Glossary of Kinship Midterm

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What is a Facultative Adaptation?
A trait that is expressed in various ways depending on the conditions. Ex: A -> X; B -> Y
What is a Obligate Adaptation?
A trait that expresses always under species-typical conditions.
Total Social Fact:
In primitive society, all aspects of culture are interrelated.
Another word for Total social fact/interrelated parts of culture
According to Lewis Henry Morgan, Henry Maine, and John McLennan, all of politics and economics have an origin in
Kinship and social organization
African Descent Model characteristics
- Genealogical kinship defines membership
- Descent group has a JURAL OR LEGAL IDENTITY that transcends spatial proximity
- Segmentation: lineage fissions take place along natural kinship lines
- Corporate organization: exists in perpetuity with outside
- Nested structure of allegiance: balanced opposition
- Descent is primary role in marriage regulations and incest prohibitions

The fact of being a child of one's particular father or mother (dyadic parental link)
a genealogical connection between a person and any of his/her ancestors (chain of dyadic parental links)
Barnes critique of African Model
patrilineal descent is sufficient but not necessary for membership
Primate origins of Descent Model
- Group membership through birth
- Kinship based segmentation
- Genealogical boundaries of exogamy
- Unisexual transmission of status
- Primitive corporateness
- Multilevel structure of solidarity

Descent groups have a residential basis and they are the structural correlates of
sex-biased dispersal patterns
Three Ultimate Hypotheses for cooperation > residence > descent
- intergroup competition hypothesis
- intragroup competition hypothesis
- foraging efficiency hypothesis (benefits of co-residence are secondary by-product)

Transition from patrilineal to matrilineal requires
a change from patrilocal to matrilocal
Male kin group + pair-bonding >
exogamy configuration
A substantial portion of exogamy configuration existed in behavioural regularities before
Symbolical capacity, institutions, and rules
The atom of exogamy:
a kinship bond, a sexual bond, a parental bond (facultative response based on group outbreeding, incest avoidance, kin recognition, kin favoritism, and pair bonding)
Extra-local group sociality requires
Male pacification
Theories for Male pacification
Decline in feeding competition theory; Females as peacemakers
After evolution of pair bonds, females could act as connectors of two sets of relatives based on
Preexisting bonds with natal kin (w/ agnates) and intermediary between natal kin and husband (and his agnates)
Requirements of supragroup structure
Nepotism, pair bonding, female dispersal
In order for females to act as peacemakers what must be low in order to lower the risk
Sexual dimorphism
Two routes to female peacemaking
Consanguinity and Affinity
Females as peacemakers (Consanguinity)
After pair-bonding, consanguinity leads to more B-Z dyads and patrilateral kin; B-Z kinship creates bridges between relatives after female dispersal because of the recognition and tolerance of siblings from natal and patrilocal group
Females as peacemakers (Affinity)
Sharing a vested interest in the same female is advantageous to the husband for is REPRODUCTIVE INTERESTS and for the brother through INCLUSIVE FITNESS interests
Why was the quest for the origin of social structure abandoned in the 19th century?
Previous anthropologists were too ethnocentric and teleological
12 Principles of reciprocal exogamy
multimale-multifemale group, kin-group outbreeding, mating system based on enduring breeding bonds (pair bond), uterine kinship, agnatic kinship, incest avoidance, brother-sister complex, affinal kinship, dual phase residence, structural prerequisites of unilineal descent, matrimonial alliances, and supragroup.
Multimale-Multifemale Group Composition
Stable bisexual social groups; characterizes human societies and is common in nonhuman primates, amongst several other compositions
Kin-Group Outbreeding
a fraction of group breeds in natal group and other fraction disperses, usually sex-biased, and produces kin groups
Uterine Kinship
recognition of kin based on the relationship the mother; mother bear offspring, mother-offspring recognition based on maternal care, and maternal kin groups are widespread in primates
Incest Avoidance
avoidance of sexual activity between coresident kin
Stable Breeding Bonds
Mating systen of enduring breeding bonds between particular males and females
Agnatic Kinship
kin recognition through the father, group wide agnatic kinship structure and particularly original to human societies as well as bilateral kin recognition
Bilateral Affinity
recognizing the affines of both spouses
Supragroup Structure (Tribe)
more than one local group, all part of a larger social entity,
Dual-phase residence patterns
flexibility in human residence patterns, changes in locality from pre and post marital bonds, grew out of philopatry patterns in primates (ex: female dispersal)
Brother-Sister Kinship Complex
strengthening of brother-sister bonds; cross cousin marriage, avuncular relationships; precursor to exogamy rules
unilineal, patrilineal, matrilineal, bilineal; fundamental principle of descent group exogamy
Matrimonial Alliances
further refinement of human exogamy, alliances between kin groups hinged on reciprocal exchange of women or exchange of women for material goods
Two cognitive mechanisms in Uterine Kinship
Mother is a proximate mediator, phenotypic matching of relationship characteristics
3 factors affecting kinship in primates
Sex, Generation, Genealogical distance
Culturalist perspectives on kinship
genealogy and the domain of kinship are unrelated, transmission of rights didnt have anything to do with sex or genealogical status
Sociobiological perspectives on kinship
Inclusive fitness theory (b/r > c), sorroral polygyny and the levirate
Ancestral Male Kin Group Hypothesis
male philopatric groups and female dispersal later evolving stable breeding bonds
Polygynous harem hypothesis (Gorilla model)
stable breeding bones in unimale, multifemale group, later amalgamation of these units through increased tolerance of male offspring
4 reasons for the patrilineal-patrilocal band
Innate male dominance, men important in hunting culture, men remaining in a country of familiarity, intragroup competition over scarce hunting territories
Who is associated with the Patrilocal Band Model
Julian steward and G.P. Murdock
Elman Service showed that ______ residence is predominant in extant hunter-gatherers
Levi-Strauss said that ______ ______ is a core organizational principle of human society
Reciprocal Exogamy
Alliance Theory Assumptions
Primitive world forced alliances, men had natural inclination to incest, exchange of daughters and sisters was efficient for alliance building
Criteria for Phylogenetic Decomposition
Smallest number of components to generate system, each block is autonomous, each component is a functional subsystem.
Leslie White thought origin of marriage was dependent on
symbolic thought
Elman Service saw the unique character of Exogamy in
pacifying intergroup relations
Chapais' phylogenetic approach to pair-bonding
stable breeding bonds have biological basis, cost of maternity is high in humans, pair bonds function as parental collaboration, evolved as mate-guarding strategy, by-products of other adaptations lead to sexual division of labor
Multistep sequence of evolution for the sexual division of labor
(Bipedalism + predation > gathering) -> (Gathering + pair-bonding > intrafamilial coprovisioning) > Intrafamilial coprovisioning + male hunting bias > proto-sexual division of labor
Conditions for paternity recognition
mother maintains preferential bonds with father after birth allows offspring to recognize the exclusivity of the mother-father bond
Shared developmental familiarity strong when
interbirth interval is lower

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