Glossary of Kapital 11: Vokabeln
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- Der Arbeitgeber/die Arbeitgeberin
- Das Arbeitsamt,:er
- employment office
- Der Arbeitplatz
- Die Ausbildung
- employment counselor
- die Bewerbung
- das Bu:ro
- der Chef
- die erfahrung
- die firma
- das gehalt
- der lebenslauf
- die stelle
- das vorstellungsgesprach
- job interview
- im Freien
- im Ausland
- der Arzt/die Arztin
- der schauspieler/die schauspielerin
- der dolmetscher/die dolmetscherin
- der Mechaniker/die Mechanikerin
- der Musiker/ die Musikerin
- der Architek/ die Architekerin
- der Informatiker/die Informatikerin
- computer scientist
- der Kaufmann/die Kaufleute
- when is "nicht" used, where does it go in the sentence?
- comes at the end when it negatifies a whole sentence, when it negatifies only one thing it is right before.
- Nicht procedes was?
- predicate adjectives, nouns, verbal compliments, prepositional phrases
- noch nicht
- not yet
- noch kein
- not yet
- noch or immer noch
- nicht mehr
- no longer
- kein mehr
- no longer,any longer
- die ausgabe
- die Miete
- die Nebenkosten
- die Ernahrung
- die Studiengebuhren
- tuition, fees
- pleite sein
- broke, out of money
- sich argern uber
- to be annoyed about
- aus geben
- to spend money
- to build
- bitten um
- to ask for
- denken an
- to think about
- sich freuen auf
- to look forward to
- sich freuen uber
- to be glad about
- warten auf
- to wait for
- sich interessieren fur
- to be interested in
- after that
- about it
- at it
- from there
- das Nachricten
- das Programm
- station, tv channel
- Wirtschaft und Borse
- economy and stock market
- current events
- die Sendung
- tv or radio programs
- die Unterhaltung
- der Spielfilm
- feature film
- der Sender
- das Haushaltunggerat
- household appliance
- die Erfindung
- das Videogerat
- video unit
- das Waschetrockner
- der Aufbeantworter
- anwsering machine
- das Faxgerat
- Fax machine
- das Handy
- der Dvd-spieler
- dvd player
- der Fernseher
- what are some infinitive clauses
- ohne,weil,naemlich, fuer,denn,um,zu
- Differences between respiration and photosynthesis
- In Photosynthesis, glucose is formed, CO2,H20, sun is used, glucose is produced
In Respiration, glucose is broken down, glucose is used, CO2, energy and glucose is formed
- What is ATP Synthasis?
- formation of ATP, protein gradient formed by splitting water
- What happens in light dependent reactions?
- produce ATP, Reduce NADP+ into NADPH, Oxidise H2O, Release O2
- What happens in the light harvesting pigment protein complex?
- They each have a reaction center and the antenae absorbs differents types of pigments in different areas.
- How do pigments absorb light? What is given off when you give up energy?
- Electrons move to an excited state, given off through heat, flurescent, photochemistry
- What are the names of the pigments in photosynthesis?
- Chrophyll a and b, xanthophylls, Karotene
- How much energy is in light such as in long wavelengths and short wavelengths?
- Long wavelengths=Low energy
Short wavelenths=High energy
- Where does photosynthesis take place?
- In the mesophyll in the chloroplast
- What are the two phases in photosynthesis and what happens in each?
- Light dependent reactions-light energy required and ATP and NADPH produced
Light independent reactions- ATP and NADPH used, carbon fixation
- What happens in photosythesis that is like respiration?
- Step 1-5 run backwards,only 2 phases in photosynthesis and 3 in respiration
- What happens in photosynthesis?
- sunlight is the source of energy, redox reaction, water is split and electrons are transfered from water to CO2, making it sugar
- What happens in Animal and Plant Cytokinesis?
