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Glossary of MC ANTH

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the whole complexion of your relationship dramatically changes to, in the majority of case, a gentle, almost affectionate one – a low-keyed rather playful, rather mannered, rather bemused geniality
GEERTZ

our host of five minutes leaped instantly to our defence, producing an impassioned description of who and what we were, so detailed and so accurate that it was my turn, having barely communicated with a living human being save my landlord and the village
GEERTZ
We...were the object of a great outpouring of warmth, interest, and most especially, amusement. Everyone in the village knew we fled like everyone else
GEERTZ
in line with the Balinese conception of the body as a set of separately animated parts, cocks are viewed as detachable, self-operating penises, ambulant genitals with a life of their own
GEERTZ
the madness has some less visible dimensions, because although it is true that cocks are symbolic expressions or magnifications of their owners self, the narcissistic male go writ out in Aesopian terms, they are also expressions – and rather more immedi
GEERTZ
The Balinese revulsion against any behaviour regarded as animal-like can hardly be overstressed. Babies are not allowed to crawl for that reason
GEERTZ
the main puberty right consists in filing child’s teeth so they will not look like animal fangs...defecation and eating regarded as disgusting
GEERTZ
When the owner of the winning cock takes the carcass of the loser home to eat, he does so with mixture of social embarrassment, moral satisfaction, aesthetic disgust, and cannibal joy
GEERTZ
deep play; having come together in search of pleasure they have entered into a relationship which will bring the participants, considered collectively, net pain rather than net pleasure. Bentham’s conclusion was, therefore, that deep play was immoral fr
GEERTZ

Men do engage in such play, both passionately, and often even in the face of law’s revenge
GEERTZ
money does, in this hardly un-materialistic society, matter and matter very much that the more of it one risks the more of a lot of other things, such as one’s pride, one’s poise, one’s dispassion, one’s masculinity, one also risks, again only mom
GEERTZ
what makes Balinese cockfighting deep is thus not money in itself, but what, the more of it that is involved the more so, money causes to happen: the migration of the Balinese status hierarchy into the body of the cockfight
GEERTZ
a shadow of the experience no doubt remains with the principals, perhaps even with some of the witnesses of a deep fight, as it remains with us when we leave the theatre after seeing a powerful play well-performed; but it quite soon fades to become at mos
GEERTZ
my effort to show the force of a simple statement taken literally goes against anthropology’s classic norms, which prefer to explicate culture through gradual thickening of symbolic webs of meaning
ROSALDO
Common anthropological assumption that the greatest human import resides in the densest forest of symbols and that analytical detail, or “cultural depth”, equals enhanced explanation of a culture, or “cultural elaboration”
ROSALDO
In 1974, they had another option; they began to consider conversion to evangelical Christianity as a means of coping with their grief. Accepting the new religion, people said, implied abandoning their old ways, including headhunting. It also made coping w
ROSALDO
introducing myself into this account requires a certain hesitation both because of the discipline’s taboo and because of its increasingly frequent violation by essays laced with trendy amalgams of continental philosophy and autobiographical snippets
ROSALDO
writing the initial version of “grief and a head-hunter’s rage” was in fact cathartic, though perhaps not in the way one would imagine
ROSALDO
By invoking personal experience as an analytical category one risks easy dismissal. Unsympathetic readers could reduce this introduction to an act of mourning or a mere report on my discovery of the anger possible in bereavement. Frankly, this introductio
ROSALDO
It simultaneously encompasses a number of distinguishable processes, no one of which cancels out the others
ROSALDO
ritual itself is defined by its formality and routinely under such descriptions, it more nearly resembles a recipe, a fixed program, or a book of etiquette than an open-ended human process
ROSALDO

most anthropological studies of death eliminate emotions by assuming the position of the most detached observer
ROSALDO
At the polar extremes, rituals either display cultural depth or brim over with platitudes. In the former case, rituals indeed encapsulate a culture’s wisdom; in the latter instance; they act as catalysts that precipitate processes whose unfolding occur
ROSALDO
In attempting to grasp the cultural force of rage and other powerful emotional states, both formal ritual and the informal practices of everyday life provide crucial insight. Thus cultural descriptions should seek out force as well as thickness, and they
ROSALDO
The first process concerns whether or not it is an opportune time to raid
Second, young men coming of age undergo protracted period of personal turmoil during which they desire nothing so much as to take a head
Third, older men are differently posit

ROSALDO
sound blindness; cannot distinguish differences in key and timbre of sounds which are easily discerned by ordinary ears
BOAS
result of [his] experiments show that sounds are not perceived by the hearer in the way in which they have been pronounced by the speaker

BOAS
men thoroughly trained in the science of phonology attempt to render by writing combinations of sounds to them without any meaning

BOAS
The first phenomenon that strikes us is that the nationality even of well=trained observers may readily be recognized

BOAS
This can be explained only by the fact that each apperceives the unknown sounds by the means of the sounds of his own language

BOAS
it is clear that all such misspellings are due to a wrong apperception, which is due to the phonetic system of our native language

BOAS
Stanly Hall; adolescence was characterised as a period in which idealism flowered and rebellion against authority waxed strong, a period during which difficulties and conflicts were absolutely inevitable
MEAD
As your daughter’s body changes from the body of a child to the body of a woman, so inevitably will her spirit change, and that stormily

MEAD
What method then is open to us who wish to conduct a human experiment but who lack the power either to construct the experimental conditions or to find controlled examples of those conditions here and there throughout our own civilization? The only method
MEAD
A study of the French family alone would involve a preliminary study of French history, French law, catholic and protestant attitudes toward sex and personal relations. A primitive people without a written language present a much less elaborate problem an
MEAD
Speaking their language eating their food, sitting barefoot and cross-legged upon the pebbly floor, I did my best to minimize the differences between us and to learn to know and understand all the girls of three little villages on the coast of the little
MEAD

