Glossary of LAST SEM> COMS 2

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It is possible to access a public Wi-Fi node if you are located within ___ feet of the node.
A virus that activates when it detects a certain condition, such as when a particular keystroke is pressed or an employee’s name is deleted from a employee file, is called a logic ___
It is common practice for all types of malware to be generically referred to as ____, even though this may be a misuse of the term
A ________ is a malicious program that masquerades as something else—usually an application program.
Trojan Horse
A 2004 report from the Business Software Alliance estimates that the monetary loss due to software piracy during 2003 was nearly _____in the U.S.
6.5 billion
The U.S Secret Service estimated that ____ of the counterfeit money made in 2000 was digitally produced.
47 %
A surge ______ connects all of the powered components in your computer system
For users who cannot afford to have the power to heir systems go out without warning, _____ units are available.
When a hard drive’s real/write head actually touches the surface of a hard disk, it is called _______
head crash
A ____ site is a designated alternative facility that can be used to house a business’s operations any time the primary facility becomes unusable.
To prevent ________ access to an organization’s facilities and computer system, a(n) identification procedure can be used to verity that the person trying to access the facility or system is listed as an authorized user.
A __________ knowledge system is an identification system that requires the individual requesting access to provide information only the authorized user is supposed to know.
_________ Are the most commonly used type of possessed knowledge
___________ Objects are physical objects that are used for identification purposes.
_________ Devices are used to identify users by a particular unique physiological characteristic (fingerprint) or personal trait
A _________ is a security system that acts a protective boundary between a computer or network and the outside world.
Firewalls work by closing down all ______________________--the electronic connections that allow a PC to communicate with other computers---to unauthorized computers and programs for both incoming outgoing activities
External communication port addresses
To secure e-mail messages and other documents sent over the Internet, __________ techniques are used.
The __________ key is available for anyone to use, but the private key is used only by the individual to whom it was assigned.
PGP stands for _________ Good Privacy
While encryption is used to ensure that a document cannot be intercepted or altered during transmission, the purpose of a digital __________ is to verity the identify of the document
______________ Can be dangerous to a PC
Dust, Heat, Static
Which of the following acts makes it illegal to circumvent antipiracy measure built into commercial software, as well as outlawing the manufacturing, or sale of devices used to illegally copy software or other copy-protected resources?
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Which of the following acts grants federal authorities expanded surveillance and intelligence- gathering powers, such as broadening the ability of federal agents to obtain the real identity of Internet users, intercept e-mail and other types of Internet
USA Patriot Act
Which of the following acts make it a crime to break into computers owned by the federal government?
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1894
________ Is the generic term used to refer to any type of malicious software
Software ________, the unauthorized copying of a computer program
Creating a ________ means making a duplicate copy of important files
Hardware______ occurs when hardware is stolen, such as from a school business, home, or individuals.
To make it more difficult for criminals to create pirated copies of software ________ are commonly used on CDs, DVDs, and stickers located on new PCs containing preinstalled software.
System _________ refers to the complete malfunction of a computer system
________ refers to the act of breaking into a remote computer system
By its definition hacking involves unauthorized ________ with two exceptions.
__________ an acct of malicious destruction, is a common type of computer crime today
Unlike viruses and worms, Trojan Horses can’t replicate themselves ______________________________________________________________
are usually spread by being downloaded by the internet
A hacker setting up one of more computers to continually ping a servers with a false return address or to continually request nonexistent information is an example of a _____________________________________
denial of service attack.
To perform DDos attacks , hackers have begun more frequently to ____________________________________
access and use unprotected PCs with direct Inetrnet connections.
A type of computer ____________occurs when a hacker breaches a computer system in order to delete or change data, modify programs, or otherwise alter the data and programs located there.
_______________ refers to the situation where a consumer pays for merchandise but it never delivered or it is delivered but it is not as represented.
Online auction fraud
A Web ______ is a very small image on a Web page that transmits the data about a Web page visitor back to the Web pages servers.
_______ Is the term used for any software that is installed without the user’s knowledge that secretly gather information about the user and transmits it through his or his Internet connection to advertisers
Magic _____ software records all keystrokes performed on the computer on which it is installed, but it designed to be installed on a suspect’s PC using a computer virus sent over the Internet to the suspect, instead of having to be physically installed
In a September 2001 Harris poll, ____ of the Americans polled approved of the use of face recognition technology to scan for suspected terrorists at various public locations and events.
