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Glossary of KI 7

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An instrument to measure the reflection of solution
refractometer
Science of seeing small things
microscopy
Total magnification on a microscope =
Ocular X Objective
When viewed through a compound light microscope, an object appears _____ and ____.
upside down, reversed
The purpose of the condenser is to ______
focus light from the light source on the object
A ______ controlled by a rheostat controls the intensity of the light entering the condenser.
transformer
A ______ is used to focus the light entering the condenser.
field diaphragm
If a parasite resides on the surface of its host, it is termed an _____
Ectoparasite
Collection methods of ectoparasite
Skin Scraping, Cellophane tape
Hosts that harbors sexually mature adults, mate, reproduce eggs in the host
Definitive host
Harbors juvenile, asexual, or immature parasites
Intermediate host
You are not required, but you may pick up the parasites.
Accidental host
Parasites cannot survive without ____ host and ______ host.
definitive, intermediate
Different body forms. ex. butterfly
Metamorphosis
Adult differs from immatures. ex. flies, fleas
Complete
Fly larvae =
maggots
Fly’s cocoon =
pupae
Adult similar to immature. ex. lice
Incomplete
just barely in the skin
Infestation
internal parasites
Endoparasites
Linnaean classification scheme in order
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species (King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti)
Domestic dog's kingdom & phylum
Animalia, Chordata
Domestic dog's class & order
Mammalia, Carnivora
Domestic dog's family, genus and species
Canidae, Canis, Familiaris
Insect's kindgom
animalia
Insect's phylum
& class
phylum name for animals with legs with joints, has chitin, exoskeltal
arthropoda
Class insecta's major characteristic
3 distinct body divisions (head, thorax, abdomen), 6 legs
6 orders of class Insecta
Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Mallophaga, Anoplura, Diptera, Siphonaptera
Ex of Hymenoptera
ants, bees, wasps
Ex of Hemiptera
true bugs
Ex of Diptera
flies, mosquitoes
Ex of Siphonaptera
fleas
Lice affects _______
all mammals
Lice is flattened in
Dorsoventral (DV)
Lice eggs =
nit
Class name of tick & mites
Arachnida
Major characteristics of Arachnida
8 legs, 2 body parts
infestation with lice, mostly in large animals
Pediculosis
The majority of ectoparasites are either _____ or ______.
insects, arachnids
4x objective is called _______
scanning
10x objective is called _______
low-power
All adult _____ have jointed legs
Arthropod
The phylum name and the common name of ectoparasites that reside within the skin
Nematoda, roundworms
Every living thing is known aby a scientific name that is made up of 2 components: ______ and the ______.
genus, specific epithet (species)
Plural of genus
genera
Order Hymenoptera belongs to the class _____ and examples are:
insecta, ants, bees, wasps
Dx of hymenoptera
Sealed container collection in 10% formalin or ethyl alcohol and submission to an entomologist for ID
2 groups of hemipterans
Reduviid bugs (kissing bugs), bed bugs
Kissing bugs serve as intermediate hosts for _________, a protozoan parasite that can produce a reare disease in people & dogs called Chagas' disease.
Trypanosoma cruzi
_______ are dorsoventrally flattened, wingless hemipterans that often infest homes.
Bed bugs
Dx of Hemiptera
Sealed container collection in 10% formalin or ethyl alcohol and submission to an entomologist for ID
2 orders of lice
Mallophaga, Anoplura
Chewing or biting lice
Mallophaga
Sucking lice
Anoplura
Members of the order _______ are smaller than sucking lice.
Mallophaga
Lice with big head and legs built for mobility to hide. Chews skin debris. Lap up blood that ooze out. Found in bird feathers.
Mallophaga
Larger lice with claws to cling to the host's hairs. Penetrate through skin to suck. After sucking blood, it looks darker.
Anoplura
Lice not found in birds.
Anoplura
Life cycle of Orders Mallophaga and Anoplura
egg, nymphal, adult
______ is tiny oval, white, and usually found cemented to the hair or feather shaft.
nit
Nits hatch about ________ days after being laid by the adult female louse.
5-14
The ______ stage of lice is similar in appearance to the adult, but it is smaller and lacks functioning reproductive organs and genital openings.
nymphal
It takes _______ to complete the lice life cycle
3-4 weeks
Lice usually are transmitted by ______, but all life stages may be transmitted by ___.
direct contact, fomites
Infestation by Mallophagan or Anopluran is referred to as ________
pediculosis
Sucking lice can cause _____ and fatalities can occur.
anemia
The PCV in pediculosis can __________
drop as much as 10% to 20%.