And through this description I have tried to answer the question which sent me to Samoa: are the disturbances which vex our adolescents due to the nature of adolescence itself or to the civilization? Under difference conditions does adolescence present a
MEAD
Samoa is only one of these diverse and gracious patterns, but as the traveller who has been once from home is wise than he who has never left his own door step, so a knowledge of one other culture should sharpen our ability to scrutinize more steadily, to
MEAD
the anthropologist has become so familiar with the diversity of ways in which different people behave in similar situations that he is not opt to be surprise by even the most exotic customs
MINER
Magical beliefs and customs of the Nacirema present such unusual aspects that it seems desirable to describe them as an example of the extremes to which human behaviour can go
MINER
Focus on human body...appearance and health
MINER
Fundamental belief is that the human body is ugly and that its natural tendency is to debility and disease
MINER
With evident good faith Funes marvelled that such things should be considered marvellous. He told me that previous to the rainy afternoon when the blue-tinted horse threw him, he had been – like any Christina – blind, deaf-mute, somnambulistic, memory
BORGES
A little later he realized that he was crippled. This fact scarcely interested him. He reasoned (or felt) that immobility was a minimum price to pay. And now, his perception and his memory were infallible
BORGES
These recollections were not simple; each visual image was linked to muscular sensations, thermal sensations, etc. He could reconstruct all his dreams all his fancies
BORGES
He determined to reduce all of his past experiences to some seventy thousand recollections, which he would later define numerically.
BORGES
I suspect, nevertheless, that he was not very capable of thought. To think is to forget a difference, to generalize, to abstract. In the overly replete world of Funes there were nothing but details, almost contiguous details.
BORGES
every problem may be solved by application of an always identical method, which consists of contrasting two traditional views of the question; such an exercise soon becomes purely verbal, depending on a certain skill in punning, which replaces though: as
LS - TRISTE TROPIQUES
not only does this method provide a key to open any lock; it also leads one to suppose that the rich possibilities of thought can be reduced to a single, always identical pattern, at the cost of a few rudimentary adjustments
LS - TRISTE TROPIQUES
Philosophy was not ancilla scientiarum, the servant and auxiliary of scientific exploration, but a kind of aesthetic contemplations of consciousness by itself
LS - TRISTE TROPIQUES
in this opposition between, on the one hand, the professions, and on the other, ambiguous activities which can be classed either as a mission or a refuge, partake of both, but are always rather more definitely one than the other, anthropology certainly oc
LS - TRISTE TROPIQUES
Through being exposed to such complete and sudden changes of env’t, he acquires a kind of chronic rootlesness; eventually, he comes to feel at home nowhere, and he remains psychologically maimed. Like mathematics or music, anthropology is one of the few
LS - TRISTE TROPIQUES
Marxism, geology, psychoanalysis – all three demonstrate that understanding consists in reducing one type of reality to another; that the true reality is never the most obvious; and that the nature of truth is already indicated by the care it takes to r
LS - TRISTE TROPIQUES
highly complex trading system, embracing with its ramifications, not only the islands near the East End, but also the Louisiades, Woodlark Island, the Trobriand Archipelago
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
In Ethnography, where a candid account of such data is perhaps even more necessary, it has unfortunately in the past not always been supplied with sufficient generosity, and many writers do not ply the full searchlight of methodical sincerity, as they mov
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTES
In Ethnography, the writer is his own chronicler and the historian at the same time, while his sources are no doubt easily accessible, but also supremely elusive and complex; they are not embodied in fixed, material documents, but in the behaviour and in
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
The principles of method can be grouped under three main headings; first of all, naturally, the student must possess real scientific aims, and know the values and criteria of modern ethnography. Secondly, he ought to put himself in good conditions of work
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
If you are alone in a village beyond reach of this, you go for a solitary walk for an hour or so, return again and then quite naturally seek out the natives’ society, this time as a relief from loneliness, just as you would any other companionship
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
Quarrels, jokes, family scenes, events usually trivial, sometimes dramatic but always significant, formed the atmosphere of my daily life, as well as of theirs
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
But the Ethnographer has not only to spread his nets in the right place, and wait for what will fall into them. He must be an active huntsman, and drive his quarry into them and follow it up to its most inaccessible lairs
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
But the problems he brings with him into the field, the more he is in the habit of moulding his theories according to facts, and of seeing facts in their bearing upon theory, the better hi is equipped for the work.
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
Foreshadowed problems are the main endowment of a scientific thinker
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
the word “savage”, whether association it might have had originally, connotes ideas of boundless liberty, of irregularity, of something extremely and extraordinarily quaint
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
An ethnographer who sets out to study only religion, or only technology, or only social organization cuts out an artificial field for inquiry, and he will seriously be handicapped in his work
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
According to what has just been said, the duty before him of drawing up all the rules and regularities of tribal life; all that is permanent and fixed; of giving an anatomy of their culture, of depicting the constitution of their society
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
Exactly as a humble member of any modern institution, where it to be the state, or the church, or the army, is of it and in it, but has no vision of the resulting integral action of the whole, still less could furnish any account of its organization, so i
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
Though we cannot ask a native about abstract, general rules, we can always enquire how a given case would be treated. Thus for instance in asking how they would treat crime or punish it, it would be vain to put to a native a sweeping question such as “h
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
Imagine further that by a similar method of inference from definite data, he arrives at understanding leadership in war, in economic enterprise, in tribal festivities- there he has at once all the data necessary to answer the questions about tribal gov’
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
a genealogy allows investigator to put question which he formulates to himself in abstract, but can put concretely to the native informant
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
As a document, its value consists in that it gives a number of authenticated data, presented in their natural grouping. A synoptic chart of magi fulfils the same function
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
The procedure of concrete and tabularised presentation of data ought tot be applied first to the ethnographer’s own credentials. Ethnographer, who wishes to be trusts must show clearly and concisely, in a tabularised form, which are his own direct obser
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
in certain results of scientific work-especially that which has been called “survey work” – we are given an excellent skeleton, so to speak, of the tribal constitution, but it lacks flesh and blood
MALINOSKI - ARGONAUTS
If all the conclusions are solely based on the statement of informants, or deduced from objective documents, it is of course impossible to supplement them in actually observed data of real behaviour
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
If the specialized field-worker can adopt the conditions of living described above, he is in a far better position to be really in touch with the natives than any other white resident
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
There is a series of phenomena of great importance which cannot possible be recorded by questioning or computing documents but have to be observed in their full actuality. Let us call them the imponderability of actual life...routine of a man’s working
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
The personal equation of the observer comes in here more prominently, than in the collection of crystallized, ethnographic data
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
Certain subtle peculiarities, which make an impression as long as they are novel, cease to be noticed as soon as they become familiar. Others again can only be perceived with a better knowledge of the local conditions
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
It is necessary, not only to note down those occurrences and details which are prescribed by tradition and custom to be the essential course of the act, but also the ethnographer ought to record carefully and precisely, one after the other, the actions of
MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
our considerations thus indicate that the goal of ethnographic field work must be approached through 3 avenues
MALINOSKI - ARGONAUTS
The organization of the tribe, and the anatomy of its culture
Within this frame, the imponderabilia of actual life
A collection of ethnographic statements, characteristics, narratives