__________ Technology refers to the ability of one computing device, on a network to locate and identify another device on the same network and determine its status.
Which of the following is used to route messages automatically into particular folders?
E-mail filters
Which of the following types of cookies prevent another marketing cookie belonging to that particular advertiser from being placed on that user’s hard drive as long as the particular cookie is present.
Which of the following acts applies restrictions to unsolicited, bulk commercial e-mail?
Telephone Anti-Spamming Amendment Act
Which of the following acts stipulates what the collection of data by federal agencies must have a legitimate purpose?
Freedom of Information Act
Which of the following acts extends traditional privacy protections governing postal delivery and telephone services to include e-mail, cellular phones, and voice e-mail?
Electronic Communications Privacy Act.
_________Can be defined as the state of being concealed or free from unauthorized intrusion
__________ Are small text files that are stored on your hard drive by a Web server, typically the one hosting the Web page being viewed.
The database used in conjunction with a Web site is usually located on the ____________
Web site’s server.
Personally identifiable information is conncected with a specific user’s identity..such as
his or her name, address, and credit card number
The usage of which of the following has been criticized by critics as a potential invasion of privacy?
Company that bought a catalog marketing and announced plans to combine the previously anonymous consumer’s online activity data with the newly acquired marketing company’s information in order to track user’s web activity under their actual identit
Double Click
Web bugs can be used to retrieve information stored in
Web bugs can be used to
gather usage statistics about systems
________ advocates object to spyware because it uses up user’s system resources and internet bandwidth without the users consent
The most common way of getting on a spam mailing list is
as a result of signing up for—a free online service such as sweepstakes, newsletter, etc
Free or low cost software that is supported by onscreen advertising is called
One limitation of the carnivore program froma law enforcement standpoint involves
encrypted documents
_________ cards allow employers to identify the location of each employee wearing one on a continual basis.
A 2004 AMA study found that _________ of employers have had employee email and instant messages subpoenaed in the course of a lawsuit or regulatory investigation.
21 %
Is a database containing biometric data collected and is used by the military.
A _______ is a form of protection available to the creator of an original artistic or literary work, such as a book, movie, software program, musical composition, or painting.
Copyright apply to both published and unpublished work and last until ____ years
A digital—________ is a subtle alteration of digital content that is not noticeable when the work is viewed or played but that identifies the copyright holder.
A is a word, phrase, symbol, or design
A single U.S. patent application for U.S. use only can cost up to _________ in legal fees.
The _______________________ called the trademark cyberpiracy prevention act, which passed in 1999 allows for pentalties of up to 300,000
U.S. Anticybersquatting Act—also
A ______ protects inventions by granting exclusive rights of an invention to its inventor
A patent protects inventions by granting exclusive rights of an invention to its inventor for a period of ____ years.
_________________ Programs are copyrighted programs that are distributed on the honor system.
Commercial software---
Most--_______ programs are available to try free of charge, but the author usually requested that you pay a small fee if you intend to use the program regularly.
__________ WinZip is an example of which of the following types of software.
Outlook Express is an example of which of the following types of software---
Pine (email program) is an example of which of the following types of software?
Public domain software
Public domain software
is not copyrighted
Employees who reveal wrongdoing within an organization to the public or to authorities are referred to as
According to recent studies by Donald L McCabe of Rutzgers University, over ____ % of students on most campuses admit to some cheating
Before the Enron and the WorldCom scandals became public, a survey done for the Pew Research Center found that ____ of the public rated the heads of major companies as low or very low in terms of honesty and ethical standards.
66 %
Which of the following acts includes provisions to improve the quality of financial reporting and other accounting services for public companies, increases penalties for corporate wrongdoing, and requires CEOs and chief financial officers to vouch person
Corporate Responsibility Act
_______make your PC function abnormally
Computer virus
_______Using your person information to make fraudulent purchases, to someone harassing you online in a discussion group, there are a variety of security concerns related to computers and the internet
Sometimes referred to as a cybercrime- includes any illegal act involving a computer
computer crime
What is stealing hardware?