- Animals,cleavage furrow forms in cells pinched into two, Plant, New wall cell plate emerges,plate enlarges
- What happens in Telophase (Mitosis)?
- Non-kinetochore microtubules elongate cell, nuclear envelope begins to reform,nucleoli reappear, chromosomes uncoil, cytokinesis is underway
- What happens in Anaphase (Mitosis)?
- paired centromeres seperate from each other, microtubules pull chromosomes to opposite ends, each pole receives complete compliment of chromosomes
- What happens in Metaphase(Mitosis)?
- Centrosomes are at opposite sides of the poles, chromosomes aligned along the metaphase plate
- What happens in prometaphase (Mitosis)?
- Nuclear envelope breaks down,spindle apparatus becomes associated with chromosomes, chromosomes move toward metaphase plate
- What happens in prophase (Mitosis)?
- Nucleoli disappear,chromatin fibers condense, mitotic spindle begins to form
- What happens in Interphase (mitosis)?
- chromosomes are duplicated, centrosomes are duplicated and are starting to pull apart
- What are the 5 phases in Mitosis?
- Prophase, Prometaphase,Metaphase,Anaphase,Telophase
- what is the goal of cell division?
- to distribute genome equally
- What are sister chromatids,chromatin, mitosis, and centromere?
- sister chromatids-unreplicated chromosome
mitosis-seperate sister chromatids
chromatin-loose,undeveloped protein,centromere-attached between two sister chromatids
- What is the role of cell reproduction?
- What is independent assortment?
- random orientation of tetrads contributes to genetic variability
- What is crossing over?
- Chiosmata, new combination of alleles
- Meiosis II is like what?
- What are the 3 things that contribute to genetic variation?
- Crossing over,Independent Assortment, Random Fertilization
- What happens in Telophase (Meiosis)?
- Each plate of the cell has a haploid compliment of chromosomes,Each chromosome has a linked sister chromatid
- What happens in Anaphase (Meiosis)?
- Seperation of homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids remain together and attach at centromeres
- What happens in Metaphase (Meiosis)?
- Tetrads aline along metaphase plate, Kinetochore microtubules attach to each homologue in tetrad
- What happens in Prophase (Meiosis)?
- Chromosomes condense, homologous pairs, chiamata form, spindle apparatus forms to move tetrads
- What are the 4 phases in Meiosis 1? what happens in interphase?
- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase,Telophase
Interphase-chromosomes replicate, centrosomes replicate
- What are the 2 nuclear divisions in Meiosis? What happens in them?
- Meoisis 1-seperate homologous chromosomes/cytokinesis
Meiosis 2-seperate sister chromatids/cytokinesis,get 4 daughter cells
- What are somatic cells, gametes,fertilization, Meiosis?
- Somatic-all other cells but gametes,gametes-haploid,egg and sperm, -fertilization-fusion of the egg and sperm, Meiosis- nuclear division process in reproducing organisms,half the chromosomes of the original cell
- What are homologous chromosomes, sex chromosomes, and autosomes?
- Homo-pairs of chromosomes that possess genes for the same characteristic at the same loci
Sex chrom-involved in determining the sex of a chromosome
Autosome-everything not envolved in sex determination
- What is a gene, allele, chromosome and locus?
- gene-sequence of DNA codes for a protein
allele-alternate form of a gene
chromosome-long thread like assocation of genes
locus-location on the chromosome
- What are some alterations of chromosome structure?
- Crossover,Deletion,duplication,mobile portions, point mutation
- What is polygenic inheritance?
- additive effects of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype ex.skin color
- What happens in Epitasis?
- A gene on 1 locus effects the gene of another expression at a 2nd locus
ex:locus 1-color deposition
locus 2-black dominant over brown
- What is pleiotrophy?
- genes with mutiple phenotypes
ex>sickle cell anemia
- What is complete dominance,codominance,and incomplete dominance?
- complete-one is dominant over another
incomplete-one allele doesn't dominant over another
- Punnett Square for two characteristics? YyRr x YyRr
- What is law of segregation?
