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Glossary of MIR 830 Vocab

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Vertical Alignment
making sure HR strategy is aligned with general business strategy.
Horizontal Alignment
making sure the organization's HR departments are not siloed and are effectively linked together.
Strategic Planning
involves a set of procedures for making decisions about the organizations long term goals and strategies.
Human Resource Planning
the process of anticipating and providing the movement of people into and out of the organization
SHRM - Strategic Human Resource Management
The pattern of human resource deployments and activities that enable an organization to achieve its strategic goals.
test
1) Develop Mission Vission Values
Linking HR to Strategy 7 Steps
Step 1: Mission, Vision Values
Step 2: Environmental Analysis
Step 3: Internal Analysis
Step 4: Formulating Strategy
Step 5: Strategy Implementation
Step 6: Evaluation and Assessment




Define: Mission, Vision and Values
Mission: basic purpose of an organization
Vision: statement of where a company is going and how it is going to get there.
Core Values: strong enduring beliefs that defines how a company makes decision.

The Three C's (Internal Analysis)
Capabilities
Composition
Culture

Core Capabilities
integrated knowledge sets within an organization that distinguishes it from competitors and drives value.

Criteria:

1- resources must be valuable
2- resources must be rare
3- resources must be difficult to imitate
4- resources must be organized.






Human Capital Architecture
to outsource or not out source. Generally do not outsource when services are not related to firms core competencies.
Strategic Knowledge Workers
Directly linked to company's corporate strategy and are difficult to replace - R and D scientists

Companies make a long term commitment to these empoyees through continuous training and development.



Core Employees
Group of employees whose skills are valuable to company but not particularly unique. Sales

less invested in training and development.

Supporting Workers
skills of less strategic value, which are generally available on the labour market. Tends to be transition or contract base
Partners and Complementary (Workers)
Groups of individual, who have unique skills, but such skills are not directly related to companies core strategy.
VABES
Values, Assumptions, Beliefs and Expectations
Cultural Audits
Examine values, assumptions and beliefs of work force.

Values-Based Hiring
involves outlying the behaviors that exemplify the firms corporate culture and then hiring people who are a fit.
Trends Analysis
1- select appropriate biz factor
2- plot historical trend of business factor
3- Compute productivity ratio
4- Calculate HR demand.


Management Forecasts
opinions (judgement) of supervisors of their employment needs (qualitative approach).
Delphi Technique
round of questionnaires given to panel of experts on forecasting employment. The results are read out loud and the panel is encouraged to change their original forecasts based on the new information.
Staffing Tables
Graphic representations of all organizational jobs, with:
number currently employed
future employee requirements.



Markov Analysis
shows percentage and actual number of employees who remain in each firms job from one year to the next.
can be used to track movements and understand supply needs.
Quality of fill
attempts to measure how well new hires are performing so the company will have enough top performers.
Skills Inventories
list employees:
backrounds
education
work experience
vocational interests
KSA
Allows for quick matching up forthcoming jobs.





Replacement Charts
listing of current jobholders and people who are potential replacements if a job opening occurs. (done for exect team)
Succession Planning
Process of identifying, developing and tracking talented individuals so they can eventually assume top level jobs.
Human Capital Readiness (definition + 3 steps)
the process of evaluating the supply of talent in the organization in relation to demands from that same organization.

1- managers begin by identifying a companies core capabilities and key people and processes that are critical to those capability
2- for each critical job managers identify KSAs required.
3- determine the number of people requires for these positions, the number of external hires or training required.



SWOT
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats


Growth and Diversity Strategy and How it Relates to HR.
HR's Role
- finding ways to increase productivity
- developing new skills for employees
- training and motivation
- make or buy considerations.



Mergers and Acquisitions and HR's role
often fail due to cultural inconsistencies
Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures and HR's role
HR plays a key role in assessing the compatability of cultures and potential problems.

HR helps select key executives and develops teamwork across respective workfroces.

Business Strategy
viewed under purview of corporate strategy - has to do with cost/benefit scenarios.