__________occurs whenever an individual gains caccess to a computer, network, file or other resources without permisson.
Unauthorized access
_________ involves using a computer resource for unapproved activities, and it can occur even if the user is authorized to access that computer or network but is not authorized for that particular activity.
Unauthorized use
_____________ is acceptable computer use
codes of conduct
_____________ typically address prohibited activities, such as installing personal software on the network, violating copyright laws, causing hard to the PC and network, snooping in other people's files, and so forth.
Codes of conduct
__________ refers to the act of breaking into a remot ecomputer system.
__________ involves unauthorized access and is illegal
Exceptions to hacking are professional hackers this when...
request of a argainization to test the security of its system, or hacking into computers set up- specifically to enable hackers to practive their stills legally.
USA patriot Act was made to...
prosecute hacking
The main federal law regarding computer crime
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
__% Wi-Fi networks are left unsecured
Acts of malicious destruction to a computer or computer resource.
Computer sabotage
Forms of computer sabotage are....
launching a computer virus, or denial of service attack.
A generic term that refers to any type of maliciouse software
Malware are programs that...
are intentionally written to perform destructive acts.
A small software program that is installed without the permission or knowledge of the computer user, is designed to alter the way a computer operates and can replicate itself to infect any new media it accesses.
Computer virus
A virus that activates when it detects a certain condiction, such as when a particular keystroke is pressed is called a...
logic bomb
A logic bomb whose trigger is a particular date or time is called a...
time bomb
"benign" viruses are...
not completely harmful to your computer. Just annoying to the owner. It could be display or tesx or playing of music.
Two common forms of malware are
computer worms and Trojan Horses
A malicious program designed to cause damage
computer worm
____________ spread by creating copies of itself and sending those copies to other computer via a network
compter worm
The ____ scans the Internet looking for computers that are vulnerable to that particular _____ and sends a copy to itself to those PCs to infect them.
Security holes
vulnerabilities in operating systems and e-mail programs
A _________ is a malicious program that masquerades as something else-usually as some type of application program
Trojan Horse
_________ cannot replicate themselves and are usually spread by dbeing dowloaded from the Internet
Trojan Horse
____________ is an act of sabotage that attempts to flood a network or Web server with so many requests for action that it shuts down or simply cannot handle legitimate requests any longer, causing legitimate users to be denied serivce.
denial serivce attachk (DoS)
Attacks utilizing multiple computers
defacing or otherwise changing Web Sites without permission
WEb site defacement
Web site defacement has become a weidely used method for hackers who want to draw attention to themselves or to a specific cause is called_____
_________ systems can be used to verity that the person trying to acces teh facility or system is listed as an authorized user
________ systems can be used to determine whether or not the person attempting access is actually who he or she claims to be.
_________________________ is an identification system taht requires the individual requesting access to provide information taht only the authorized user is supposed to know. Passwords, usernames, and PIN numbers fall into this category.
Possessed knowledge access system
__________ the most commonly used type of possessed knowledge, are secreat words or character combination associated with an individual
examples of possessed knowledge are___---
usersnames, PINs.
_______________ use physcial objects for identification purposes and are frequently used to access facilities and computer systmes
Possessed object access systems
Common types of possessed objects are __________
smart cards, encoded badges, and magnetic cards
__________ is the stydy of identifying individuals using measurable biological characteristics.
___________ can perform both identification and authenticaiton.
Biometric access systems
According to IRisScan, an industry leader in iris recognition technology, the odds of two pdifferent irises being declared a match is ______---
1 in 10^78
Examples of bilogical characterisitics are__________
person's iris, hand gemetry, or fingerprint
___________ is a security system that acts as a protective boundary between a computer or network and the outside world, to protect against unauthorized acces.
Firewalls work by closing down all external _______________
communication port addresses
In addiction to protecting your PC from outside access, firwalls programs also protect ___________________________
against inside attacks from computer viruses and other malicious programs that may have slipped through your virus protection.
To protect against becoming infected with a computer virus or other type of malware all PCs in both home and offices should have ___________
antivirus softare
To secure e-mail messages or other documents sent over the Internet, ___________ techniques are used
Encryption is often implemented using a third-party encryption program, such as ____________
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
Two most common types of encryption are ________ and _________
private key encryption and public key encryption.