MALINOWSKI - ARGONAUTS
A herd of deer grazing around a water-hole fled at our approach. The next morning, there was wide-spread discontent, openly directed against the chief who was held responsible for a plan he an I had devised together
LS - WRITING LESSON
I urged the chief to proceed without further delay to the exchange of gifts. It was at this point that there occurred an extraordinary incident that I can only explain by going back a little. It is unnecessary to point out that the Nambikwara have no writ
LS - WRITING LESSON
So he asked me for a writing-pad, and when we both had one, and we were working together if I asked for information on a given point, he did not supply it verbally but drew wavy lines on his paper and present them to me, as if I could read his reply
LS - WRITING LESSON
Writing is a strange invention. One might suppose that its emergence could not fail to bring about profound changes in the conditions of human existence, and that these transformations must of necessity be of an intellectual nature. The possession of writ
LS - WRITING LESSON
People with writing are able to store up their past achievements and to move with ever-increasing rapidity towards the goal they have set themselves, whereas people without writing, being incapable of remembering the past beyond the narrow margin of indiv
LS - WRITING LESSON
The only phenomenon which writing has always been concomitant is the creation of cities and empires, that is the integration of large numbers of individuals into a political system, and their grading into castes or classes
LS - WRITING LESSON
My hypothesis, if correct, would oblige us to recognizes the fact that the primary function of written communication is to facilitate slavery
LS - WRITING LESSON
Means of strengthening, justifying, or concealing the other
LS - WRITING LESSON
The fight against illiteracy is thereof connected with an increase in governmental authority over citizens. Everyone must be able to read, so that the government can say, ignorance of the law is no excuse
LS - WRITING LESSON
I could not help admiring their chief’s genius in instantly recognizing that writing could increase his authority, thus grasping the basis for the institution without knowing how to use it
LS - WRITING LESSON
John Berger; a photograph stops time, a drawing encompasses it
TAUSSIG
Never lost for words and especially good at “painting” landscaped by means of words, Malinowski is said to have hated taking photographs at which he felt he was bad. Nevertheless, he spent much of his time stalking around the village taking and develo
TAUSSIG
what we learn, if we didn’t know it already, is that drawing tends to be a mute conversation with the thing drawn and can involved prolonged and total immersion
TAUSSIG
Drawing is more about becoming than being. It is a process of continuous correcting, not unlike children playing, and he wonders whether what he calls the human need for drawing “may not be a response to the ontological questions: where are we?”
TAUSSIG
Roland Barthes’ enigmatic idea of “third meaning”, more like “the end of meaning”, a subversion of meaning understood as a stable conceptual, sort of thing
TAUSSIG
It is “something else”
TAUSSIG
The picture wants something, but that something will never ever be gotten right
TAUSSIG
My drawing shows people lying down at the entrance to a tunnel by the edge of a freeway which as four lanes of traffic hemmed in by high concrete walls. “Why do they lie here” I asked the taxi drive. “because it’s warm”, he replied as we sped in
TAUSSIG
There is a woman (is she a woman) sewing a man (is he a man) into a white nylon bag. And she seems to be sewing herself into it as well
TAUSSIG
to record this by means of a drawing is the desperation of the needs to hold onto a memory as it flashes up only to die away- a precise instantiation of the working of the mimetic fault as Benjamin parlayed that fault in his “Theses on the Philosophy of
TAUSSIG
the immediate instruments are two: the motionless camera, and the printed word
AGEE AND EVANS
It is intended that this record and analysis be exhaustive
It was intended also that the text be read continuously, as music is listened to or a film watched, with brief pauses only where they are self-evident
AGEE AND EVANS
“For in the immediate world, everything is to be discerned, for him who can discern it, and centrally and simply, without either dissection into science, or digestion into art, but with the whole of consciousness, seeking to perceive it as it stands: so
AGEE AND EVANS
Here at the foreman’s home we had caused an interruption that filled me with regret: relatives were here from a distance, middle-aged and sober people in their Sunday clothes, and three or four visiting children, and I realized that they had been quietl
AGEE AND EVANS
Meanwhile, and during all this singing, I had been sick in the knowledge that they felt they were here at our demand, mine and Walker’s, and I could communicate nothing otherwise; and now, in a perversion of self-torture, I played my part through. I ga
AGEE AND EVANS
There was in their eyes so quiet and ultimate a quality of hatred, and contempt, and anger, toward every creature in existence beyond themselves, and toward damages they sustained, as shown scarcely short of a state of beatitude; nor did this at any time
AGEE AND EVANS
the surface of the body seems everywhere to be treated, not only as the boundary of the individual as a biological and psychological entity but as the frontier of the social self as well
TURNER
Wilde observed that the feeling of being in harmony with the fashion gives a man a measure of security he rarely derives from his religion
TURNER
compelled to conform regardless of our self-consciousness or even our contempt
TURNER
A closer look at Kayapo bodily adornment discloses that the apparently naked savage is as fully covered in a fabric of cultural meaning as the most elaborately draped Victorian lady or gentleman
TURNER
Hair, like ski, is a “natural” part of the surface of the body, but unlike skin, it continually grows outwards, erupting from the body into the social space beyond it. Inside the body, beneath the skin, it is alive and growing; outside it is dead and
TURNER
Inasmuch as both sorts of biological relationship are cut off by death, cutting off the hair, conceived as the extension of the biological energy of the self into social space is the symbolically appropriate response to the death of a spouse or child
TURNER
a public erection, or visible protrusion of the glans penis through foreskin without erection, is as embarrassing for a Kayapo male as walking naked through one’s town or workplace would be for a westerner
TURNER
the symbolic qualities of the lip-plug match the social qualities of the speech of the wearer
TURNER
Two main aspects to Kayapo art of body painting
The first aspect, used of the two colors, black and red, and their association with different regions of the body
Black is associated with the idea of transformation between society and un-socialized n

