?
a. Reintegration
b. Pseudo-independence
c. Immersion-Emersion
d. Autonomy





b. Pseudo-independence
158. You conduct a study designed to assess the effectiveness of psychotherapy in the treatment of depression. You work with two groups, one of which receives the therapy and one of which is an attention-only control group. All of your subjects are hospi
c. interaction between selection and treatment
159. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are associated with
a. grand mal epilepsy.
b. petit mal epilepsy.
c. Jacksonian epilepsy.
d. temporal lobe epilepsy





a. grand mal epilepsy
161. A leader should adopt a "telling" style if:
a. The employee has low ability but high willingness to accept responsibility
b. The employee has high ability but low willingness to accept responsibility
c. The employee's ability to and will


d. The employee's ability and willingness to accept responsibility are both low.
162. Which of the following would be least useful as a method for management development?
a. Outward Bound programs
b. job rotation
c. coaching or mentoring
d. vestibule training





d. vestibule training
163. In Piaget's concrete operational stage the child is able to conserve due to the development of reversibility and decentration. Other achievements of this stage are:
a. Deferred imitation
b. Object permanence
c. Propositional thought




d. Transitivity
168. You are asked to evaluate a 3-year old child who has no interest in peer relationships, engages in highly unusual play behavior on his own, and is preoccupied with parts of objects. The child has no cognitive or language impairments. Based on this i
a. Asperger's Disorder
169. An organization decides to implement changes based on a job characteristics assessment. Which of the following is least likely to be affected?
a. work quality
b. motivation
c. satisfaction
d. absenteeism





a. work quality
170. According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, a persuasive message processed via the peripheral rather than the central route is most likely to be successful when:
a. the message is not of an urgent nature
b. the listener has time to proces

c. the communicator is of high status
171. Someone advocating an emic rather than an etic approach to cross-cultural psychology would argue that the study of a culture
a. should be undertaken from a detached and objective position.
b. should be undertaken from within the culture itse

b. should be undertaken from within the culture itself.
172. The initial stage in structural family therapy is to "join" the family system. To do so, which of the following would be most useful?
a. mimesis
b. enactment
c. positioning
d. alignment





a. mimesis
175. A psychologist's best protection against a charge of malpractice is:
a. insurance.
b. informed consent.
c. licensure.
d. documentation.





d. documentation.
176. When a study has two or more independent variables the research design used is:
a. MANOVA
b. ANOVA-one way
c. Factorial ANOVA
d. ANCOVA





c. Factorial ANOVA
178. In principal components analysis, an eigenvalue would indicate
a. the amount of variability in a group of variables accounted for by an independent statistical component.
b. the amount of variability in a group of variables accounted for by

a. the amount of variability in a group of variables accounted for by an independent statistical component.
179. In a court-ordered evaluation the evaluator:
a. must obtain informed consent from the evaluate
b. must obtain informed consent from the evaluatee's attorney
c. does not need to obtain informed consent but must inform the evaluatee of the


c. does not need to obtain informed consent but must inform the evaluatee of the intended use of the evaluation
180. In a clinical trial of a new drug, the null hypothesis is the new drug is, on average, no better than the current drug. It is concluded that the two drugs produce the same effect when in fact the new drug is superior. This is:
a. corrected by re
d. a Type II error
181. According to the Ohio State University studies from the 1950s, what are the two dimensions of leadership?
a. consideration and initiating structure
b. employee-centered and production-centered
c. autocratic and democratic
d. authorit



a. consideration and initiating structure

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