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Glossary of KI 4

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There are ______ species of animals in the world.
1.5 million
It is estimated that living animals represent less than ______% of all the animals that have ever existed.
1
Modern-day cattle are believed to have descended from ______ that roamed the forests of central Europe.
Aurochs
The ancestor of today's commercial chicken is believed to have originated in ______.
Southeast Asia
The ______ were the first people to artificially incubate chicken eggs.
Egyptians
The prehistoric horse is thought to have originated from ______.
four-toed animal called "true horse"
When Columbus landed in North America, there were ______ head of American bison (buffalo) on the continent.
60 to 80 million
By 1900 only ______ bison were left in America.
2,000
______ are the only sheep native to North America.
Big Horn Sheep
American breeds of swine come from two wild stocks: ______ and ______.
East Indian pig
European wild boar
The system of placing life forms in order is called ______.
classification
The science of classifying animals into different categories is called ______.
taxonomy
______ is a group of similar species.
genus
The seven basic levels of taxonomy (in order) are ______, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______, and ______.
kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genus
species
The phylum with a notochord, dorsal hollow neural tube, and gill slits is ______.
Chordata
An animal's ability to maintain its own body temperature is called ______.
homeothermic
The class that bears its young alive, has mammary glands, and has body hair is _______.
Mammalia
The United States has only ______% of the world's population and supplies more than ______% of the world's food.
5
20
______% of the American population is directly involved with production agriculture.
2
Americans spend ______% of their disposable income on food.
less than 10
The number of cattle in the world is ______.
1.3 billion
The number of sheep in the world is ______.
1.2 billion
The nation with the largest number of cattle is ______.
India
The nation with the largest number of chickens is ______.
China
The nation with the largest number of pigs is______.
China
The number of horses in the world is ______.
60 million
The number of cattle in the United States is ______.
100,110,000
What is the average rectal temperature of the major livestock species?
103F
Where might you find large numbers of camels?
Somalia
What three areas (nations) have the highest population of cattle? Sheep? Goats? Chickens? Pigs? Turkeys? Horses?
cattle - India
sheep - China
goats - India
chickens - China
pigs - China
turkey - US
horse - China
A dorsal hollow neural tube
notochord
Binomial nomenclature uses two names, a ______ and a ______, in classifying all life forms.
genus
species
The class ______ includes small birds that lack teeth but have feathers, scales on the legs, well-developed lungs, and a completely subdivided heart with four chambers.
Aves
Most Europeans spend from ______ to ______% of their personal disposable income on food.
30
65
A verb meaning to remove the testicles of a man or male animal, making reproduction impossible. Animals are sometimes castrated to make them more docile and to prevent disease.
castrate
Species name for cattle
bovine
Male cattle
bull
Female cattle
cow
Parturition of cattle
calve
Young cattle
calf
Young male cattle
bull
Young female cattle
heifer
Castrated bull
steer
Group name for cattle
herd
Species name for horse
equine
Male horse
stallion
Female horse
mare
Parturition of horse
foal
Name of young horse
foal
Young male horse
colt
Young female horse
filly
Castrated stallion
gelding
Group name for horse
herd or band
Species name for sheep
ovine
An adult male sheep
ram
Female sheep
ewe
Parturition of sheep
lamb
Young sheep
lamb
Young male sheep
ram lamb
Young female sheep
ewe lamb
Castrated ram
wether
Group name for sheep
flock
Species name for goat
caprine
Male goat
buck
Female goat
doe
Parturition of goat
kid
Name of young caprine
kid
Young male goat
buckling
Young female goat
doeling
Castrated goat
wether
Group name for goat
band
Species name for pig
porcine
Male pig
boar
An adult female pig
sow
Parturition of pig
farrow
Young pig
piglet
Young male pig
boar
Young female pig
gilt
Castrated boar
barrow
Group name for pig
drove or herd
Species name for chicken
avian
An adult male chicken
rooster
Female chicken
hen
Parturition of chicken
hatch
Young chicken
chick
Young male chicken
cockerel
Young female chicken
pullet
A castrated rooster is called a ______.