Business Strategy 1: Low Cost + HR's Role
Compete on productivity and efficeincy

HRP analyzes productivity to see how it can be related to compensation.

plus HR decides what services will be outsourced.



Business Strategy: Differentiation: + HR's role
Involves customization of products and services to meet customers needs..

HR's role
identify and support ways to empower employees to serve customer better (think service industry)


At a Fundamental Level: HRs role in strategy is:
reconciling human resources demand (based on new strategy), with human resources supply.
When Forecasts show: Demand For Workers
hiring full time
WHEN FORECASTS SHOW DEMAND FOR WORKERS:
hiring full time
overtime
contract workers
outsourcing


WHEN FORECASTS SHOW SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES
attrition (hiring freeze)
layoffs
demotions
buyout- early retirement
work sharing



Termination
Instead of laying off employees fire them perminately - based on poor performance, absenteeism, unethical behavior
Severance Pay
A lump sum payment given to terminated employees, which is calculated on years of service and salary
Bench marking
is process of identifying best practices in business domain and trying to meet those best practices in your own company.
Human Capital Metrics
assess aspects of the workforce
HR metrics
assess the efficacy of the HR function itself.
Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
A framework that helps managers translate firms goals into operational objectives

4 rows x 4 columns
Rows
1) Financial
2) Customer
3) Internal Process
4) Learning
Columns
1) Objectives - Growth
2) Measures - Growth Revenue
3) Targets: 30% CAGR
4) Initiatives - Canadian growth project.











Measuring Horizontal Fit
Chart identifies key workforce objectives hoping to achieve.

Managers use chart to range each objective by how supporting HR is. (sales productivity (3/5).

Organizational Capability
Capacity of an organization to act and change in pursuit of a competitive advantage. Requires coordination and resource flexibility.
Coordination Flexibility
The ability of an HR department to move resources around fluently depending on need.
Resource Flexibility
Results from having a people in your team who can do many different things in different ways. Cross training, job rotational models.
Netflix article
Read Netflix article
Iceburg Competency Model
competency has some components which are visible like knowledge and skills but other behavioural components like attitude, traits, thinking styles, self-image, organizational fit etc are hidden or beneath the surface.
Whats wrong with competencies
- Hard to train (behavioral)
- tough to keep em current in an organization


Job
Consists of a group of related activities and duties.
Position
Different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee.

i.e. a job can have multiple positions. But a position can only have one job.

What is a Job Analysis used for ? (7)
1- Strategic HR planning
What is a job Analysis used for? (7)
1- Strategic HR planning
2- Recruitment
3- Selection
4- Training and Development Decisions
5- Performance Appraisal
6- Compensation Management
7- legal compliance





Describe a Job Analysis
- Cornerstone of HRM
- procedure involves systematically studying a job by following a number of pre-determined steps.
-written 20-30 individual job tasks
- HR managers use these data to develop job descriptions and job specifications.


Methods for gathering info for a job analysis (4)
Interviews
Questionnaires
Direct Observation
Dairies




NOC
National Occupation Classification - compiled by fed gov, list of many different occupations.
- has helped create standardization in job titles and descriptions.
PAQ - Position Analysis Question - (Job Analysis)
- 193 sub factors
- for each factor you rate degree to which the job your are currently analyzing has that factor.
Critical Incident Method
defined 5-10 behavioral tasks that are critical to job performance.

Write an action description for each critical behavioral task.

emphasis on behaviors critical for job success.