- seperation of an allele into seperate gametes
- What is hybridization?
- selection for a particular trait
- What is the lagging strand in DNA replication?
- copied in Osaki fragments
DNA sythesized way from the processing replication fork
- What happens in DNA synthesis?/
- DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the 3' end and the daughter strand uses the 5' to 3' direction as a template
- passive or active transport, binds to solute, protein undergoes change, slower then channels
- membrane bound,not part of the endomembrane system, produces H2O2 used for detoxifying in liver
- Passive transport, facilated diffusion, size specific, charge specific, transports the most
- 3 Classes of transport proteins
- channels, gated channels (carriers), pumps
- 3 different types of solute concentrations
- hypertonice solution-higher solutes
hypotonic solution-lower solutes
isotonic solutions-equal solutes
- solution=solvent (water) + solute (particles)
- high to low concentration until system reaches equilibrium
- measurement of disorder, maximum randomness
- water moving thru a membrane
- sugar bound to proteins in a membrane/cell
- carbs(sugars) that are bound to lipids in a cell/membrane
- active transport, pump against concentration gradient, essential for small molecules
- Membranes what are they?
- selectively permable, hydrophillic/hydrophobic regiions, h20 moves freely across, ions can't go through freely
- What are the two types of proteins in the membrane and where are they?
- Integral protein- hydrophobic embedded in the fatty acid
Peripheral protein- not embedded attached to surface membrane
- What is the triplet code? What happens in the 3rd position?
- triplet codes have a table to illustrate what amino acid they are, triple codes only represent one amino acid, the 3rd position (wobbles/varies)
- How do 4 nucleotides specify 20 amino acids?
- DNA nucleotides (A,G,T,C) are grouped into 3's (codons) and each codon is translated into amino acid.
- Feedback Inhibition
- negative feedback loop
product inhibits enzyme activity
- spontaneous reactions
- occur when system gives up energy (H) and gives up order (s)
- What are the 3 parts needed in a nucleic acid?
- phosphate group, 5-c sugar (pentase), nitrogenious base
- polymers of nucleotides synthesized by connecting of one nucleotide to the phosphate of the next one
- Phosopodiester link
- linked covalent bonds, between a phosphate of one nucleotide to the next
- Catabolic Metabolic Pathways
- Break down complex molecules to a simplier compound
more free energy and also release ATP
- Anabolic Metabolic Pathway
- consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpiler ones
- Ribulose 1,5 Biphosphate Carboxylase Oxygonase
- What binds with Rubisco to produce the 5-C sugar Rubisco?
- 3 phosphate glycerate
- Exergonic Reaction
- releases free energy spontenously (breakdown of sugar)
- Endergonic reaction
- gains free energy not spontaneous (synthesis of sugar)
- Endocytosis and 3 types
- transport of large molecules
vesicles formed from cell membrane
Receptor mediated-selective uptake
- What is carbohydrate and what is it's function?
- sugar that does cell to cell recognition and identification
- Rubosome structure and function in translation?
- facilitate coupling of tRNA anticodons with mRNA codons
large, small subunits
rRNA and protein
3 binding sites A,P and E
- What binds amino acids in translation?
- Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
- What is a tRNA structure and function? What is an anti-codon?
- Folds via H bonds, 3'bonds bottom loop-anticodon anticodon recognizes codons
base pair of amino acid at each end in the site
- What is translation and what are the components?
- interprets mRNA and sytheizes protein
- How are introns removed?
- splicing signals are sent to the end of the introns, snRNPs recognizes sites and binds
spliceosome cuts RNA transcripts and splices exons
- What is a spliceosome and it's function?
- Its variety of proteins and some nuclear RNA molecule (snRNA) and recognizes where to splice at the ends of introns
- What is RNA splicing? What are introns and exons?