Dx of lice
Examination of the haircoat or feathers to find lice & nits with magnifying lens to collect. Observe using mineral oil on a microsope slide. ID by visual examination of head size.
Intermediate host for the canine heartworm
mosquitoes
Fleas are ____ compressed insects with powerful ______.
laterally, hind legs
Cat flea
Ctenocephalides felis
Dog flea
Ctenocephalides canis
__________ is aka "stick-tight flea" of poultry.
Echidnophaga gallinacea
___ fleas have abrupt flat nose
echidnophaga gallinacea
Human flea
Pulex irritans
______ resemble tiny pearls, non-sticky, white, oval and rounded at both ends
Flea eggs
_____ spin a sticky, silky cocoon that often becomes covered with environmental debris. This is the ____ stage.
Flea larvae, pupal
Flea causes:
pritus
Self trauma
allergic dermatitis
Anemia
Tapeworm
Plague
Rickettsia
Dx of Ctenocephalides canis
Examination of skin for adult fleas and "flea dirt", dermatitis
The protrusion on the head of felas
comb
Diff between lice & fleas
Fleas have more agile legs
Similarities between lice & fleas
Both have no wings and have parasitic mouthparts
Flea life cycle
Eggs
Larvae
Pupa (sometime)
Young adult
_____ eats flea dirt
Flea larvae
Flea egg is _______ in size and hatches in ________.
0.5 mm
1-6 days
naked eye can see things as small as ______
0.2 mm
Maggot's size is ______ and this stage lasts about _______
1-5 mm
5-11 days
_____ spins a cocoon to metamorphis, outside is very sticky, they won’t come out unless they feel something like movement and CO2
Flea Pupa
Flea pupa stage lasts about _____.
1-2 weeks
Young flea adult needs _____ soon within 1-3 days
blood meal
Entire life cycle of fleas is _____ days, usually ______ weeks
12-350
3-6
Flea can remain in pupa up to _____
1 year
This flea monthly topicals is hazardous to cats
Permethrin & Pyrethrins
An insecticide extracted from flowers that is commonly found in pet sprays, dips, shampoos, dusts, foggers.
Pyrethrins
________ is also a synthetic form of pyrethrin
Permethrin
___ is a highly specific adulticide. Product name is Frontline Tope Spot
Fipronil
Flea sprays tend to contain ____.
pyrethrins
Oral flea program, ________, prevents eggs from hatching and chitin from developing
Lufenuron
IDI stands for _____
insect development inhibitor
______ contains Nitenpyram, a nicotine-derivative. It is safe and very effective oral flea medication.
Capstar 24 hrs
____ an injectable flea medication contains Lufenuron. It is applied every 6 months.
Program
Flea combs should have ____ teeth per inch
32
You can apply ______ on the lawn to kill fleas.
parasitic roundworms
Advantage flea control contains _______
Imidacloprid
Common IGRs
Methoprene
Nylar (Pyriproxyfen)
________ is relatively non-toxic, abrasive to desiccants, used to treat the environment against flea larvae and pupae.
Sodium polyborate
________ is a food grade insecticide. It is comprised of the fossilized remains of diatoms. The diatom shells are covered in sharp spines that make them dangerous to exoskeletal insects, but not to animals with internal skeletons.
Diatomaceous Earth
IGR stands for ______
Insect Growth Regulators
4 IDIs learned in class w/product name
Imidacloprid – Advantage
Pyroproxyfen – Bio Spot
Methoprene – Frontline Plus
Lufeneron – Program
Arthropod parasites are _____ and ______
Insect parasites
Arachnid parasites
Ex. of insect parasites
Lice
Fleas
Flies
Flies are ______. If they see a habitat they like, they go for it. i.e. open wound, matted hair, feces.
opportunistic
Larval dipterans may develop in the subcutaneous tissues of the skin or organs of many domestic animals, producing a condition known as ________.
myiasis
In _________, the fly larvae are completely parasitic, ie, they depend on the host to complete the life cycle.
obligatory myiasis
Commonly known as screwworm, this fly is eradicated in North America.
Cochliomyia
Larvae of the genus ______ infest dogs & cats in the subcutaneous tissues and causes swollen cystlike lesion.