Task inventory Analysis
Identifies a database of tasks from components of differnt jobs, which you can then chose from when you are doing a Job analysis for a specific job.
Competencies
identified knowledge, skills and abilities, identified through demonstrated behaviors.
Job Descriptions - 5 sections
1- title
2- Job Identification (dep,div, reports to, date verified)
3- essential functions
4- job specifications


Job Description - Essential Functions
Statements covering job duties typically arranged in order of importance - action oriented.
Job Description - Job Specification
1- skills required to perform job (education, behavioral competencies, work experience)
2- physical demands of job




Problems with Job Descriptions
1- can be poorly written and vague
2- sometimes not updated as specifications change
3- they may voilate law by containing specifications not related to job success
4- They can limit scope of activities of the job holder




Job Enrichment
any effort that makes a job more rewarding by adding more meaningful tasks.
Vertical Expansion
Giving employees autonomy and responsibility to increase job satsification
Horizontal Expansion
when task variety is increased. Increasing job sastisfaction
Herzburg's 5 factors for enriching jobs (GRRAP)
Growth
Responsibility
RECOGNITION
Achievement
Performance



Practical Considerations for Integrating Herzberg
1- increasing level of difficult or responsibility for each job
2- Allowing employees to retain more authority and control
3 - Adding new tasks to job that require training and growth
4- assigning workers new tasks that will enable them to use particular skills


JCM Model Definition and States (3)
Proposes that three psychological states of a job holder results in increase performance

1- Experienced Meaningfulness
2- Experienced Responsibility of work outcomes
3- Knowledge of work performed.



Five Core Job Dimensions of JCM
1- Skill Variety - degree to which job entails a variety of activities

2- Task Identity - the degree to which an employee is responsibly for a whole piece of work.

3- Autonomy

4- Task Significance - the perceived importance of the job to people and processes

5- Feedback - clear and concise











Industrial Engineering
a field of study concerned with: analyzing work methods,and studying work cycles to increase time and resource effcience.

Can be at odds with job design that attempts to increase worker engagement.

Ergonomics
interdisciplinary approach to designing equipment and systems that can easily and efficiently be used by humans.
Employee Involvement Groups
Groups of 5-10 employees doing similar or related work who meet regularly, analyze problems and suggest solutions to management

problems:
- peeps need to be trained in decision making anayssis
- may run out of good ideas (have to be fed by management)





Employee Teams
Logical outgrowth of employee involvement - defined: group of individuals coming together for a common purpose.

synergy happens when the combined contribution is better than the sum of its parts.

Self directed teams
usually accountable fora whole work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an internal or external customer.
Virtual Teams
use of advanced computer and telecommunications software to link team members who are geographically dispersed often worldwide.

problems
language and cultural barriers can be an issue.
time conflcits due to diverse geo settings



Following are characteristics of effective teams
1- all committed to shared goals
2- motivated and energetic
3- open communication
4- shared leadership
5 - clear role assignments
6- recognition of conflict and positive resolution
7- establish intial ground rules





Some problems with work teams (5)
1- overly high expectations
2- altering traditional manager/employee relationship
3- training and compensation issues regarding team members working outside their original roles.
4- conflict resolution
5- sharing credit/blame for losses/wins



Key Things to Consider for ATS
1- Understand your current recruitment process
2- understand your motive
3- do your homework to find a system that fits your needs
4- think of how this will effect various stakeholders
5- think of cost bennefit in terms of time savings/time for maintenance
6- Importance of integration with HIRS ad other database software.




Recruiting meeting with manager - 3 step prep.
1. Review current job description
2. Review organizational chart
3. Make a list of potential candidate sources to discuss with management

Recruiting Meeting with Manager 11 questions
1. How did the vacancy come about?
2. When was the list time you recruited for this position?
3. Describe main responsibilities of the job.
4. What KSA's are required
5. permanent or contract position?
6. Working Relationships within the org unit.
7. Describe ideal candidate
8. do you have anyone in mind?
9. How would you like to source candidates?
10. When would you like to fill this position?
11. What do employees in the unit know about your plans to recruit for this position?











Interview Prep tips
1-develop questions in consultation with hiring manager or panel.
2 - prepare before hand with both the hiring manger and the panel- take notes determine who is asking which question.


Conducting an Interview Tips
1. For behavioral interview questions: ensure candidate provides real examples.
2. silence is ok, give the candidate time to think about his answers
3. if you don't understand what the candidate said, ask questions
4. probe for more specific answers. distinguish what the candidate actually did when he says "we".
5. note take exactly what candidate said as apposed to your immediate interpretations
6. treat reference checks like a behavioral interview.