Private key encryption is also called ___________
symmetric key encryption
Public key encrytpion is also called ___________
asymmetric key encryptions
Public key encryption utilitzes ___ encryption keys to encrypt and decrypt documents
Public/private keys can be obtained through a
Certificate Authority
To aviod the need to obtain the recipients' public key before sending that person an encrypted e-mail __________________ can be used.
Web-based encrypted email
The government has long proposed a __________ where independent third-party companies would hold copies of all private keys and those copies could be used for law enforcement and national security purposese when such use is authorized by a court order.
key escrow
__________________ which is protected against unauthorized access and encrypts data going to and coming from the server
secure Web server
A booming area of computer crime involves online theft, fraud, scams, and related activities collectively referred to as _______
dot cons
______ is taking small amounts of money from an unknowing person account.
salami shaving
__________ occurs when someone obtains enough personal information about a person to be able to masquerade as that person for a variety of activities.
Identity theft
___________ occurs when a buyer pays for merchandise that is never delivered, or is delivered but is not as represented.
online auction fraud
____________ include a wide range of scams offered through Web sites or unsolicited e-mails.
Internet offer scams
_____ or ____ makes it appear that an e-mail or a Web site originates from somehwere other than it actual source.
spoofing or phishing
_________ which allows you to ensure taht the merchandise is as specified before your payment is relased to the seller.
escrow service
____________ are used to verify the identity of the sender of a document.
digital signatures.
Digitcal certificiate are used to
secure Web sites guarantee that the Web site is secure and actually belongs to the organizationed stated. It is also used for encrypted files and e-mail messages.
____________ occurs when hardware is stolen, such as from a school, business or home
hardware theft
_____________ the complete malfunction of a computer system
system failure
_________ conneects all of the powered components in your computer system to a standard electrical outlet.
surge suppressor
A _______ is a device containg a built-in battery that provides continuous power to a PC and other connected components when the electricity goes out.
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
________________ involve creating duplicates of these items, and then selling them or using them as authentic items.
software piracy and ditital counterfeiting
____________ the unauthorized copying of a computer program, is illegal in the United Staes.
Software piracy.
___________________ creating counterfeit copies of currency and other printed resources using computers and other types of digital equipment
ditital counterfeiting
For counterfeiting an individual can send up to ____ years in jail
To perven the counterfeiting of U.S. currency, the Treasury Department releases new currency designs every ___ or ___ years
7 to 10
Unauthorized access and unauthorized use are criminal offenses in the United States and many other countries and can be committed by strangers, employees, students, or other individuals.
Because information from a PC using a wireless network is transmitted over the airwaves, interception is harder than with wired connections.
The damage caused by a computer virus always takes place immediately after infection.
In addition to destructive computer viruses, there are so-called benign viruses that aren’t designed to do any permanent damage.
____ 5. Writing a computer virus or even posting the code for a computer virus on the Internet is illegal.
Much like viruses and worms, Trojan horses replicate themselves.
System failure cannot occur because of a hardware problem.
It is against the law to launch a denial of service attack in the U.S.
Like hacking, data and program alteration is illegal.
Identity theft is NOT yet a federal crime
There are as yet no specific federal laws against cyberstalking
In addition to protecting your PC from outside access, many firewall programs also protect against inside attacks from Trojan horses and other malicious programs that may have slipped through your virus protection.
A retinal scan card is being used in the figure above to prevent unauthorized access.
Pop-up and pop-under ads are Web-based advertisements that show up in a separate browser window when you are surfing the Web and are typically generated by viewing a particular Web page.