Cuterebra
Larvae develop under skin, there is a hole on the skin to breathe. Don’t smash it because the inside can cause anaphylactic reaction
Hypoderma
Subclass of the arthropod class Arachnida that includes the mite and tick
Acarina
Mites and ticks are mebers of the class _________
Acarina
A group of parasitic mites that causes pruritus in domestic animals. They are barely visible to the naked eye and has a oval body shape. They have pedicels with suckers.
sarcoptiform
2 basic families of sarcoptiform mites
Sarcoptidae
Psoroptidae
Sarcoptiform mites that burrow within th eepidermis and entire life cycle is spent on host
Sarcoptidae
Sarcoptiform mites that live on skin surface or within the ear
Psoroptidae
List 3 Sarcoptidae
Sarcoptes
Notoedres
Cnemidocoptes
List 3 Psoroptidae
Psoroptes
Chorioptes
Otodectes
Lify cycle of Sarcoptidae
eggs
larvae
nymph
adults
Scabies is AKA
Sarcoptes scabiei
Key morphologic feature of sarcoptic scabiei
long unjointed pedicel with sucker on the end of some of the legs
An anatomical part that resembles a stem or stalk
pedicel
Dx of Sarcoptes scabiei
Skin scraping on large area, 4 inch square, superficially, get a lot of debris
Feline scabies
Notoedres cati
Notoedres cati is AKA
Mange mite
Notoedres cati looks similar to sarcoptic scabiei, but are ______ with a ________
smaller
dorsal anus
The eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei and Notoedres catiare ____ shape
oval
Notoedres affects cats & rabbits and causes ________ in head and feet.
Crusty legions
The eggs of Sarcoptes and Notoedric are _______ shape.
oval
__________ causes scaly leg in parakeets.
Cnemidocoptes
_______ occurs most commonly in the external ear canal of rabbits and causes abundant crusts of dried serum. The clinical signs include shaking and scratching of head.
Psoroptes Cuniculi
________ exhibit characteristic long, jointed pedicels with suckers on the ends of some of the legs.
Psoroptes
Foot and tail mite
Chorioptes
Itchy leg mite
Chorioptes
_______ is found on the hind legs of an animal and causes mild pruritis.
Chrioptes
______ have short unjointed pedicels w/some suckers
Chrioptes
Ear mite that I'll see in practice
Otodectes
Clinical signs of _______ includes head shaking, “coffee grounds” debris, and intense irritation
Otodectes
Like Chorioptes, ________ also has short unjointed pedicels w/some suckers.
Otodectes
Dx of otodectes is made by:
Otoscope & Ear swab
Use ________ on a glass slide to examing an ear swab
mineral oil
Is demodex sarcoptiform or miscellaneous mites?
Miscellaneous
Mites of the genus _____ reside in the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of people and most domestic animals.
Demodex
Disease caused by an increased number of Demodex is called ______
demodicosis
______ are elongated mites with short, stubby legs.
Demodex
Dx of Demodex
Skin scrape – small area, squeeze hair follicle
The _____ eggs are spindle-shape or tapered at each end
Demodex
Small numbers of these mites are part of the normal skin flora, however, in dogs with immunodeficiencies, these mites proliferate and cause skin disease.
