Glossary of Large Animal exam 2
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- What makes up the peripheral nervous system
- nerons of the crainial and spinal nerves.
- How many lumbar and sacrel segments do cows and horses have
- 6 lumbar
- what do spinal cord lesions from T2-T6 cause in horses, cattle, and pigs?
- paresis of the pelvic limb.
- What do leisons from T2-L3 cause? list 3
depressed limb sensation
- What disease is characterized by increased volum of CSF.
- What are some causes of hydrocephalus
- genetics, vitamin A deficiency
- What is occipitoatlantoaxial malformation and what breed is it commonly seen in
- fusing of the joints in the cervicle vertebra. it is an inherited disorder seen in Arabians and miniatures.
- What does HYPP stand for? and what breed is it associated with
- HYperkalemic periodic paralysis. seen in quarter horses. Impressives genetic line.
- What is stringhalt
- brisk involentary flexion of the pelvic limb. cause is unknown but may be linked to diet.
- What disease is characterized by head pressing
- what kind of virus is Encephalomyelitis and what are the three names.
- alphavirus ( eastern, western, venesualen)
- What is EPM and what animal transmits the disease.
- Equine protozoan myeloencephalitis. it is caused by sarcocystic neurona transmitted by opossums.
- What type of virus is west nile and when was it first seen in America.
- Flavivirus, forst reported in 1999.
- What family of virus is rabies from. and what form is most common in horses
- rhabidovirus, furious
- what is a common tick borne disese seen in horses that attacks the nervous system
- Louping ill. death can occur 1-3 days
- What hormone stimulates maturation of the ovarian follicle and formation of the corpus luteum
- leutinizing hormone
- What are the three stages of estrus in horses
- estrus - diestrus- anestrus
- estrus cycles how long?
- horse 21-23 days
- Where does gonadotropin come from
- the hypothalumus - begins the estrus cycle
- ICSH causes what
- an increase in testosterone. maintains a constant level of testosterone
- how long can sperm live in the mares tract
- 24-48 hours
- what is the minimum age to breed a mare. and what should their BCS be
- 4 years, 6-7
- list the three forms of breeding horses
- pasture mating, artificial insemination, hand mating
- what animal was AI first used in? and why
- Cattle, increased milk production
- What does winking of the vulva in horses indicate?
- the mare is in heat
- gestation periods:
- horses 336 days
- give three reasons for the caslicks procedure
- hold pregnancy, wind sucking, uterine infection
- 4 reproductive disorders of horses
- vaginitis, mastitis, brucellosis, prolapse
- what os the best way to detect pregnancy in a cow
- palpation, detectable 1 month after concieved
- Name of estrus cycle in cows
- non seasonal polyestrus - they cycle year round
- how long do cows enter anestrus
- 2- 4 weeks after calving
- list common reproductive problems in cows
- mastitis, pyometra, Bovine viral diarrhea, uterine prolapse, dystocia, milk fever
- how do cow get milk fever
- when they are fed large amounts of calcium prior to giving birth, this causes hypocalcemia
- what is a common technique used to induce ovulation in pigs
- by administering equine gonadotropin
- What is lordosis
- the act of sitting on a pig to determin if she is ready to mate.
- How long does estrus last in pigs
- 40-60 hours ( ovulation 24 hours)
- when do sows enter anestrus
- while they are lactating
- how many embryos must be in the pig to ensure a viable pregnancy
- what are common reproductive problems in pigs
- retained placenta, cesarians, uterine prolapse, mastitis, hypogalactia
- what is hypogalactia
- decreased milk production
- What sheep has a year round estrus cycle, what sheep has a 6 month cycle
- marino, suffox
- what percentage of adult body weight sgould a llama be in order to breed
- what kind of ovulator are llama
- they are induced ovulators - they ovulate when they are bred.
- How long is gestation in horses
- 305- 400 days
- when are the majority of foals born
- at night in the spring
- when does stage one of foaling end? when should intervention occur
- when the water breaks , if it lasts longer than 4 hours.
- what is stage two? on average how long does it last?
- the actual birth of the foal
- what is the specific gravity of the colostrum
- list malposition of the foal
- only one foot present
the nose ndoes not appear
the nose appears w/out front feet
- what diseases may occur if their is a retained placenta
- toxemia, laminitis
- how long after birth should a foal stand. when should the foal recieve first milk
- 2-4 hours, before 6 hours.
- what dimensions should a stall be for foaling, and what is the best bedding
- 12x14, straw or shredded paper, sawdust can clog up the foals nose
- what should not be fed to a pregnant mare
- oats, corn and barley - deficient in calcium. fescu hay - reduce milk production
- what extra vaccine should be given to the mare to prevent abortions
- rhino vx
- what is shaker foal syndrom
- botuslism, can be prevented with a type b injection
- how is lavender foal syndrom identified and what breed is it most common in
- the color of the coat, arabians
- what is the name of the arabian mare who the lavender foal syndrom is thought to be linked
- Bint Hewla
- what are some systems that the treadmill is used to evaluate
- respiratory, muskoskeletal, cardiovascular
- what is th eonly anesthetic gas used in sheep
- what is triple drip made of
- GG, ketamine, and xylazine
- what device is used to support the horse after anesthesia to prevent injury
- anderson sling
- what cell has the least diagnostic value in the horse
- what is the normal total wbc in the horse
- 6,000 - 10,000
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