TURNER
wealth and beauty are closely connected notions among the Kayapo, and both refer to aspects of the person coded by items of prestigious ritual dress
TURNER
Most prestigious (beautiful) form of scared costume. Dancing, is called flying in Kayapo, and of the term for the most common item of ceremonial adornment, the feather head-dress, which is the ritual form of the word for bird
TURNER
Birds fly, and can scan whole world. They are not confined by its divisions, but transcend them in a way that of a Kayapo, seems the supreme natural metaphor of direct experience of totality, the integration of the self through perception of the wholeness
TURNER
Perversion, as a disease, and the pervert, as a diseased person, were created in the late 19th century. Davidson’s claim, one of many now in circulation, illustrates what I call making up people
HACKING
Social change creates new categories of people, but the counting is no mere report of developments. It elaborately, often philanthropically, creates new ways for people to be
Multiple personality as an idea and as a clinical phenomenon was invented aro
HACKING
The idea of making up people has, I said, become quite widespread. The Making of the Modern Homosexual is a good example; “Making” in this title is close to my “making up”
HACKING
Is making up people intimately linked to control? Is making up people itself of recent origin? The answer to both questions might conceivably be yes
The claim of dynamic nominalism is not that there was a kind of person who cam increasingly to be recog
HACKING
What camels, mountains, and microbes are doing does not depend on our words. What happens to tuberculosis bacilli depends on whether or not we poison them with BCG vaccine, but it does not depend upon how we describe them. Of course we poison them with a
HACKING
hence if new modes of description come into being, new possibilities for action come into being in consequence
The idea of making up people is enriched; it applies not to the unfortunate elect but to all of us. It is not just the making up of people o
HACKING
It was generally allowed that there was the noble suicide, the suicide of honour or of state, but all the rest had to be regarded as part of the new medicine of insanity. By mid-century, it would be contended that there was no case of suicide that was not
HACKING
they demarcated any switch in media, letting me know whenever the narrate conversational exchanges switched, for example from phone to texting
GERSHON
It became apparent that this is a fairly typical feature of contemporary American breakup narratives
Two general features of most US breakup narratives are salient. First, breakup narratives belong to a genre that labels as disconnection a series of am
GERSHON
in telling these stories, people are reflecting upon emerging and multiple moral imaginations about what constitutes proper and improper use of technology
GERSHON
Silverstein defines language ideologies as the “set of beliefs about language articulated by users as a rationalization or justification of perceived language structure and use”
Media ideologies are what people believe about how the medium affects
GERSHON
narrators of breakups mention media precisely because people’s media ideologies presuppose that these media choices will offer insights into the intentions of their interlocutors
GERSHON
Each technology shapes how communication will take place differently. Voicemail is not conducive for rapid conversational turn-taking, while texting not only may be, but also can provide a back channel while other co-present conversations take place. Some
GERSHON
Text messages were understood to partially conceal emotional intensity, a useful medium for people uncertain or ambivalent about a particular romantic relationship, or being in a romantic relationship in general.
GERSHON
choose to text their partner if they were concerned that the utterance spoken might suggest more emotion, such as jealousy, than they wished to convey
GERSHON
sometimes, even when one person believes a breakup is final, the other person does not accept its finality until it is repeated in another medium...adding emphasis and clarity
GERSHON
she guessed form his other behaviour that he thought private breakups could be renegotiated, ones declared “publicly” through a Facebook relationship status were done deals
GERSHON
the right hand acts, orders, and takes
The left hand is despised, reduced to the role of humble auxiliary, helps, supports, holds
Of all the hypotheses advanced only one seems to have stood up to factual test: the which links the preponderance of t

