Glossary of Kids and Codgers

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Diff between normal aging and AD

Normal: frontal goes first (white), EF, slow, hypertension
AD: MTL (white), memory, fast, genetics
2 Reasons why infantile amnesia is difficult to study?
1. Not easy to assess accuracy of adult's childhood memories
2. Childhood memory may be a basis of suggestibility
Infantile Amnesia:
inability to have ABM before age 5
3 Stages of the Rovee-Collier mobile reinforcement procedure:
1. Baseline: ribbon attached to infant's foot and the side of the crib, not mobile
2. Learning phase: ribbon attached to infant's foot and mobile - learns kicking causes it to move
3. test phase: ribbon to foot and to side of crib

Results of the Rovee-collier experiment?
2-3 month olds retain kicking memory 1-14 days
>2 months lose memory after 2 days
Retention in the Rovvee-collier experiment increased with:
and presenence of a reminder
How were infants context-sensative in the Rovee-Collier experiment?
Babies who learned in the kitchen reduced kicking in the bedroom.
Babies who learned on yellow mobile didn't transfer learning to metal mobile
3 facts for why Rovee-Collier explain how their experiment shows declarative learning:
1. participant age: declarative memory increases with age
2. Retention interval
3. contextual change: room, encoding specificty

Why do others argure that Rovee-Collier is episodic rather than declarative?
Adult amnesics and young infants will show a preference towards novel items rather than repeated items
Flexibility and durability increase with age
Similiarity uses: brain
Recollection uses __ __ brain:
HC and PHC

4 principles of memory deveolpment:
1. older infants typically encode/store faster than younger infants
2. older infants remember info for longer retention intervals than young
3. older infants make use of greater variety of retrieval cues than young
4. forgotten memories can be retrieved when reminder present

Implicit memory brain areas and when they deveolp:
striatum, cerebellum, and brainstem (mature early on)
Declarative brain areas and when they develop:
MTL, HC, Parahippocampus
Formed before birth but mature later on
knowledge that we possess about our own memory and how it works
3 other things that may influence the later development of declarative memory?
1. density of synapses in PFC - memory after a delay
2. Rapid myelination of axons: increased efficiency and enhanced memory
3. Visual processing faster in older infants than young

4 factors related to development of declarative memory?
1. capacity of STM/WM may increase over years
2. children develop more memory strategies
3. older kids posses more knoledge
4. metamemory

Are kids good at predicting own memory? Why?
No tend to overestimate memory, suggestibility, etcs
What are the two kinds of memory traces:
1. verbatium traces: contain accurate and detailed info about to be remembered stimuli
2. Gist memory traces: can contain considerable amount of someantic memory about to be remembered
3 times older kids/adults show more memory errors than kids:
1. learning task leads older kids to produce more gist memory traces than younger
2. memory test that requires verbatim recall/recognition
3. greater gist memory increases the likelihood of false recall/recognition of info in similar meaning for the to-be-remembered

Older kids form more gist memory traces usually an advantage, when is it not?
when the test requires verbatim recall or recognition
How might complexity of most implicit vs explicit memory tasks play into whether show age difference between memories?
Complexity: obtain more memory with using complexity, and increases the memory strategies.
implicit memory is more basic, it's less affected by developing cognitive skills to assess complexity
2 theoretical explanations for infantile amnesia:
1. cognitive self
2. social cultural approach
Cognitive self theory for infantile amnesia:
infants can only form ABM after they have developed a sense of self to whom events have personal significance
What is the sociocultural theory of infantile amnesia?
Use of language is important, and parent's reminiscing styles important - kids cannot encode these before language development
What theory for infantile amnesia has been rejected?
Freud's idea of repression. There is no evidence, it fails to explain why a child can remember positive and neutral events
4 possibilites for increased thoughts of metamemory in kids?
1.hippocampus and frontal structures still developing
2. language still developing
3. semantic networks still developing
4. problems with organization and detail

longitudinal design definition, pros, cons:
Definition: method of studying development/aging whereby the same participants are tested at diff ages
Pro: effects of age on the performance of each indiv studied
Con: some participants will drop out or participants may be atypical rep of pop

