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Glossary of LVN Pharmacology

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Pharmacokinetics
this is the study of how drugs are absorbed distributed metabolized and excreted by the body
Pharmacodynamics
this is the study of how drugs are used by the body
Pharmacotherapeutics
This is the study of how the patient might experience side effects responds to the drug
Anti-infectives
Used for the treatment of infections common side effects include GI upset
Antihypertensives
Lower blood pressure and increase blood flow to the myocardium common side effects include orthostatic hypotension
Antidiarrheals
Decrease gastric motility and reduce water content in the intestinal tract side effects include bloating and gas
Diuretics
Decrease water and sodium absorption from the loop of henle or inhibit antidiuretic hormone(potassium sparing diuretics) side effects of non potassium sparing diuretics include hypokalemia
Antacids
Reduce hydrochloric acid in the stomach common S/E of calcium and aluminum based antacids in constipation Magnesium based antacids frequently cause diarrhea
antipyretics
reduce fever
Antihistamines
Block the release of histamine in allergic reactions. Common S/E of antihistamines are dry mouth, drowsiness and sedation
Brochodilators
Dilate large air passage and are commonly prescribed for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease a common S/E of these is tachcardia
Laxatives
Promote the passage of stool types of laxtives include stool softeners cathartics fiber lubricants and stimulants
Anticoagulants
Prevent clot formation by decreasing vitamin K levels and blocking the clotting chain or by preventing platelet aggregation.
Antianemics
Increase factores necessary for red blood cell production
Narcotics/analgesics
Relieve moderate to severe pain medications in this category include opiods(morphine and codeine)synthetic opiods(meperidine) and NSAIDs(ketorolac)
Anticonvulsants
used for the management of siezure disorder and the treatment of bipolar disorder medications used as anticonvulsants include phenobarbital phenytoin(dilantin) and lorazepam(ativan)
Anticholinergics
Cause the mucous membranes to become dry therefore oral secetions are decreased anticholinergics such as atropine are often admin preop
Mydriatics
dilate the pupils mydriatics are used in the treatment of pt with cataracts
Miotics
constrict the pupil miotics such as pilocarpine HCI are used in the treatment of pt with glaucome
Time released drugs
Dur: Duration
SR: Sustained release
CR: Continuos release
SA: Sustained action
Contin: Continuous action
LA: Long acting




The Seven Rights of Administering Medications
Right patient
Right Route
Right Drug
Right amount
Right time
Right documentation
Right to refuse treatment





Chemical name:
this is often a number or letter designation that tells you the chemical makeup of the drug this name is of little value to the nurse in practice
Generic name:
This is the name givin by the company that developed the drug, and it remains the same even after the patent is released and other companies are allowed to market the medication
Trade name:

This is the name givin to the drug by the originating company after the drug has been released to the market for appx four years a trade named medication can be released by an alternative company the trade name will be different but while the generic name will remain the same
Angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitors
this category of drug is utilized to treat both primary and secondary hypertension the drug works by inhibiting conversion of angiotension I to angiotension II

Benazepril lisinopirl captopril enalapril fosinopril
moexipril quinapril ramipril


ACE or Angiotensin convertin enzyme inhibitors potential S/E
Hypotension
hacking cough
Nausea/vomiting
rashes
angioedema





ACE considerations
monitor vitals frequently
monitor WBC count
Monitor potassium and creatinine levels
Monitor the electolyte levels


Beta Adrenergic Blockers

Are drugs that help lower blood pressure pulse rate, and cardaic output also used to treat migraine headaches and other vascular headaches

Acebutolol
atenolol
carvedilol
esmolol
propanolol
toprol-XL






Beta adrenergic blockers S/E
orthostatic hypotension
while working with Beta adrenergic blockers monitor patients:
BP
signs of edema
changes in lab value
teach pt to rise slowly
report bradycardia dizziness, confusion, depression, or fever taper off medication



Anti-Infectives (Aminoglycosides)
Drugs include bactericidals and bacteriostatics they interfere with the protein synthesis of the bacteria causeing it to die

Gentamicin
kanamycin
neomycin
steptomycin
tobramycin
amikacin








Anti-infectives( aminoglycosides) possible S/E
ototoxicity
nephrotoxicity
seizures
blood dyscrasias
hypotension
rash






Anti-infectives( aminoglycosides Consider following
obtain Hx of allergies
monitor I/O
monitor vitals during Iv infusion
Monitor theraputic levels
Maintain IV
monitor signs of nephrotoxicity
monitor signs of otoxicity
teach the pt to report changes in urinary elimination
monitor peak and trough levels







Test tip Peak and trough
peak and trough levels are done to obtain a blood level and determine the dosage needed for the pt they should be done 30-60 minutes after the third or fourth IV dose or 60 minuets after the forth IM dose trough levels should be drawn 5 minutes before the next dose if possible the pt should be taught to report any change in renal function aor in hearing becuase this cateogory can be toxic to the kidney and the auditory nerve ( anit-infectives)
Benzodiazepines Anticonculsants/antiaxiety
these drugs are used for their antianxiety or anticonvulsant effects all these contain syllable PAM PATE OR LAM

clonazepam
diazepam
chlordiazepoxide
lorazepam
flurazpam





Benzodiazepines ( anticonvulsants /sedative/antiaxiety drugs S/E
drowsiness
lethargy
ataxia
depression
restless
slurred speech
brady cardia
hypotension
diplopia
nystagmus
nausea/vomting
constipation
incontinence
urinary retetion
respiratory depression
rash
uricaria

















Benzodiazepines ( anticonvulsants /sedative/antiaxiety drugs nursing interventions to know
monitor respirations
monitor liver function
monitor kidney function
monitor bone marrow function
monitor for sign of chemical abuse





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