HERTZ
quite on the contrary, the left hand is repressed and kept inactive, its development methodically thwarted
Netherlands, Indies, one of the signs which distinguishes a well-brought-up child is that its left hand has become incapable of any independent
HERTZ
dualism, which is essential to the thought of primitives, dominates their social organization
HERTZ
The whole universe is divided into two spheres: things, beings, and powers attract or repel each other, implicate or exclude each other, according to whether they gravitate towards the one or the other of the two peoples
HERTZ

All the oppositions presented by nature exhibit this fundamental dualism. Light and dark, day and night, east and south in opposition to west and north, represent in imagery and localize in space the contrary classes of supernatural powers: on one side li
HERTZ
Among the Maori, the expression tama tane, “male side”, designates the most diverse things: men’s virility, descent in the paternal line, the east, creative force, offensive magic, and son on; while the expression tam wahine, “female side” , cov
HERTZ
“All evils, misery, and death”, says a Maori proverb, “come from the female element”
HERTZ
according to a very widespread idea, at least in the Indo-European area, the community forms a closed circled at the center of which is the altar, the Ark of the Covenant, where the gods descended and from which place divine aid radiates
HERTZ
The right is the inside, the finite, assured well-being, and certain peace; the left is the outside, the infinite, hostile, and the perpetual ménage of evil
HERTZ
according to some authors the differentiation of right and left is completely explained by the rules of religious orientation and sun-worship
HERTZ
In his prayers and ceremonies, the worshipper looks naturally to the region where the sun raises, the source of all life. Most sacred buildings, in different religions, are turned towards the east. Given this direction, the parts of the body are assigned
HERTZ
it is because man is a double being-homoduplex-that he possesses a right and left hand that are profoundly differentiated
HERTZ
food and eating were studies for the most part in their more unusual aspects-food prohibitions and taboos, cannibalism, the consumption of unfamiliar and distasteful items-rather than as everyday and essential features of the life of all humankind
MINTZ
Food and eating are now becoming actively of interest to anthropologists once more, and in certain new ways...concern with resources, energy, and the relative costs of their trade-offs
MINTZ
age of discover; imports from New World, including maize, potatoes, tomatoes, hot peppers, fruits like papaya, chocolate and cocoa
MINTZ
Sweetness is a “taste”, sugar a product of seemingly infinite uses and functional but the foods that satisfy a taste for sweetness vary immensely. Thus a host of problems arise
MINTZ
Until the 18th century, ordinary folk in Northern Europe secured sweetness in food mostly from honey and from fruit. Levi Strauss is quite right to emphasize the “natural” character of honey, for he has in mind the manner of its production. Sugar, mol
MINTZ
Not long ago, economists and geographers, not to mention occasional anthropologists, were in the habit of referring to sugar, tea, coffee, cocoa, and like products as “dessert crops”. A more misleading misnomer is hard to imagine, for these were among
MINTZ
One authority estimates the English sugar consumption increased about four-fold in last four decades of 17th century
MINTZ
It appears to have been regarded much as were spices, and its special place in contemporary European tastes-counterpoised, so to speak, against bitter, sour, and salt, as the opposite of them all-would not be achieved until much later
MINTZ
though remote from his principal concerns, Marx considered the plantations of the New World among “chief moment of primate accumulation
MINTZ
- few are the world’s peoples who respond negatively to sugar
MINTZ
it seems likely that the replacement of milk with tea and sugar are also connected. All such changes mark the decline of home-prepared food
MINTZ
The rise of industrial production and the introduction of enormous quantities of new ingestibles occurred during the same centuries in Britain
MINTZ
markets are literally utopian – nowhere in particular and everywhere all at once
BESTOR
Accompanying these changes is the rapid cross-fertilization and “arbitrage “of cultural capital across many seemingly disparate domains of media, belief, political action, economic organization and so forth, often in unintended and unanticipated ways
BESTOR
The idea of globalization is intimately linked to markets, as are cities. What, then is the relationship among cities, markets and globalization?
BESTOR
Through history, cities and markets have sustained each other
BESTOR