Demodex
Demodex is transmitted by
close contact
What should you do when looking for Demodex under microscope
Count the live:dead ratio
Presence of larvae or nimph or egg
Good prognostic indicator for demodex
decrease in the number of eggs and live mites
Tx of Demodex
Poison, lye sulfur, acrocide
“Walking dandruff”
Cheyletiella
Morphologic features of Cheyletiella
Visible to the naked eye
Hooklike accessory mouthparts
Dx of Cheyletiella
Use tape
Poultry mites
Ornithonyssus
________ has long legs to walk around and hang around in the environment and looks for a host
Ornithonyssus
Ticks are characterized by ______ compressed bodies
dorsoventrally
Ticks' body color can be _______ or ______
Red/brown
plain
Ticks eat ________
blood
2 families of ticks of veterinary importance
Argasid
Ixodid
Soft ticks with leathery look
Argasid
Hard ticks, obvious head
Ixodid
Life cycle of ticks
egg
larva
nimph
adult
Infestation of domestic animals by mites or ticks is called ________
acariasis
Ticks can survive _________ without a blood meal
2-3 years
______ is required for tick's egg fertilization and deposition
Blood
Tick activity is restricted during the ________ months
cold winter
With Otobius megnini, only ____ stages are parasitic
Larva and nymph
______ are often confused with ear mites
Soft ticks
Hard chitinous plate of ticks
scutum
Ticks commony seen in North America
Rhipcephalus sanguineus
Rhipcephalus sanguineus is AKA
brown dog tick
Base of the head of ticks
capitulum
Rhipicephalus sanguineus is characterized by its ______ shape
hexagonal
Roundworms is Phylum _______
Nematoda
The life cycle of most parasites has at least one stage at which the parasite may be passed from one host to the next. This is called _________
diagnostic stage
Time from infection until time infection can be routinely diagnosed
Prepatent period
Kingdom prostia, single cell animal
Protozoa
The most common sites for protozoa detection are in _______
blood samples
Protozoa in blood
hemoprotozoa
Protozoa in fecal
intestinal protozoa
AKA flukes
Trematodes
___ are unsegmented, leaf shaped, flatworms
Trematodes
Most adult flukes are found in the:
intestinal tract
liver
lungs
having male and female sex organs
hermaphrodites
Fluke eggs are ______
operculated
Fluke eggs hatch and exit through the ______
operculum
Fluke's first intermediate host is usually a _______
snail
AKA Tapeworms
Cestodes
Characteristics of cestodes
Flattened
Proglottids
Scolex
Segments of cestodes are called _______
proglottids
a little head with sucker and hooks of cestodes
scolex
Each _______ of cestodes is an entity with repro system
proglottid
Proglottids contain eggs with ___________
hexacanth embryos
Embryos with an internal structure with 6 hooks
hexacanth embryos
Cestodes egg are eaten by _________
intermediate host
Ex of cestodes itermediate host
arthropod - flea, fish, mammal
AKA roundworms
Nematodes
Nematodes are found in ________
almost any tissue of domestic animals
If you see an animal that has fleas, need to do fecal and look for __________
tapeworms
_____ is a nematode that often forms nodules in the esophageal wall of dogs and cats
Spirocerca
Spirocerca eggs have ________ shape
paper clip
Capillaria is a ________
nematode
Capillaria's eggs are ____ shape and has _________
barrel
bipolar caps
______ eggs are confusing with trichuris’ egg which is also footbll shaped with bipolar caps
Capillaria
Difference between Trichuris egg and Capillaria eggs
Capillaria eggs have flattened sides
parasitic nematode worm
Ascarids
______ are the ascarids of dogs and cats
Toxocara and Toxascaris
The eggs of ______ are spherical, with a deeply pigmented center and a rough, pitted outer shell.
Toxocara
______ egg has a space between wall and the circle middle
Toxascaris
Ascarids are found in the ________
small intestine
Prepatent period for Toxocara is _________.
21 to 35 days
Prepatent period for Toxascaris is _________.
74 days
Roundworm found in the small intestine of dogs
Toxocara canis
Roundworm found in the small intestine of cats
Toxocara cati
a blood-sucking, disease-causing nematode worm that bores through the skin, attaching itself to the intestinal walls with its hooked mouthparts.
hookworm
wicked mouth hookworm, found in dog, cat’s small intestine
Ancylostoma
______ infection can cause severe anemia in young kittens and puppies.
Hookworm
Eggs of all ________ are oval or ellipsoid, have thin walls and contain 8-16 cells when passed in the pet's feces.
hoookworm
Intestinal threadworms
Strongyloides
_________ are unique in that only a parthenogenetic female is parasitic in the host.
Strongyloides
female that can lay eggs without copulation with a male
parthenogenetic
The eggs of Strongyoides hatch in the __________
intestine
The prepatent period of Strongyloides is _______.
1-2 weeks
Whipworm
Trichuris
______ reside in the cecum and colon of the host
Trichuris
The prepatent period for Trichuris is ________-
70-90 days
_________ eggs have thin wall and blobs inside
Ancylostoma
a thread-shaped nematode worm that occurs as a parasite in the intestines of vertebrate animals, including human beings.
pinworm
Tapeworm
Cestodes
major tapeworm I’ll see
Dipylidium
Dogs & cats become infected by Dipylidium by ingesting ______
fleas
Dipylidium are found in the ____
small intestine of the dog & cat
Cucumber seed tapeworm
Dipylidium
Prepatent period for Dipylidium is __________
2-3 weeks
____ are pretty innocuous
Cestodes
classic looking tapeworm
Taenia

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