Unlike pop-up and pop-under ads, which are typically displayed in response to a Web page just displayed, most telemarketing is targeted to individuals based on the data contained in a marketing database, compiled from both a user’s offline and online a
_________ can be defined as repeated threats or harassing behavior via email or another Interntt communications method.
_______ is usually defined as the state of being concealed or free from unauthorized intrusion
The term ________ refers to the right of individuals and companies to control how information about them is collected and used.
information privacy
________-small text files that are stored on yhour hard drive by a Web server, etypically the one belonging to the Web page being viewed
Personally idenificable data is
connected with a specific user's idenity
Non-personally identifiable information is
anonymous data
____________- ads that appear based on the keywords entered at Google and other search sites
keyword ads
________ is usually a very small (often 1 pixel by 1 pixel) image on a Web page taht transmits data about a Web page visitor back to the Web page's server
Web bug
__________ is the term used for any software program that is installed without the user's knowledge and that secretly gathers infromation about the user and transmits it through his or her internet connection
Some spyware programs---- sometime refferred to as __________ are getting more aggressive, delivering ads regardless of the activity you are doing on your PC, Changing your browser home page or otherwise resetting your brower seetings and performing othe
_____________ to change your browser settings back to the hijacked settings each time you reboot your PC.
Window Registry
Adware is
free or low-cost software that is supported by onscreen advertising.
The difference between spyware and adware is
that adware typically does not gather information and relay it to other via and Internet, and it is not installed without the user's constant. Adware may, however, be installed without the user's direct knowledge, because the user may not read the licensing agreement before clicking ok to accept the terms to install the program.
______________ Privacy option in Internet Explorer is a widely used setting since it allows the use of regular cookies, but blocks third-party cookies that use personally identificable information without explicit permission.
The medium high
Spyblock(Software Principles Yeilding Better Levels of Comsumer Knowledge)
bill that outlaws spyware and adware from being installed on user's PCs without their direct consent.
There are marketing activitites that can be considered privacy risks or, at least, an invasion of privacy.
databases, electronic profiling, spam
_______________ contain data about people, such as where they live and what they buy
marketing databases
________ databasese contain birtch records, marriage certificates, divorce information, and propety purchases- is available to the public, including the marketing companies that specialize in creating marketing databases.
collecting a variety of in-depth information about an individual is known as
electronic profiling
____________ that deiscloses how the personal information you provide while visiting that Web site, or while completing a product registration, will be used
privacy policy
__________ refers to unsolicited email sent to a large group of individuals at one time
For online shopping, sign ing up for free offers, discussion groups, product registration, and other activities that typically lead to junk emial, usa a disposbale or ________________ such as a sech address obtained from yoru ISp or a free email address
throw-away email adress
an _____________ email address included in an unsolicited email must be a working address
_________ a tool for authomatically sorting your incoming email messages
email filter
___________ blocking access to particular Web pages or types of Web pages.
Internet filtering
___________ refers to following a predesignated procedure to remove yourself from marketing lists, or otherwise preventing personal information from being obtained by or shared with others
opting out
___________- is available specifically from the purpose of recording keystrokes or otherwise monitoring someone's computer activitiy.
computer monitoring software
__________ project- can be used to intercept email and Web activity from individuals suspected of criminal activity
__________ refers to companies recording or observing the actions of employees while on the job
employee monitoring
A _________ is similar to the magnetic stripe ID cards taht have been used for years to grant accedss to fcilities or computer systems, but it has built-in smart card capabilities
proximity card
Two types of computer-orientated misinformations include
computer hoaxes and digital manipulation.
______________ can be used to misquote indviduals, repeat cocmments out conetext, retouch photographs,
digital manipulation
Identification systems
verify the person requesting access is listed as an authorized user, but can’t tell if the person is really the individual he or she claims to be.
Virtual private network (VPN) –
provides a continuous secure private tunnel from the user’s computer through the Internet to the business’s network.
Information privacy –
– the rights of individuals and companies to control how information about them is collected and used.
any software installed without the user’s knowledge that secretly gathers information about the user and transmits it to advertisers
Is a growing problem – one study showed more than _% of broadband users have spyware on their PCs.
Carnivore –
monitoring system used by the FBI to retrieve Internet traffic from a suspect’s PC.
Copyrights last until ___years after the creator’s death (95 years from publication date or 120 years from creation date for works registered by an organization).
Cybersquatting –
registering a domain name confusingly similar to a trademark or for the purpose of selling the domain name at an inflated price
Public domain software –
not copyrighted.
Computer hoax –
an inaccurate statement or story spread through the use of computers.
Vaporware –
software and hardware products that have been announced and advertised, sbut are not yet–and may never be–available.
Corporate Responsibility Act includes
numerous provisions to improve the quality of financial reporting by businesses.

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