Exit interviews
feedback from person leaving
Stay interviews
person is happily employed but you want to see if there is anything you can do to make his experience better.

what do you like the most/least about your job?
What could i do better?

Hard to get honest answers here.




Internal v. External Recruitment (LORI)
always a mix a both. You want to ask the question does this position require knowledge of internal culture and practices?

if yes, then inside if not then outside is ok. Ie accounts receivable does not necessarily need to be aware of the corporate culture.

Time to fill
Number of days from when the job is requistioned to when the manager has signed off on the new employee
Turnover
How many new hires staid longer than 1 or 2 yeras.
RPO- Recruitment Process Outsourcing
organizations sometimes use RPO providers when they need to hire alot of candaites at once or need more diverse candidates.
Internal Recruiting: Pros/Cons
Pros
1- increased motivation in workplace
2- less training expense
3- better able to predict work behavior
Cons
1- not optimal for jobs that require specialized training
2- encourages inbreeding and a lack of diversity







Clustering
tendency to similar firms to cluster together - Waterloo for software engineers.
Branding
refers to a companies efforts to helps existing and prospective workers why this company is great to work at.

takes the form of a buyer/seller relationship.



9 Box Grid
allows employer to track an employees potential vs current performance

Row: potential - low, medium high
Column:perfomrance - below target, on target, above target


External Recruitment Mediums (14)
1. Social Media/Internet
2. Job Fairs
3. Virtual Job Fairs
4. Employment Services (GOV)
5. Executive Search Firms
6. Educational Institutions
7. Unions
8. Employee referrals
9. Global Sourcing
10.Employee Leasing
11.Professional Associations
12.Re-recruiting Efforts
13. Walk ins.
14. Temp and employment agencies












RJP
informing applicants about all aspects of the job, including both desirable and undesirable characteristics - given more realistic info they are more likley to stay in job.
Management Survey
ask are you happy with:

1-time to fill?
2-your involvement in process
3- quality of fill?



Yield Ratio:
percentage of applicants from a particular source who make it to the next stage.

example 100 resumes from UBC, 10 accepted for interview - yield ration 1:10. you can then compare this yield ratio to other recruiting areas (queens).

Cost of Recruitment
(AC+AF+RB+NC)/NH

AC - advertising costs
AF - agencies fees
RB - referral bonus
NC - no cost hires
NH - number of hires







7 Steps for Recruiting in Good Times and Bad
1) Anticipate Need
2) Specify Job
3) Develop a Pool
4) Assess Candidates
5) Close Deal
6) Integrate Newcomer
7) Audit and Review





The Portfolio Model of Human Capital
Outlines three broad competency categories

1) Job Based - what specific capabilities will this job require over the next few years
2) Team Based Competencies - can this person effectively lead a team ?

3) Firm-Based Competencies -how well will candidate fit into org culture.








Inside outsiders
people you should consider for managment who ahve different views than the prevailing corporate culture - employees of the organization
Outside Insiders
Those who are not employees but have a close relationship with the firm can be trusted
For your pool of candiates based on the harvard review article, how many should you have when your list is finalized?
10-12
HBR article step 4 Assess Candidates: assessment process: (4)
1- select small number of individuals - boss, boss boss and Hr manager (for interviews and references)
2- properly structured behavioral interviews
3- evidence based review of interview with panel
4- expose finalists to key stakeholders to generate support.