Redfield and Milton Singer (1954) analyzed “the cultural role of cities” and defined the marketplace as the sine qua non of what they called the “hetero-genetic city”, the type of city that links itself (and the society of which it is a center) to
BESTOR
Apudarai’s vision of global disintegration implies a world in which place matters little
BESTOR
Japan is world’s primary market for fresh tuna for sushi and sashimi; demand in other countries is largely a by-product of Japanese influence and the creation of new markets by domestic producers looking to expand their sales at home
BESTOR
after about 20 minutes of contemplative milling, many of the buyers return to their trucks to call Tokyo by cell phone to get the morning’s prices- the Tsukiji market has just concluded its tuna auctions of the day
BESTOR
Appadurai’s emphasis is on the fluid nature of motion along each dimension in his global flows of conjuncture, focusing on the visual images of “-scapes:
BESTOR
People experience global processes in particular locations, from which they derive their understanding and definition of the process themselves
BESTOR
In the case that Alvarez examines, the cultural power is held by procures, whose influence thus extends throughout the commodity chains to distant urban markets. In the case of Atlantic blue fin tuna, the dominant cultural power extends outward from a uni
BESTOR
- Appadurai suggests, that multi-sited ethnography is (or should be) the sine qua non of present and future anthropology
BESTOR
Tsukiji sets prices. In a half hour of bidding, the auctions set global values
The auction system and the commodity chains that flow into and out of the market are elaborate institutions that socially construct integration across levels within the mark
BESTOR
The typical shopper or a restaurant guest is unlikely to know much about aquaculture or be able to actually distinguish a cultivated from a wild fish. Under such conditions, the snob appeal of connoisseurship flourishes
BESTOR
For the Japanese, raw or uncooked food is food, while in other cultures food usually means cooked food. The raw in Japanese culture thus represents culturalized nature; like a rock garden in which traces of [the] human hands that transformed nature into c
BESTOR
Sometimes they construct elaborate cultural rationales. For some Americans, the quick answer is simply national identity. The deep red of tuna served as sushi contrasts with the stark white rice, evoking red-and-white of the Japanese national flag
BESTOR
Still other Americans favour a historical answer. For them, the cultural prize is fighting spirit, pure machismo, both their own and the tuna’s. The tuna they catch sometimes fight and fight and fight some more.
BESTOR
a question of distance- that’s what I’d like to say about talking terror, a matter of finding the right distance, holding it at arm’s length so it doesn’t turn on you (after all it’s just a matter of words), and yet not putting it so far away in
TAUSSIG - TERROR
Walter Benjamin; the tradition of the oppressed teaches us that the “state of emergency” in which we live is not the exception but the rule
TAUSSIG - TERROR
In other words what does it take to understand our reality as a chronic state of energy, as a Nervous System?
TAUSSIG - TERROR
“disappeared”, a strange new word-usage in English as well as in Spanish, as in El Salvador or Colombia when someone just vanishes off the face of the map due to para-military death squads
TAUSSIG - TERROR
In time, while preserving the semblance of democratic openness, the university came to reconstruct the ghetto into a middle class, largely white, fortress within an invisible cordon sanitaire
TAUSSIG - TERROR
When the seminar got under, my host, once so fiery and eloquent on the topic of terror, so in command of his vast history-machine, fell silent as the grave, slumped into the furthest recess of his padded chair
TAUSSIG - TERROR
with over 1000 named people disappeared...there can be no doubt that a situation exists which is no less violent than it is sinister, and that its sinister quality depends on the strategic use of uncertainty and mystery around which stalks terror’s talk
TAUSSIG - TERROR
I think we can start to understand the flow of power connecting terror’s talk with the use of disorder through assassination and disappearing people. This understanding requires knowing how to stand in an atmosphere whipping back and forth between clari
TAUSSIG - TERROR
With our terror-talk which automatically imposes a framing and distancing-effect – is the violent and unexpected ruptures in consciousness that such a situation carries. This is not so much a psychological as a social and cultural configuration and it g
TAUSSIG - TERROR
It is this double-ness of social being and its shock-changing that the Marxists playwright Bertolt Brecht used, but in reverse, so as to problemtatize the cast of normalcy sustaining the reality-effect of the public sphere. Seismology, a superior form of
TAUSSIG - TERROR
The 30,000 disappeared in Argentina, creates a new circle to Dante’s hell in that it combines the terrible fact of loss with the ever-present hope that the disappeared will tomorrow, the next day...re-emerge. Hence mothers are reported as saying that th
TAUSSIG - TERROR
They see the armed men searching from place to place yet they can’t believe that they will really kill- or rather they believe and disbelieve at one and the same time, but proof comes sure enough with Santiago Nasar’s bloody disembowelment – all of
TAUSSIG - TERROR
War of silencing, is that as the General says it is “said to be” going on which means, in political and operational terms, that it is and it isn’t – in just the same way as the abnormal is normal and disorder is orderly and the whole meaning of th
TAUSSIG - TERROR
there is also something they have in common-apart from the creation of terror through uncertain violence – and this has to do with the horrific semantic functions of cleanings, creating firm boundaries where only murk exists so that more murk can exist
TAUSSIG - TERROR
what we have to understand, then, it is not merely some horrific process in which imagery and myth work out from a political unconscious to be actualized, but rather a socio-historical situation in which the image, of crime, for instance, is no less real
TAUSSIG - TERROR
With their photographs, in collective acts acquiring the form of ritual in which what is important is not so much the facts, since they are in their way well known, but the shift in social location in which those facts are placed, filling the public void
TAUSSIG - TERROR
The point about silencing and the fear behind silencing is not to erase memory. Far from it. The point is to drive the memory deep within the fastness of the individual so as to create more fear and uncertainty in which dream and reality commingle
TAUSSIG - TERROR
Silencing...to prevent the collective harnessing of the magical power of (what Robert Hertz, in his classic 1907 essay on the collective representation of death) called “the unquiet souls” of the space of death- the restless souls that return again an
TAUSSIG - TERROR
I felt the most terrible coward, especially because my cowardice took the form of not being able to tell him that I thought his situation was too dangerous, fore that would tear open the facade of normalcy that i at least felt we so badly needed in order
TAUSSIG - TERROR
suddenly, the parts of your body you were supposed to hide, and that as a girl you were supposed to keep tightly locked between your legs, were wide open to view
BEHAR
I was making her feel guilty. I decided i would show her how grown up I was. I’m not accusing you, I said to her in an even voice, I’m just trying to remember. But I was lying. Of course I was accusing her
BEHAR
Where do my parents learn their racism? In Cuba, a black woman cared for me, shared a bed with me, took me out...in the United States my parents, with their thick accents, become Latinos, and therefore suffer many of the same humiliations as other people
BEHAR
I would tell friends about the accident and my broken leg, and found that i’d get irritated if they showed too much sympathy for the girl in the cast. I certainly had no sympathy for her. She had been a cry baby and a coward and I was ashamed of her. N
BEHAR
but I can’t help thinking that maybe at two and a half they would have taken pity on me and not pushed so hard to get me to walk before I was ready. The young girl, soon to become a mujercita, inspired only impatience
BEHAR
- the girl in the case grows up to be a woman in a cast
BEHAR
I am always intrigued by the obvious contradiction that gets played out again and again in these cafes: the apparent mixture of indulgence and restraint
WILSON
What is it about a product like coffee that makes it so sacrosanct?
WILSON
I am always intrigued by the obvious contradiction that gets played out again and again in these cafes: the apparent mixture of indulgence and restraint
WILSON
Those places, coffee cafes, are designed to be special kinds of public places...make you feel sophisticated
The clever and purposely misleading use of the word style also came into play during this time
Along with new coffee “styles” came “fla

