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Glossary of Last Pathology Test

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Created by huffmajl

Used for artifical respiration
Endotracheal tubes
endotracheal tubes are placed through the ____ or ___
nose or mouth
With Endotracheal Tubes, a ____is inflated to hold in place
balloon
Endotracheal tubes are ____above carina
5-7 inches
_____for endotracheal tubes need repositioning after insertion
10-20%
if the endotracheal tube goes into right main bronchus, leads to
atelectasis of left lung
if the tube is positioned too high or in the esophagus causes air to enter the stomach what happens?
severe gastric dilatation or vomiting or aspiration of gastric contents
why is a CXR done?
ensure proper positioning

make certain that the tube has not been displaced by the weight of teh respirator apparatus, patient coughing, or by movement

ensure prompt detection of complications



CVL is used for
administration of medications of fluids
CVL are inserted in ____
subclavian vein or more peripheral vein in the upper extremity
The optimal locaiton for the Central venous catheter is the
superior vena cava
CVL/catheter should be confirmed by CXR and looking for ____
Px
PEG tubes are also called ___
feeding tubes
how are PEG tubes different from dobjoff tubes?
PEG tubes go from outside of abdomen into stomach. A Dobhoff goes through the nose into the stomach, so it is very similar to NG.
PEG tubes are made of
polyurethane or silicone
PEG tubes are measured in
French units
WHat is sometimes used to determine placement with a KUB with a PEG tube?
gastrograffin
used in infant BEs and VCUG's and IVPs and for standard purposes
foley catheter
foley catheter is inserted where
into urinary bladder to drain
an equivalent of forum
forens-
of or belonging to
ens
"forensics"
of or belonging to the forum, public
Early records of forensic medicine date back _____
thousands of years ago
______is credited with being the first to link the two
Egyptian pharaoh Imhotep
_____is a formal medical laws put into practice in ancient Babylon- now Iraq
Hammurabi Code
Hammurabi Code was written in ___
2200 BC
Forensic Medicine was used by ___ __ ___
Greeks, Romans, and ancient Indians
Forensic Medicine deals with _____
medical facts and knowledge as it pertains to the law and court systems
9 primary disciplines in forensics
criminallistics
engineering sciences
jurisprudence
odontology
pathology
physical anthropology
psychiatry
questioned documents
toxicology







what is radiology
a branch of medicine that uses ionizing radiation to diagnose and treat disease
Forensic radiology combines the use, interpretation, and reporting of the findings for ___
admission in legal proceedings in court
_____discovered x-rays on November 8 1895.
Wilhelm Roentegen
Where it all began, was a ____purchased at a market revealed shotgun pellets. The cause of death was not previously known, therefore cause of death was a shooting
rabbit
First case using radiograpy
George Holder v. Tolson Cunning
When was the first case in radiograpy and what was it?
christmas eve 1895; (3 days before roentegen submitted his findings) ; gunshot wound to leg.
WHat happened in the George Holder v. Tolson Cunning case?
Dr. R.C. Kirkpatrick made a 45 min exposure to reveal a bullet; Cunning recovered; Holder sentenced to 14 years
The quote to The battle of admissibility is what?
It's like offering the photograph a ghost
____settled the battle of admissibility
Judge LeFevre
First Comparison Views
Sept. 1895: Miss Folliot; a burlesque actress, fell and injured her foot. One month later, she was sent for radiographs of both feet, which revealed a displaced cuboid bone. A charge of contributory negligence was ruled agains Miss Folliot
First Murder:
April 23, 1896; Hargreaves Hartley shot his wife, 4 times in his head. then jumped in canal; drowning; Radiographs were made and all four bullets were located; Elizabeth died
Civil Suits- Cause of Injury
September 2 1895: Frank Bowling fell from a buggy, fracturing his right ankle. 8 days later, 3 radiographs were made. DDamages were severe enough to warrant amputation of the foot and ankle. Bowling was awarded 10,000.
Civil Suits_ Used as evidence_ April 1896-
James Smith v. Dr. W.W. Grant Smith claimed limb shortening and disability due to misdiagnosis of an impacted fracture of his left femoral neck
Theodore Roosevelt?
while campaigning for a third term, Mr. Roosevelt was shot in chest. He refused treatment and continued with his campaign speech and greeting. Radiograph revealed a bullet lodged in his rib.
Hitler?
badly burned remains were identified by Russians using skull radiographs produced on Sept. 19, 1944. Apparently dental work was distinctive and postive ID. Russians held this secret for 20 years
JFK
x rays added to controversy about # of shots, direction of travel, trajectory, and # and location of shooters.
Later on, Radiographs were made of
packages
finerprints
knuckle folds
palmar lines
documents
art