capon
Group name of chicken
flock
Species name for rabbit
lapine
Male rabbit
buck
Female rabbit
doe
Parturition of rabbit
kindle
Name of young rabbit
kitling
Group name for rabbit
hutch
TPR and chromosome number for chicken
107.1
300
30
78
TPR and chromosome number for goat
103.8
75
16
60
X
X
TPR and chromosome number for pig
102.5
70
13
38
TPR and chromosome number for sheep
102.3
75
16
54
TPR and chromosome number for dairy cow
101.5
60
20
60
TPR and chromosome number for beef cow
101
50
14
60
5 leading states for beef cattle
Texas
Kansas
Nebraska
Oklahoma
Missouri
5 leading states for feeder cattle
Texas
Kansas
Nebraska
Colorado
Iowa
5 leading states for Dairy cattle
Wisconsin
California
New York
Pennsylvania
Minnesota
5 leading states for eggs
California
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Indiana
Georgia
5 leading states for broilers
Arkansas
Georgia
Alabama
North Carolina
Mississippi
5 leading states for turkeys
North Carolina
Minnesota
Arkansas
Virginia
Missouri
5 leading states for swine
Iowa
North Carolina
Minnesota
Illinois
Indiana
The letters PETA stand for ________________.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
______ is the humane killing of an animal accomplished by a method which produces rapid unconsciousness and subsequent death, without evidence of pain or distress.
euthanasia
______ is the concept of ascribing human traits to animals.
anthropomorphism
______ is the philosophy in which the individual believes using animals for the betterment of people is acceptable, as long as the animal is treated with compassion.
Utilitarian Philosophy
______ means one's place or relative position, or one's rank in the community.
Standing
______ are people who believe that individuals can do whatever they want to animals, and that humans are the only species with any rights.
Dominionists
______ is the movement that believes a reduction in and a minimal number of animals should be used in research, and those animals that are used should be treated as humanely as possible. The concept implies that humankind has dominion over animals, ans a
Animal Welfare
______ is the movement that insists that animals have moral rights equal to those of humans. This concept is totally opposed to biomedical research using animals, sporting events using animals, using animals for clothing, entertainment, and product testi
Animal rights
______ is the belief that humans are superior to animals - a prejudice or bias toward the interests of members of one's own species and against the members of other species.
speciesism
The ______ sets standards including provisions for housing, feeding, watering, sanitation, ventilation, the use of anesthesia for painful procedures, and the availability of veterinary medical and post-operative care at the federal level.
USDA
The ______ of 1985 requires the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to create guidelines for animal use and to develop a research plan for alternatives to the use of animals.
Animal Welfare Act (AWA)
______ is the study of behavior of animals.
Ethology
______ means cutting into a live animal (originally meant "without anesthesia," because it had not been developed yet).
vivisection
______ is the percentage of rats and mice that are used in research.
90-95%
______ of non-human primates are used in research.
0.50%
Number of cattle in US
100 million (including 10 million dairy cows)
Number of chickens in US
6.4 billion broilers
A young chicken for roasting
broiler
Number of turkeys in US
285 million
Number of swine in US
57 million
Number of sheep in US
11 million
Number of horses in US
5 million
Number of goats in US
2 million
The belief that population tends to increase faster than food supply, with inevitably disastrous results, unless the increase in population can be checked by war, famine, pestilence and natural catastrophe.
Malthusianism
To cut apart for purposes of scientific examination.
Dissection
The transplantation of animal organs into humans
xenotransplantation
ALF
Animal Liberation Front
An animal in which the genetic makeup has been modified by the addition of a DNA sequence from another species
transgenic
A state of insensibility to pain, without loss of consciousness
alalgesia
A state of lack of awareness or sensitivity, with or without loss of consciousness
anesthesia
______ is the view that a person should pursue his or her own self-interests, even at the expense of others.
egoism
______ is the philosophy where an action is determined to be morally right and outweighs any harm it might cause.
utilitarianism
______ philosophies embrace the idea that people are equal to other life forms.
Eastern
______ philosophies teach that man dominates God's creations.
Western
Cows are considered the most sacred of all animals in the ______ religion.
Hindu
______ is a doctrine of non-violence or non-killing.
Ahimsa
All but ______ are forbidden food items according to kosher laws (birds of prey, insects, pork, hunted deer, hunted cattle, shark, lobster, turkey, and horses).
fruit, veg, cloven animals and cud chewers, grains, fish with fins and scales, Halel
The ______ religion forbids the eating of all meat and animal products.
Jainism
The spirit of ______ in Buddhism means the friendliness toward all living things.
Maitri
______, a doctrine of non-violence or non-killing, means without injury and comes from Hindu and Buddhist philosophies.
Ahimsa
______ meat cannot include birds of prey, shellfish, or hunted animals.
kosher
______ is the country where the Jump of the Goat Fiesta takes place.
Spain
To be kosher, meat and fowl must e slaughtered by a ritual slaughterer called a ______.
shochet
The genetic makeup of an animal is referred to as its _________.
genotype
An alternative form of a gene located at the same locus on each of a pair of chromosomes is a _______________.
allele
The mating of sires of one breed or breed combination to dams of another breed or breed combination is called _______.
crossbreeding
The basic physical unit of heredity consisting of a DNA sequence at a specific location on a chromosome is the _________.
genes
__________ refers to the first-generation progeny following the parental or P1 generation.
F1
A _________ is a cell formed from the union of a sperm and an ovum.
zygote
A _________ is a two-dimentional grid used to determine the possible zygotes obtainable from a mating.
