Glossary of Lab 3 the axilla

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what forms the pectoral girdle?
the pectoral girdle is formed by the scapulae & clavicles, and is joined to the manubrium of the sternum by the clavicle
what does the pectoral girdle do?
the pectoral girdle connects the axial skeleton to the free parts of the upper limb
what are the two necks on the head of the humerus?
the anatomical neck (which is more superior/proximal) and the surgical neck (which is just below the large part of the humerus and encircles it more inferiorly/distally)
what muscle inserts on the intertubercular sulcus?
the latissimus dorsi muscle inserts on the intertubercular sulcus
where does the teres major insert?
anterior medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus
what muscle inserts on the lateral lip of the bicipital groove?
the pectoralis major muscle
where is the deltoid tuberosity?
lateral edge of the humerus about halfway down the bone
what lies in the spiral groove of the humerus?
the radial artery and the profunda brachii artery and vein
where do the teres major and minor muscles originate?
t. major originates on the inferior angle of the scapula; t. minor originates on the lateral edge of the scapula just superior to the origination site of t. major
describe the boundaries of the axilla
anterior: pec. major & minor and associated pectoral & clavipectoral fascia
posterior: scapula, subscapularis, t. major, & lat. dorsi
medial: serratus anterior, first 4 ribs & their intercostals
lateral: intertubercular groove of humerus
what is the apex of the axilla?
apex = entrance from neck to axilla (cervico-axillary canal b/w 1st rib, clavile & subscapularis muscle)
what does the axillary sheath do?
it covers the proximal segments of the brachial plexus & axillary vessels
what is the blood vessel that feeds the axilla?
the axillary artery
where does the axillary artery begin & end?
begins at lateral edge of first rib (as a continuation of subclavian arter) and ends at lower border of teres major (becomes the brachial artery)
the pectoralis minor divides the axillary artery into 3 parts. name their major sub-branches
1st part: 1. supreme thoracic artery
2nd part: 1. thoracoacromial artery
2. lateral thoracic artery
3rd part: 1. posterior circumflex humeral a.
2. anterior circumflex humeral a.
3. subscapular a.
how does one distinguish b/w anterior & posterior circumflex humeral arteries?
posterior is larger
what blood vessel drains the axilla and what are its boundaries?
the axillary vein:
-lies medial to axillary a. and lateral to 1st rib
-formed by joining of brachial & basilic veins at inferior edge of teres major
which nerve does the lateral thoracic artery run alongside?
long thoracic nerve
name the 5 groups of axiallary lymph nodes
apical, pectoral, subscapular, humeral, & central
where do apical nodes receive lymph from? pass it on to?
receive from all other axillary nodes!

feed into > subclavian lymphatic trunk > right lymphatic duct on R & thoracic duct on L side of body
where are the pectoral nodes?
medial wall of axilla
where are apical nodes?
apex of axilla
where do pectoral nodes receive from? feed into?
-receive from anterior thoracic wall (including breast)
-feed into central & apical nodes
subscapular nodes lie on posterior axillary fold & subscap. vessels.
receive from?
feed into?
posterior thoracic wall/scapular region --> subscap nodes! --> apical & central nodes
drainage pattern of humeral (lateral) nodes (they lie posterior to axillary vein)?
upper extremity lymph (EXCEPT that carried along cephalic vein) -->
central nodes are where?
deep to pec minor along part 2 of axillary a.
central group drainage?
pectoral, subscapular, & humeral nodes --> CENTRAL NODES --> apical nodes
what is the brachial plexus?
the major nerve network supplying the upper limb (begins in neck, ends in axilla)
what does axillary nerve innervate?
1. deltoid
2. teres minor
what innervates the subscapularis?
upper subscapular nerve
what does thoracodorsal innervate?
latissimus dorsi
what roots are the brachial plexus derived from?
C5-T1 ventral rami
what is the order of breakdown of the BP?
roots > trunks > divisions > cords > branches
what makes up the M?
L to R: musculocutaneous, lateral root branch of the median nerve, medial root branch of the median nerve, ulnar
what runs beneath the M? what are its branches?
posterior cord;
it splits into radial and axillary nerves;
also it has three branches off it first: the lower, middle, and upper subscapular
what may or may or not be a branch off the post. cord at the site of the middle subscap. nerve branhc?
thoracodorsal nerve :-)
what are the branches of the lateral cord?
first: lateral pectoral nerve (named for branch site, NOT pectoral location)
second: musculocutaneous nerve and lateral root branch of the median nerve
what branches of the medial cord?
-medial pectoral nerve (again , named for BRANCH SITE not pec site)
-medial cutaneous nerve of the arm
-medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm
-medial root branch of the median nerve
-ulnar nerve
what is the posterior cord often covered by?
the axillary artery
a lesion of what nerve causes 'winged scapula'? by what mechanism?
long thoracic nerve; arises from ventral rami of C5,6,and7

("five and six and seven,
flap your scaps and go to heaven")

serves serratus anterior which holds scap down; lesion allows it to fly up
what serves the rhomboid minor & major and levator scapulae?
dorsal scapular nerve (ventral rami of C5)
what does suprascap. nerve innevrvate?
(c5,6) supra- and infra-spinatus
what lies in the spiral groove?
the radial artery and the profunda brachii artery and vein

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