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Glossary of Learning Chapter 5

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REFLEX
an involuntary response, on that is not under a personal control or choice.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
LEARNING TO MAKE AND INVOLUNTARY (REFLEX) RESPONSE TO A STIMULUS OTHER THAT THE ORIGINAL, NATURAL STIMULUS THAT NORMALLY PRODUCES THE REFLEX.
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response.
UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE
an involuntary (reflex) response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
NEUTRAL STIMULUS
stimulus that has no effect on the desired response.
CONDITIONED STIMULUS
stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned response
learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus.
STIMULUS GENERALIZATION
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.
STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION
the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
EXTINCTION
the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning)or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning)
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY
the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.
HIGHER-ORDER CONDITIONING
occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is pared with neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.
Emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person
CONDITIONED EMOTIONAL RESPONSE (CER)
Classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person
VICARIOUS CONDITIONING
Development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association
CONDITIONAL TASTE AVERSION
Referring to the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning
BIOLOGICAL PREPAREDNESS
Original theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred because that conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together
STIMULUS SUBSTITUTION

Modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the conditioned stimulus
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
The learning of voluntary behavior through effects of pleasant ad unpleasant consequences to responses
OPERANT CONDITIONING
Law stating that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated
LAW OF EFFECT
Any behavior that is voluntary
OPERANT
Any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases that probability that the response will occur again
REINFORCEMENT
Any event or objects that, when following a response, increase the likelihood of that response occurring again
REINFORCERS
Any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch
PRIMARY ENFORCER
Any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars
SECONDARY REINFORCER
The reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
The reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
The tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction
PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT EFFECT
The reinforcement of each and every correct response
CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT
Schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
FIXED INTERVAL SCHEDULE REINFORCEMENT
Schedule of reinforcement in which interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event
VARIABLE INTERVAL SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT
Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same
FIXED RATIO SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT
Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event
VARIABLE RATIO SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT
Any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again
PUNISHMENT
The punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus
PUNISHMENT BY APPLICTION
The punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus
PUNISHMENT BY REMOVAL
Any stimulus such as a stop sign or a door knob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS
The reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that leas to a desired, more complex behavior
SHAPING
Small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior
SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATIONS
Tendency for animal\'s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns
INSTINCTIVE DRIFT
The use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
Type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens
TOKEN ECONOMY
Modern term for a form of functional analysis and behavior modification that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior or response
APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (ABA)
Using feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses, such as blood pressure and relaxation, under voluntary control
BIOFEEDBACK
Form of biofeedback using brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior
NEUROFEEDBACK
Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful
LATENT LEARNING
The sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly
INSIGHT
The tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation becomes of a history of repeated failures in the past
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
Learning a new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
Referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior
LEARNING/PERFORMANCE DISTINCTION

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