Punnett square
__________ is an observed level of performance or physical trait of an animal.
phenotype
The mating of animals in an attempt to concentrate the genes of a superior ancestor in animals of later generations is called _________.
linebreeding
____________ is the mating of unrelated individuals.
outbreeding
The mating of relatives is called __________.
inbreeding
A sex cell, a sperm or an ovum, is called a ________.
gamete
_____ was the British livestock breeder who first successfully used estimates of breeding value, selection, and systems of mating to make genetic improvement.
Robert Bakewell
_________ bodies, which occur in pairs in the nuclei of cells, carry the genetic material in the form of genes.
chromosomes
Animals that possess the distinct characteristics of a particular breed but that have at least one parent that cannot be traced to the registry are called _________.
grade
________ is a condition in which both genes at a particular locus are the same allele.
homozygous
_______ is a condition where the two alleles at a given locus in an animal are not the same.
heterozygous
_____ is another name for hybrid vigor.
heterosis
Hybrid vigor is caused by the _________ mating system.
crossbreeding
Cell division of somatic cells is called ___________.
mitosis
Cell division of gametes is called _________.
meiosis
The removal from a herd of animals with lower genetic or phenotypic value is called __________.
culling
The system of mating animals that are less closely related than the average relationship in the population (no common ancestors in the immediate pedigree) is called __________.
outbreeding
___________ is an animal's offspring.
progeny
_____ means naturally hornless.
polled
A _______ is a list or diagram of an animal's ancestors (usually containing genetic and performance information).
bracket pedigree
A trait whose measurement would fall into a discrete classification such as color or the presence or absence of horns is referred to as a __________.
sex-linked
An animal recorded in the herd book of the breed is _________.
registered
_________ refers to two sets of homologous chromosomes; represented by 2n.
diploid
_________ refers to having only one set of chromosomes; represented by n.
hapoid
All chromosomes except the sex chromosomes are called __________.
autosomes
_________ describes a gene that when paired with its allele covers up the phenotypic expression of that gene.
dominant
__________ describes a gene whose phenotypic expression is covered or masked by its own allele.
recessive
_______ is a situation in which neither allele is dominant over the other, with the result that both are expressed in the phenotype.
Codominance
________ is the cross resulting from mating a mare with a jack (donkey).
mule
An animal or a recognized breed that is eligible for registry in the official herd book of that breed is called ___________.
purebred
________ designates the red-white color phase of Shorthorn cattle.
partial dominance
A trait limited to only one sex is referred to as a _______.
sex-limited genes
__________ refers to genes carried on the nonhomologous portion of the X chromosome.
Sex linked
_________ is a gene carried on the nonhomologous portion of the Y chromosome and always transmitted from father to son.
Holandric inheritance
The likelihood that some event or outcome will occur is the _______.
probability
_________ was an Austrian monk who worked with pea plants.
Gregor Mendel
In birds the _______ sex is the determiner of the sex of the offspring.
female
_________ is a genetic disorder in horses that causes periodic episodes of muscle tremors.
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP)
Animals have been used in experiments for more than ______ years
2300
____ used animals in experiments, helping him to create the sciences of zoology and comparative anatomy
Aristotle
_____ used animal experimentation to demonstrate that veins carried blood
Galen
The first known blood transfusions by Dr. Lower in 1665 were performed on _______
dogs
_______ was the first law in the modern-day world to protect farm animals from cruel treatment.
The Body of Liberties
______ is the largest American animal rights organization - boasting a $40 million a year budget.
HSUS
The number of animal shelters supported by HSUS in the United States: _____
zero
Number of companion animals taken in by American animal shelters annually:
15 million
Number of companion animals euthanized annually in the United States
11-13 million
The ______ is the legislation that included the humane handling of animals prior to and during slaughter.
Humane Slaughter Act
What year was the American Animal transportation Act passed?
1906
Define soring.
Application of chemical or mechanical agent on any limb of a horse, or any practice inflicted upon the horse, that can be expected to cause it physical pain or distress when moving
The ______ prohibits the showing, sale, auction, exhibition, or transport of sored horses.
HPA
___ was the year the Animal Welfare Act first became law in the United States
1966
Which animals were originally covered by the Animal Welfare Act?
Cats, dogs, primates, guinea pigs, hamsters and rabbits.