WILSON
Why exactly are we so drawn to these places, and what they offer?
Few things in society are as imbued with as much meaning as are sex and eating
Feminist writer Rosalind Coward has called ads like this “food pornography”. She argues that they a

WILSON
Americans have always had a “fat tooth”
WILSON
People in the coffee cafes, dripping skim milk (invisible fat) into their drink and then spraying on the whipped cream (visible fat), taking the fat out of the milk and then adding it back (and then some) to improve the taste
WILSON
Sidney Mintz; what is happening is that Americans are eating more fats and sugar, yet at the same time they are buying other, low-fat foods to make them feel less guilty. And they are eating those too
WILSON
We are rewarded for eating healthy, but coffee isn’t really anything healthy, so this is sort of middle-of-the-road. In coffee they can indulge, they can commit a little sin, do a little naughty thing, a bit of a taboo thing
WILSON
Most customers, both men and women, were very clear that they did not permit the indulgence of the coffee cafe in other spaces of their lives, and certainly not at home. Being in the coffee cafes gave them a public space where indulgence was sanctioned a
WILSON
the case of the digital gambling interface exemplifies the tendency of modern capitalism to bring space, time, and money into intensified relation and sheds light on the question of what might or might not be unique about the digital age
SHULL
a key instance of “productivity enhancement” by game developers is the switch from pull-handle to push-button machines
SHULL
he goal is to control channels of incoming information to limit its interruptive potential
SHULL
“Positive reinforcement hides loss”
SHULL
“zoning rhythm” if you play slow, it deals slow, when you go fast, the game detects it and adapts
SHULL
machine gamblers typically express their preference for machine play over live game in terms of a desire to be alone, to exit social space...my zone
SHULL
features ensure possibility for speed- another aspect of play fundamental to the zone
SHULL
On TV they express it by pulling-the bodies actually disappear and go into the screen, and then they go through the games of the computer. The computer gambling was like that: I wasn’t totally present, I was gone. My body was there, outside the machine,
SHULL
players experience the ebb and flow of money as a function of their own movement
SHULL
The machine isn't even really there...it’s important in the beginning because you see it- ii only play the ones with the blue screen. But as you play the machine becomes less and less important; it starts out the machine and then it’s the game. Once p
SHULL
Two possible outcomes- zero or one, yes or no. After the body folds into the machine and the machine folds into the game, what is left is the abstract, digital procedure of the game itself
SHULL
anthropologists presented their findings as objective science
PIERPONT
The young physicist’s goals were veering from what people knew to how they knew it. At twenty-three, Boas informed Uncle Jacobi that he had discovered his professional objective: to study “the relation between the life of people and their physical env
PIERPONT
“The idea of a ‘cultured’ individual is merely relative, he continued this was an observation that echoed down the next century
PIERPONT
...adapting toward a new physical type that might one day be known as simply as “American”
PIERPONT
By early twenties, Boas seemed to be up against the will of a nation. The newly revived KKK had acquired an estimated four million members
PIERPONT
He posed for Mead: Are the disturbances which vex our adolescents due to the nature of adolescence or to civilization?
PIERPONT
Although Boas argued for the recognition of plural cultures, he suggested not that all human achievements were equal- he was too imbued with Beethoven and Schiller – but that the range of intelligence and virtue ran the gamut about equally in every grou
PIERPONT
Public revulsion against Nazi doctrine ultimately finished off the eugenics movement; in 1936 Boas appeared on the cover of Time, a national hero
PIERPONT
In 2003, another group of anthropologists restudying the data refuted the indictment, announcing that “on the whole, Boas got it right” about the transforming effects of environment on biology
PIERPONT
There is greater variation within “racial” groups than between them
AAA
Today scholars in many fields argue that “race” as it is understood in the US was a social mechanism invented during the 18th century to refer to those populations brought together in colonial America
AAA
During WW2, the Nazis under Adolf Hitler enjoined the expanded ideology of “race” and “racial” differences and took them to a logical end: the extermination of 11million people of “inferior races”
AAA
At the end of the 20th century, we now understand that human cultural behaviour is learned, conditioned into infants beginning at birth, and always subject to modification
AAA
Present-day inequalities between so-called “racial” groups are not consequences of their biological inheritance but products of historical and contemporary social, economic, educational, and political circumstances
AAA
analysis of Latin American sexual categories is that sex between males in this part of the world does not necessarily result in both partners begin perceived as homosexual
KULICK
a simple act of penetration has the power to profoundly alter a male’s cultural definition and social status
KULICK
hormones are valued by travesties because they are inexpensive, easy to obtain, and fast working
KULICK
strong consensus among travesties that any travesty who claims to be a woman is mentally disturbed
KULICK
if a boyfriend expresses interest in a travesty’s penis, becomes concerned that the travesty ejaculate during sex, or worst of all, if the boyfriend expresses a desire to be anally penetrated by the travesty, the relationship, all travesties told me fir
KULICK
finally, it should be appreciated that travesties do not need to actually have sex with their clients to earn money as prostitutes
KULICK
A final example of the role that anal penetration plays as a determining factor is gender assignment is the particular way in which travesties talk about gay men. Travesties frequently dismiss and disparage gay men for “pretending to be men”
KULICK
three most familiar kinds of disruption to this biogenetic understanding of what parents are all preserve the genetic “natural” basis for Western kinship
THOMPSON
estational surrogacy means that eggs from one woman are fertilized with her partner’s sperm in-vitro and then transferred to the uterus of a different woman who gestates the pregnancy
THOMPSON
social invisibility is achieved by the lack of duty toward any offspring conceived with their eggs, and will no doubt t be enforced by the lived experience of relating to these children as siblings rather than sons or daughters
THOMPSON
The clinic is one significant site of negotiation of kinship, and it is of particular interest because it articulates between the public and the private and because it illustrates flexibility in biological and scientific practice. I emphasize the mothers
THOMPSON
Cartesian dualism that separates mind from body, spirit from matter, and real from unreal
SH AND LOCK
assumption of the body as simultaneously a physical and symbolic artefact, as both naturally and culturally produced, and as securely anchored in a particular historical moment
SH AND LOCK
The body in health offers a model of organic wholeness; the body in sickness offers a model of social disharmony
SH AND LOCK
Cogito, ergo sum- I think, therefore I am
SH AND LOCK
Two classes of substance that together constituted the human organism: palpable body, tangible mind
SH AND LOCK
Read argues that the Gahuku-Gama of New guinea lack a concept of the person altogether: “Individual identity and social identity are two sides of the same coin
SH AND LOCK
The Cuna Indians of Panama say they have eight selves, each associated with a different part of the body
SH AND LOCK
The Zinacanteco soul has 13 divisible parts
SH AND LOCK
The English and the Germans are, by comparison far more obsessed with the condition and health of their bowels
SH AND LOCK
Douglas; when a community experiences itself as threatened, it will respond by expanding the number of social controls regulating the group’s boundaries
SH AND LOCK
Human body in which what is “inside” is good and all that is “outside” is evil. The body politic under threat of attack is cast as vulnerable
SH AND LOCK
The Yanomamo males heads are criss-cross by battle scars into which red dyes are rubbed
SH AND LOCK
Body decoration is a means through which social self-identities are constructed and expressed
SH AND LOCK
Ms Cayenne Pepper continues to colonize my cells – symbiogenesis
HARAWAY
In layers of history, layers of biology, layers of naturecultures, complexity is the name of the game
HARAWAY
the assumption that one-to-one mapping of words onto objects and vice versa is the basis for meaning and reference was made explicit in the work of the turn-of-the-century French linguist Ferdinand de Saussure
DEACON
Focusing on correspondence alone collapses a multileveled relationship into a simple mapping relationship. It fails to distinguish between the rote understanding of words that my dog possesses and the semantic understanding o them that a normal human spea
DEACON
the same signs can be icons, indices, and symbols depending on the interpretive process
DEACON
thought I may fail to grasp the symbolic reference of a sign, I might still be able to interpret it as an index and if I also fail to recognize any indexical correspondences, I may still be able to interpret it as an icon
DEACON
in summary, the interpretive process that generates iconic reference is neon other than what in other terms we call recognition (mostly perceptual recognition, but not necessarily)
DEACON
prior iconic relationships are necessary for indexical reference, but prior indexical relationships are not in the same way necessary for iconic reference
DEACON
what makes one an index of another is the interpretive response whereby one seems to “point to” the other
icons arise from a failure to produce critical indices to distinguish things
When I smell smoke, I being to suspect that something is burni