- removes introns and joins exons creating an mRNA molecules with a continuous coding sequence
Intron= don't know function
- What is involved in pre mRNA and why is it modifyed?
- addition of a guanine/phosphate cap, addition long adenine nucleotides on 3' end
- What happens in termination in the transcription?
- transcription proceeds until RNA termination site
UAA, UAG, UGA
- What is elongation in transcription? what happens in it?
- RNA polymerase works 5' to 3' untwists DNA double helix
RNA nucleotides are added on the 3' end
- What is initiation in transcription?
- RNA polymerase binds to promotor region with aid of proteins
- What is the promotor, transcription unit and terminator?
- promotor-upstream gene
transcription unit-DNA section
terminator-signal end of transcription
- What are some functions of RNA polymerase?
- binds and seperates DNA strands at approriate point, initates RNA synthesis and bounds RNA molecules on DNA templets
- What is transcription and what are the 3 stages?
- conversion of a transcription unit (dna gene) in mRNA
- 3 differences in DNA replication and RNA (transcription/translation)?
- end product isn't double stranded,no t's=u's, not replication of an entire chromsome only DNA gene
- What happens in the priming replication?
- Primase creates a RNA primer which DNA polymerase can add nucleotides to the 3'end
- What are the events in DNA replication?
- Unwinding of double helix,stabilize single stranded DNA
- What are the proteins required for replication?
- Helicase, Primase, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase, Single stranded binding protein
- Where does DNA replication take place?
- In a replication fork with a parent and a daughter strand
- What is DNA replication?
- Duplication of a DNA polmer, a newly formed template
- How is H-bonding determined in the DNA ring ladder?
- size of the base, must have a purine and pyrimidine
- What makes up the DNa double helix structure?
- 2 anti-parellels with a sugar phosphate backbone, 5 carbon linked to #3 carbon, nitrogenous base towards inside
- What are the two classes of DNA nitrogenous bases? What nucleotides do what?
- 1 ring pyrimidines (c-cytosine,t-thymine)
2 ring Purine (a-adenine, g-guanine)
- What are the 3 parts of nucleic acid and DNA structure?
- phosphate group,5-c sugar, nitrogenous bases
- What are the 3 steps to get from a gene to a protein?
- Transcription,mRNA processing, translation
- What happens in termination in translation?
- Occurs what stop codons reach A site, protein binds to site A, ribosome disassembles
- What happens in Elongation in translation? What are the 3 steps in elongation?
- amino acid are added to the preceding, protein elongation factors needed
3 steps- codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation
- What happens in initiation in translation?
- small subunit binds with mRNA and special tRNA intator , Large subunit binds intitator occupies P site of assembled ribosome
- What are the 3 steps in translation?
- Initiation, elongation, termination
- What are the 3 sites in a ribosome in translation?
- A site-entrance for tRNA
P site-holds tRNA carrying the chain
E site-tRNA exit
- What are the 3 classes of electron carriers?
- cytochrome, non heme Iron-sulfur,quinones
- Where is the ETC?
- a protein in the inner mitochondria membrane
- How is the protein gradient produced? What are the two types of gradients?
- by the electron movement along the ETC
- What is Electron Transport Chain and what is being produced?
- E' transferred to H20
- What is chemiosmosis?
- couples the electron transport chain to ATP synthase
- What is ATP synthase?
- allow h+ to diffuse boack to the matrix
-an exergonic flow of h+ used by the enzyme to generate ATP
- What is the protein motive force?
- the concentration of h+
- maintains enzymes shape, activator binds to an active site but works only with mutiple active sites
- primary structure
- held together by peptide bonds, one side is aminoacid
- taking things out of cell membrane
- Vacuoles and the 3 types
- food vacuole,contractile vacuole, centro vacuole
- rRNA is synthesized and assembled with proteins to form ribosomes
- Regulation of enzyme activity?