What is a DQP?
Designated Qualified Person
The ____ Act makes it a felony and imposes a fine of up to $10,000 and a jail sentence of up to a year for individuals who injure a person during an attack on an animal enterprise.
Animal Enterprise Protection
The ____ requires animal shelters to hold and care for dogs and cats for at least five days before providing them to a dealer.
Food, Agriculture Conservation & Trade Act
Why did Hitler denounce Christianity as a "symptom of decay?"
Because Christianity didn't advocate vegetarianism
What types of laws did the Nazis pass to protect animals in 1930s Germany?
Regulation on slaughter of animals and banning vivisection. Mercy killing of animals.
What are the objectives of most animal rights organizations?
1. Banning use of animals
2. Impeding, curtailing, and controlling the conduct of research using animals by doing the following acts:
a. Attacking laboratories
b. Raising the costs of conducting experiments using animals by increasing regulations
c. Establishing the rights of humans to act as guardians of animals or agents in the enforcement of animal welfare
d. Diverting funds from research projects
What are the objectives of most animal welfare organizations? What are the differences with animal rights organizations?
Most animal welfare organizations recognize the necessity to use animals in some research to find prevention and treatments for various diseases. Their main concern is that excess animals should not be used, that animals should not be cut apart for repetitious work that could be demonstrated with other non-live animal means, and that anesthesia and analgesics should be used when appropriate so that animals do not suffer needlessly.
Cite recent accomplishments of animal rights groups. In which areas have these groups not been successful?
1. Bills introduced in several state legislatures that ban the use of animals in biomedical research
2. Bills introduced in several state legislatures that establish the fact that animals have rights
3. In 1987, more than 85 separate bills were introduced in state legislatures. Today, there are close to 100 separate bills introduced every year across the country.
What is the leading, radical, terrorist animal rights group in both the United States and Great Britain?
ALF
The ___ was the first legislation in the world to regulate the use of animals in research.
1876 Cruelty to Animals Act in England
Why did Bernard feel that monkeys should not be used in animal research?
Because they resembled human beings
What was Bernard's justification of using animals in research?
He felt that the science of life can be established only through experiment, and we can save living beings from death only after sacrificing others.
In 1959, ____, written by Russell and Burch, described a method of minimizing unnecessary suffering and use of animals in laboratories.
The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique
______ means (whole-animal) research
in vito
CAAT is located at which institution?
John Hopkins' University
_______was the year the AWA was initially passed by Congress.
1985
CAAT stands for ___________.
Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing
USDA stands for ___________.
United States Department of Agriculture
In 1985, the United States Congress passed 2 laws that required facilities conducting biomedical research on animals to establish IACUCs. These laws were:
1. Health Research Extension Act (HREA)
2. Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act (ISLA)
IACUC stands for ______.
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees
NAM stands for ______.
Non-Affiliated Members
The ______ has an obligation to review all research projects proposed for PHS support prior to their receiving funding.
IACUC
______ must prepare reports of animal facility inspections and submit them to the institutional official.
IACUC
Institutions using only rats and mice in research and/or teaching, while receiving federal funds, must have a(n) _____ associated with their animal care and use program
vet
A(n) ________ is the spokesperson for the animals being used in any research facility using animals.
vet
In most institutions, the _______ is responsible for the training and instruction to institutional personnel on humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation.
vet and her staff
Humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation would include the following:
1. The basic needs of each species of animal
2. Proper handling and care for the various species of animals used by the facility
3. Proper pre- and post-procedural care of animals
4. Aseptic surgical methods and procedures
2 commonly used sources for researchers to obtain information on appropriate methods of animal care and use, alternatives to the use of live animals in research, and unnecessary duplication of research would include the following:
1. National Agricultural Libray
2. National Library of Medicine
The _______ was prepared specifically toward farm animal research activities with special consideration given to current practices and issues in commercial agriculture
Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (Agri Guide)
P.I. stands for ______ on any research project.
Principal Investigator
_______ refers to substitution, either wholly or in part, of the animal model with a non-animal model.
Replacement
_______ is a non-animal test used to test fro carcinogenicity - but is made from mouse liver cells.
x
______ and _____ are two methods used to reduce the numbers of animals used in experiments without compromising results and statistical integrity.
Transgenics, computer simulation
APHIS stands for _________.
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
List the three Rs:
1. replacement
2. reduction
3. refinement
_____ is an experiment done within a whole living organism.
in vivo
_____ is an experiment done in an artificial environment outside the living organism.
in vitro
HREA stands for _______.
Health Research Extension Act
ISLA stands for _______, an amendment to AWA.
Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act

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