DEACON
There are two things that are critically different about the relationships between a word and its reference when compared to transference of word use to new contexts. First, for an indexical relationship to hold there must be a correlation in time and pl
DEACON
[About the chimp test] they had discovered that the relationship that a lexigram has to an object is a function of the relationships it has to other lexigrams, not just a function of the correlated appearance of both lexigram and object. This is the essen
DEACON
the chimps succeed easily because they have shifted their search for associations from relationship among stimuli to relationships among lexigrams
DEACON
problem with symbol systems, then, is that there is both lot of learning and unlearning that must take place before even a single symbolic relationship I available
DEACON
ability to remember large numbers of potentially competing associations is an additional power of symbolic reference that derives from the shift in mnemonic strategy to token-token relationships
DEACON
symbols cannot be understood as an unstructured collection of tokens that map to a collection of referents because symbols don’t juts represent things in the world, they also represent each other
DEACON
These are cases in which a name is in fact not only forgotten, but wrongly remembers. In the course of our efforts to recover the name that has dropped out, other ones – substitute names – enter our consciousness; we recognize them at once, indeed, a
FREUD
The investigation into the influences and the associative paths by which the reproducing of the name had been displaced in this way from Signorelli to Botticelli and Boltraffio led to the following results
FREUD
I assume that the series of thoughts about the customs of Turks in Bosnia acquired the capacity to disturb the next succeeding thought from the fact that I had withdrawn my attention from that series before it was brought to an end
FREUD
The conditions necessary for forgetting a name, when forgetting it is accompanied by paramnesia, may then be summarized as follows: (1) a certain disposition for forgetting the name, (2) a process of suppression carried out shortly before, (3) the possibi
FREUD
Two factors seem to be decisive in brining the substitute names to consciousness: first, the effort of attention, and secondly, an inner condition that attaches to the psychical material.
FREUD

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