Glossary of Lecture 18 Psych 345

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Created by jamiegallup

4 brain regions for language:
1. Broca's area
2. Primary Auditory cortex
3. Wernicke's
4. Angular gyrus

What is the arcuate fasciulus?
white matter pathway inside the brain under the cortex that connects Wernicke's to Broca's
Arcuate fasciulus within the L and R hemi and is ___ pathway that connects __ and __ language regions
anterior and posterior
List the stages of the Wernicke-Lichtheim Model:
1. Wernicke's Area
2. Concept Center
3. Broca's Area
4. Arculate fasclculus

Wernicke's area input from __ __ goes to __ __
auditory cortex, concept cortex
Concept center is not actually concept center because __ and __ are rep in a __ way through the brain and no __ place responsds to concept/meaning
concepts, meaning

Broca's area where __ is accessed, then BA can provide __ sequencing that can be __ as __ output
meaning, motor, expressed, motor
Arcualte fasciculus: direct connection from __ to __ of the __ pathway
Wernicke's to Broca's
Arcuate fasciculus: way to go dircetly from __ to __ without __ and example:
W to B, meaning
Example: learning new vocab, know the pronunciation w/out meaning
Broca's aphasia/motor aphasia:
not just a disorder of motor production but symptoms are nonfluency and dysfluency, inability to form diff phonological expression
Wernicke's aphasia/sensory:
lack of comprhension of lang. Speech production also non-sensical
Broca's aphaisa is more __ while Wernicke's is __
posterior (sensory info stored)
Global aphasia:
combo of B and W, little speech and lang capability, most severe and intractable
Anomic aphasia:
inability to come up with names
7 types of aphasia:
1. Brocas
2. Wernickes
3. Conduction
4. transcortical motor
5. transcortical sensory
6. global
7. anomic

Paraphasic errors:
awkward articulations and searching for the right parts of words
trouble finding phonemes and switch correct for incorrect
Broca's aphaisa according to Wernicke-Lichtheim Model:
1. Broca's area doesn't acount for these deficits, controls the motor programs and sequences for producing phonemes that make up native lang
2. problems with complex grammar, broca's area importan for syntax
3. w/out these abilities of broca's area speech is dysfluent, phonemically erratic and agrammatical

8 components of WA:
1. speech is phonetically and grammatically normal but words are neologisms (made up)
2. speech is generally fluent, unlabored and well articulated
3. normal intonation/prosody
4. words used inappropriately, nonsense words (neologisms) word salad
5. meaning expressed in round about way - circumlocation
6. comprhension is severly imparied
7. repition is impaired
8. extreme form is jargon aphasia

Wernick's aphasia explained by Wernicke-Lichtneim Model (3):
1. critical for recognizing sound sequences to form words, translate auditory into sound streams
2. enables access to meaning stored elsewhere in the brain
3. relatively spared syntax reflects Broca's area contribution

3 parts of Conduction Aphasia:
1. normal speech comprehension and production: b/c WA intact, goes to CC to BA to produce speech
2. Impaired naming ability
3. Deficiits in repeating non meaningful word sequences - absence of the arcuate fasiculus, cannot repeat words w/out meaning

Transcortical sensory aphasia:
similar to WA, damage from WA --> CC
transcortical motor aphasia:
similar to BA damage CC --> BA
common in both patients w/ transcortical aphasias:
can repeat words, arculate fascious is spared, but don't nec know meaning of the words
two reasons know why meaning is represented across a network of brain regions:
1. semantic knowledge deficit
2. category specific activations
Semantic knowledge deficit double dissociation:
Inability to regonize, describe from memory or answer questions about objects that are category specific (living or non living)
implication of semantic knowledge double dissociation:
sep rep for diff categories of knowledge - diff lesions for pt LT who can sort nonliving, than pt MM sort living
What was the category specific activation task for rep of meaning:
normal brains see where nonliving (tools) and living things activate brain regions

Living things have activations in __ region and non living in __ ___ __. Implications:
posterior, anterior motor cortex
diff circuits for diff categories, tools rep by fxn, living things by visual/sensory features
Stored knowledge and handedness hypothesis:
Hypo: R hand will rep tool meaning in L hemi and L hand in R hemi
2 FMRI parts to stored knowledge and handedness:
1. pantomine/virtual tool use: ID brain regions needed to use the tool
2. Identity of tool sounds: sound ID to activate tool semantics
prediction activations sound and use overlap

Results of stored knowledge and handedness:
R hand activate L hemi during virutal and auditory (motor area) opp for L hand
Meaning (tool sound and use) stored in the lateralized circulatory that controls tool use - hemi of handedness

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