- tempurature, PH and cofactors, Inhibitors
- Enzyme substraight complex
- When enzyme and substrate form to produce a product
- 2nd law of thermodynamics
- every energy transfer of transformation increases the entropy of the universe
- firt law of thermodynamics
- energy can neither be created nor destroyed rather can be transferred
- couples transport 2 solutes via pump and carriers
- single membrane orgenelles
- endoplasmic reticulum (er), golgi apparatus, lyzosome, peroxisome, vacuole
- endosymbiotic theory
- phagocytic uptake of a bacterial cell
- endomembrane concept
- a continious dynamic system in the cell
Nuclear membrane>ER>Golgi ap>Lysozome>cell membrane
- nucleic acid
- store and transmit heredity information
- quaternary structure
- 2 or more polypeptides that come together
- tertiary structure
- globular protein, side chain interactions
- secondary structure
- beta and alpha sheets, held by hydrogen bonds
- what are the 4 levels of protein structures?
- primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
- 3 classes of carriers
- uniport, one solute, one direction
symport, two solutes +/-, some direction
antiport, two solutes +/+, opposite direction
- double membrane orgenelles
- nucleus,chloroplast, mitochondria
- bodies within cytosol with a specialized function
- energy transformation in a collection of matter
- potential energy
- an object not moving may still pocess energy
- kinetic energy
- energy and the relative motion of an object
- speed up a reaction by catalizing chemical reactions they are proteins
- Energy Coupling
- the use of a exergonic process to drive a endergonic one
- the reactants an enzyme reacts on
- How are substrates attracted to enzymes?
- Through weak bonds and slight charged attractions
- What are the two types of inhibitors for enzymes?
- competitive-compete for the active site with substrates
non-competitive-seek an alternative site on the enzyme
- Allosteric Activator
- Activator binds to a secondary site so that the enzyme won't switch to an inactive form
- What are the functions of membrane proteins?
- transport,enzymatic activity, cell to cell recognition
- produced by golgi apparatus, single membrane bound,enzyme for digestion
- Golgi Apparatus
- single membrane bound, transport vesicle travel from ER, synthesis of cell water matter, packaging and modification
- manager of cell structure and function, stores blueprint of cell, proteins made, protein synthesis in mRNA, nucleolus, double membrane bound
- cytosol (cell sap), organelles
- Plama membrane (cell membrane)
- delimits cells, binds whole cell together
- similarity between prokaryotic and eurkaryotic cells
- All cells have plasma membrane and semi-fluid cytosol,DNA
- cell is membrane bound with a nucleus,found in plants and animals
- bacteria, archea with no membrane bound nucleus
- basic unit of life
- No bound membrane,protein factories, my be free or bound in the ER,float in the cytoplasm
- Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)and the two types
- single membrane bound, building endomembrane system
smooth-lack ribosomes,lipid synthesis
rough-ribosome surface makes membranes,protein synthesis
- site of respiration,2 cellelar membranes
- site of photosynthesis-making sugar and starch, 2 phospolipid bi-layers
- Nuclear Envelope
- inner layer-structural support,pores perferate membrane entrance and exit of macromolecules
- What is the Krebs Cycle? What is being produced in the beginning and end?
- produce 6 moles of CO2, electrons go to the 3rd step
- What happens in the Kreb cycle?
- generates ATP and electrons carriers for ETC, one cycle produces 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and this happens twice
- What are two ananaerobic pathways?
- Alcohol fermentation and lactic acid
- What is respration?
- controlled transfer of chemical energy of carbs to ATP
- What happens in aerobic respiration?
- respiration in the prescence of oxygen, all sugar is converted to O2
- How is respiration regulated?
- Feedback mechanisms
- What type of energy is made in each step in respiration?
- glycolysis- 2 ATP/2 NADPH
Krebs Cycle-2 ATP/6 NADPH
- What is the difference between oxidate and reduce?
- oxidate-give up electrons
- What are the 3 phases in respiration?
- glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain
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