x-ray fluorescence(bathing the object in radiation, causing it to emit raditation)
can reveal if the metals in a metal sculpture or if the compostion of pigments is too pure or newer than the supposed age
Postmortem radiography is usually performed when?
usually after external examination adn before dissection of the body
Disadvantages to not using radiographers:
lack of consistency between antermortem and postmortem images
Advantages in postmortem radiography
patients dont breathe and dont move

exposure times arent a problem

repeats dont harm pt.



Forensic Radiology is used for what?
idenification of victim

determining injury

evidence in criminal

evidence in administrative(workmans comp)





what is the difference in radiology vs. anthropology
radiology uses ionizing radiation to visualize remains and anthropology examines remains or bones by defleshing them and removing any tissues or debris
using _____would be great in suspected abuse cases because of the detail provided on bones
cardboard bones
Idenification of skeletal features

Animal vs. human

some animal remains may be misidenified as human because of similarities in size and structure.
Age

The bony skeleton can begin to be visualized about the _____in utero. Growth continues into early adulthood

20th week
Age

After teh ___or ____year females begin to develop faster than males

3rd or 4th
Age

the last plate to fuse is the _____during the 30's

medial end of the clavicle
Age

____-____= the skull sutures and pubic symphysis provide the most info about age

25 to 50
___+= degenerative changes begine to develop in major joints and vertebrae; these changes are in males
40
Age determination is based on ____
growth plates
Sex

___is larger and heavier with more prominent attachments for muscles

The ____femoral head is larger in all directions



male
Sex

The ____is the most definitive portion to determine sex

pelvis
Sex

Features of the pelvis provide info on the

gender

age

Sex determination based on ___is less reliable than other methods
skull
Sex

___have a more rounded forehead

females
sex

____have larger browns and larger jaws

males
Using radiography in idenification:
fingerprints
dental work
healed fx
surgical scarring
implanted medical devices
frontal sinus patterns






Determining cause of death

___vs_____vs____

accidental, natural, intentional
Radiography can detect cause of death by detecting ___, ____, ___,___
PX, pneumoperitoneum, air embolus, fxs
___and____people who overthrew the Roman Empire forbid personal vendettas and employed the Wergeld or blood pric , paid to the vicim or the victims family. Fee was greater for higher class and dependent on level of blood shed.
Germanic and Slavic People
___described how to destinguish between drowning and strangulation and how to determine if a person was dead or alive before being burned
chinese textbook
Advantages to using radiography with a gunshot are :
location of projectile

visulation of multiple bullets of different calibre

angle and direction of fire, trajectory or yaw

may be the first indicator of a crime









____accounts for more deaths than murders.
suicides
2/3 of all suicides result from
firearms
Disadvantages to using radiography
caliber determination is not exact

tandem bullets

not all projectiles fired from a weapon are bullets

typical radiologist lacks experience determining caliber





Using the _____is a good rule of thumb. If the entrance wounds plus the exit wounds plus hte bullet equal an even number then there should not be any projectiles. (One entrance, no exit, should be one bullet in victim) Tandem bullets are an exception. Som
dkfsljf
Child abuse can consist of :
skeletal

intracranial

visceral

sequential
prenatal
religious







Advantages of radiography with abuse
detection of metaphyseal injuries, diaphyseal fxs, dislocations, rib fxs., fx of hands and feets, scapulae, vertebrae, facial bones, and skull, and injuries to internal organs ( most commonly the duodenum)
Disadvantages of radiography with abuse
misdiagnosis of congenital diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta)
Disadvantages of using radiography with child abuse
multiple films results in more radiation

false allegations against caregiver

misdiagnosis



Non Medical uses of Radiography:
Bombs

explosives

drugs

illegal smuggling





virtopsy
using ct or mri to do the autopsy

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