Cross-sectional design definition, pros, cons:
Definition: participants are sampled from diff age bands and tested once
Advantage: measures cognition better than longitudinal studies
Con: connot relate data to earlier point

potential solution for studying development/aging:
combo of longitudianal and cross-sectional - new cohort of participants at each test point
Does STM or WM show large age diff?
STM does not, WM does
What happens with inhibition and aging?
Cannot block out interference of irrelevant stimuli due to lack of inhibition
What two factors exacerbate age diffs in working memory?
1. performance requiring intense skill: physical or cognitive strength (chess)
2. competition/divided attention tasks
What did the mini golf experiment show for divided attention/dual task and older adults?
Older adults decline in performance - competition old recall less, have less capacity to shut out irrelevant info, and cannot divide attn b/w 2 tasks
3 factors that influence older adults' memory performance:
1. episodic memory: per se - declines steadily w/ age
2. processing capacity: older may take longer to percieve and process, less likely to develop/utilize complex learning strategies
3. envorionmental support: characteristics of retention tests that support retrieval

Associative deficit hypothesis:
proposal that age deficit in memory comes from an impaired capacity to form associations b/w previously unrelated stimuli
2 ways to reduce associative deficit in older adults:
1. meaningful vs arbitrary associations
2. self-performed task: reduces reliance on given feature/cue
recollection of familiarity spared in aging?
two things to encode for prospective memory:
1. action to be encoded
2. time or event where action to be retrieved
What circumstances do older adults do better than younger? Why?
Everyday task test
More ordered/structured lives than young
Possibly tested on more important features

What are plaques created by?
created by faulty protein divisions, this leads to beta amyloid produced which causes more neurons to die = plagues
what are tangle in the brain?
neurons tangle: microtubles and structures surrounding cell tangle and die
With AD, once something is learned what happens to rate of forgetting?
Rate is no slower or faster
Difference between white/grey matter in AD pts and normal aging?
Normal: white matter increases
AD: grey matter increases
Volume loss correlates with __ Why?
Vocabulary Development.
Want more thinning in frontal/parietal
Brain maturation: What grows, what shrinks, when?
Lose grey matter volume, young brains have too many neurons.
Thinning occurs in frontal and parietal cortex. (age 5-11)
Source memory and interference:
If you don't remember where you got info, hard to keep it separate from other knowledge. Creates confusion.
Procedural memory:
Old procedural memory is preserved. New falls apart with interruption and increase in complexity
Aging vs AD:
Aging has earliest changes in frontal cortex. Starts in front and works backward
Alsheimers starts at back and moves forward. Starts in medial temporal lobes. Inability to form new associations
Brain areas affected by AD
Entorhinal cortex is first area affected. Hippocampus important area affected.
CDR2, cerebral cortex shrinks due to lack of communication
What is the first area affected by AD?
Entorhinal cortex
AD treatments:
ACh inhibitior: stops the breakdown of ACh
Memantine: -regulates glutamine
-may stop neurotoxicity

Gray matter volume grow/shrinks with age?
Volume loss in the Left __ and __ and right __ __ is correlated w/ vocab development
frontal and parietal
lateral temporal
greatest loss is in the __ __ for aging. Less loss in the __ ___
frontal cortex
temporal cortex
__ __ is lost in normal aging
white matter

__ and __ of memory improve with age
flexibility and durability
Semantics help us __ and __ which can mean better __ cues
understand, organize
Potential downside of episodic/semantic interactions?
false memories and suggestibility
associations/semantics vs executive control
What did the Petersen et. al study show for ABM in kids age 6-19:
6-9 year olds: avg first memory 3 yo
older: avg memory closer to 4
4 year olds couldn't do this b/c couldn't understand instructions: age of encoding, language, sense of time, and social interactions important for ABM?

3 possible explanations for infantile amnesia:
freud's explanation
self vs others
language labels

What is metamemory? does it get better with age?
what you know about what you know
yes, but adults still not amazing at it
In childhood the: __ and __ structures still developing.
Language still __
Semantic __ still developing
Problems with ___ and detail

HC and frontal structures

Aging: declines in __ structures like _ _ _
Good __ skills
Semantic __ well-developed
Problems w/ organization and new __
But may be able to __

frontal structures, MTL

In aging: old __ memory is well preserved but new is not as accurate
In young adults the __ is used in under requritment
frontal region
Young adults were better at __ and __ but older adults better at __ processing
intentional, shallow
older: deep
intentional processing:
remember the words
shallow processing
is this the first or last letter of the last word
deep processing?
abstract or concrete
what areas of the brain do older adults compensate with?
the whole hippocampus
young typically use LHC
Age and expertise for the typing experiment:
Older typists were better if they could "look ahead" and material made sense, but if took away adults expertise, young typists faster
Aging and AD show loss in __
Aging is __ than AD and starts in __ of brain and moves ___
slower, front, moves back
AD thins the __ than normal aging. Moves from the __ and travels __

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