HBR Step 5 Close the Deal Steps (3)
1. demonstrate organizational commitment to new employee by having the CEO drop by
2. RJP
3. Make sure the direct supervisor agrees with the hiring decision (biggest reason people leave is disagreements with bosses)



Typical Selection Process From Text
1. Application
2. HR Screening Interview
3. Employment testing
4. Background investigation
5. Supervisor Team interivew
6. Hiring Decision




Reliability
degree to which interviews, tests and data yield comparable results over time.
Validity
how your data corresponds to real world things it is supposed to measure and predict
ICandidate Screener
product that allows candidates to interview themselves with webcams and then mangers peruse through candidates online.
Application Forms: Purposes
1. Provide basis for questions interviewer will ask
2. stops people from omitting information or exaggerating qualifications
3. allows employer to know if candidate meets minimum criteria

Application Forms: things you should include:
1. Application Date
2. Educational Background
3. Experience
4. Arrests or criminal convictions (non pardoned) if job is bonded
5. dont ask about disabilities





Weighted Application Bank
Involves Use of common standardized employment application that is designed to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful candidates.
Highly Structured Interviews
The interviewer determines the course of the interview from question to question.
Less Structured Interviews
the applicant plays a larger role in where the interview process goes.
Non directive interviewer
(1) the interviewer carefully refrains from influencing the applicants remarks.

(2)applicant determines the direction of discussion

(3) broad open-ended questions are asked.

(4) no set procedure is followed very little abiity to cross check interview with others.





The structured Interview
Set of standard questions based on job analysis and rating scale with example answers at each level.
Behavioral Description Interview
Focuses on actual work incidents in the interviewees past.

assumes past behavior is best predictor of future behavior

better for hiring management

not good for someone with no prof experience





Situational Interview
variation of structured interveiw

applicant given a hypothetical question and asked how they would respond.

Panel Interview
the candidate meets up to 5 interviewers who take turn asking questions after the interview the raters pool their scores.

higher reliability because of multiple inputs.

Sequential Interview
one in which candidates are interveiewed by one candiate right after anouther

allows all stake holders to be invovled.

the different interveiwers come together after to compare their assessments.



10 Ground Rules For Interview Training
1- Understand the job
2- Establish an interview plan
3- Establish and Maintain Rapport, listen actively
4- Pay Attention to Non Verbal Cues
5- Provide information as freely and honestly as posible
6-Use Questions effectively
7-Separate facts from inferences
8- Recognize Biases and Stereotypes (Hallo effect)
9. Control course of interveiw
10.Standardize Quesetions










Job Knowledge Tests
particular level of understanding of a particular job - CPA exams
Work sample Tests
require applicant to perform tasks that are actually part of a work required on the job

example
map reading tests


Assessment Center Tests
a group of management oreinted tests that evaluate candates performance in situations they may have to deal with on the job

In-basket exercises
Leaderless group discussions
Role Playing
Behavioral interviews




Cognitive Ability Tests
tests mental capabilities such as general intelligence and verbal fluency - GMAT - mostly correlated with general measures of intelligence
BIODATA tests
typical questions relate to events that have occured in a persons life and ask what the person typically did in those quetions

in this case past behavior is suppoed to predict future behavior.

Neo Big 5
Extroversion - sociable, aggressive, excitable

Agreebleness: trusting, tolerant

Conscientiousness: dependable, organized

Neuroticsm: secure, calm, independent

Openness to experience: curious creative.







Concurrent Validity
how well your test scores correlate with behavioral data of actual employees
Cross Validation
conducting test on anouther sample so that you can confirm accuracy
Content Valdity
Does the test mirror the content in the job
Construct Validity
Is the test measuring the actual construct or idea it purports to measure?
Clinical Approach
hiring decision is based on weighting the strengths and weaknesses of the application in a qaultative manner
Statistical Approach
More objective, involves identifying the most valid predtors of making a selection decision and then weighting them via multiple regression.
Compensatory Model
A statitical way to make hiring decisions, where all statical factors are averaged, so if you do bad on one, you can make up for it in others
Multiple Cutoff Model
selection decision requires an applicant to achieve a minimum level of proficiency on all selection decisions.
Multiple Hurdle Model
the decision strategy is sequencial, candiates jump through successive hoops, passing each stage takes you to the next round.
Selection Ratio
the number of applicants compared to the number hired.
Predictive Validity (Correct DEF!)
the extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion measure

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