Glossary of L&M

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Definition of Learning
a relatively long-lasting change in behavior due to individual experience
Why is learning important?
solves problems related to survival and reproduction.

a change in gene frequencies in a population over time
Why is evolution so important?
"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution"

-Theo Dobzhansky 1973

Early life of Darwin
-born in 1809
-son and grandson of prominent physicians
-brother's name Erasmus

Darwin in college
-found science classes boring
-studied theology and collected beetles at Cambridge
-was chosen to be the parson aboard HMS Beagle

Darwin adulthood
-gathered evidence for 20 years when he was almost "scooped"
-Alfred Russell Wallace sent Darwin his own ideas on evolution, which were nearly identical to Darwin's
-1858, they released a joint paper

In 1859, Darwin published what book?
"On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life"

or a.k.a. "The Origin of Species"

Name 3 of Darwin's Important Observations:
1)Organisms have different phenotypes
2)Organisms tend to resemble their parents
3)Organisms are able to produce many more offspring than can possibly survive

Define fitness
is the degree to which an individual is well-suited to its environment

-it is most often measured as the number of offspring an individual raises to maturity compared with others in that population

Define adaption
a trait that assists in the survival and/or reproduction of an individual in a particular environment
Natural selection
the process by which individuals with favorable traits in a particular environment out-reproduce individuals without those traits
What does natural selection lead to?
Evolution (the change in gene frequencies within a given population over time)
A phenotype is a product of what?
Genotype and environment
is the portion of the phenotypic variation in a population that's due to GENOTYPIC VARIATION
What can be effected by one gene?
social learning

What is related to the loss of a single gene?
social amnesia
Behavior, including __________, is influenced by genes and can evolve
What are the two types of explanations for behavior?
proximate and ultimate
What are proximate explanations for behavior?
These are explanations that can be traced to something that happened in an individual's lifetime.

--This includes: development and learning
--Immediate causes such as hormones, neural mechanisms, internal state or other immediate motivations and preferences

What are ultimate explanations of behavior?
These are evolutionary reasons for behavior.
Which variable is measured rather than manipulated?

Dependent variable
What is the EEA?
it refers to an average environment that a species has adapted to.
What would the EEA of modern humans (arose about 200,000 years ago)have been like?
difficulties wiht weather, shelter, food and water, fighting other humans, mating
The events that are capable of affecting behavior are called _____________?
A particular instance of a behavior as the result of a stimulus is called a _________?
What is a stimulus that an organism seeks out?
What is a stimulus an organism will avoid?
Aversive stimulus
What is a procedure that affects how appetitve or aversive a stimulus will be?
Establishing operations
______________ is the prolonged absence of something to increase its appetititiveness.
______________ is the prolonged exposure to or the consumption of something decreases its appetitiveness
Operational definition
we need to precisely define what we mean by a particular behavior in order to measure it
Inter-rater reliability
is the degree to which several people agree as to the occurance of a behavior.

this should be high

is the combination of errors and rate

-fewer errors, faster rate = greater fluency

What type of evidence is about first or secondhand accounts of personal experiences
Ancedotal evidence
What type of study is the examination of a particular individual in detail?
Case study
What kind of study is about gathering data about a large group and looking for statistically significant trends?
Descriptive studies
What type of research design has a researcher manipulate one or more variables and measures the effects of manipulation?
Experimental studies
What type of variable does the researcher manipulate?
Independent variable
What type of variable is potentially changed as the result of experimental manipulation?
Dependent variable
What is the relationship between changes in an independent variable and changes in a dependent variable called?
Functional relationship

-also known as the "cause and effect" relationship

What is the period called before a treatment?
The baseline period

This is when the subjects serve as their own control group before experimental treatment begins

What type of design is the return to the baseline condition after the experimental treatment to rule out extraneous variables being responsible for differences that occured during the experimental treatment?
ABA (or ABAB) reversal design
What type of reversal design can examine more than one treatment to see if one treatment is more effective than another?
the ABCAC design
What is a reflex?
It is a relatively simple, automatic response to a stimulus
What is Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)?
it is a sequence of instinctive behavior
What is the reflex that babies turn their head and seek out an object with their mouth when their cheeks are stroked?
Rooting reflex
What is the reflex that babies will suck on things that touch the roof of their mouths?
Sucking reflex
What is the reflex that babies will close their finders around something that strokes their palm?
Grasp reflex
What is the reflex that a sudden change in position or startle will cause babies to fling their arms out and slowly bring them back in?
Moro reflex
Simple reflexes are activated through a ________?
Reflex arc
Sign Stimulus or Releaser Stimulus elicits a ________?
Give an example of a FAP (fixed action pattern)
Male stickleback fish have a stereotyped courtship display

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