Glossary of KI 4
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- There are ______ species of animals in the world.
- 1.5 million
- It is estimated that living animals represent less than ______% of all the animals that have ever existed.
- Modern-day cattle are believed to have descended from ______ that roamed the forests of central Europe.
- The ancestor of today's commercial chicken is believed to have originated in ______.
- Southeast Asia
- The ______ were the first people to artificially incubate chicken eggs.
- The prehistoric horse is thought to have originated from ______.
- four-toed animal called "true horse"
- When Columbus landed in North America, there were ______ head of American bison (buffalo) on the continent.
- 60 to 80 million
- By 1900 only ______ bison were left in America.
- ______ are the only sheep native to North America.
- Big Horn Sheep
- American breeds of swine come from two wild stocks: ______ and ______.
- East Indian pig
European wild boar
- The system of placing life forms in order is called ______.
- The science of classifying animals into different categories is called ______.
- ______ is a group of similar species.
- The seven basic levels of taxonomy (in order) are ______, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______, and ______.
- The phylum with a notochord, dorsal hollow neural tube, and gill slits is ______.
- An animal's ability to maintain its own body temperature is called ______.
- The class that bears its young alive, has mammary glands, and has body hair is _______.
- The United States has only ______% of the world's population and supplies more than ______% of the world's food.
- ______% of the American population is directly involved with production agriculture.
- Americans spend ______% of their disposable income on food.
- less than 10
- The number of cattle in the world is ______.
- 1.3 billion
- The number of sheep in the world is ______.
- 1.2 billion
- The nation with the largest number of cattle is ______.
- The nation with the largest number of chickens is ______.
- The nation with the largest number of pigs is______.
- The number of horses in the world is ______.
- 60 million
- The number of cattle in the United States is ______.
- What is the average rectal temperature of the major livestock species?
- Where might you find large numbers of camels?
- What three areas (nations) have the highest population of cattle? Sheep? Goats? Chickens? Pigs? Turkeys? Horses?
- cattle - India
sheep - China
goats - India
chickens - China
pigs - China
turkey - US
horse - China
- A dorsal hollow neural tube
- Binomial nomenclature uses two names, a ______ and a ______, in classifying all life forms.
- The class ______ includes small birds that lack teeth but have feathers, scales on the legs, well-developed lungs, and a completely subdivided heart with four chambers.
- Most Europeans spend from ______ to ______% of their personal disposable income on food.
- A verb meaning to remove the testicles of a man or male animal, making reproduction impossible. Animals are sometimes castrated to make them more docile and to prevent disease.
- Species name for cattle
- Male cattle
- Female cattle
- Parturition of cattle
- Young cattle
- Young male cattle
- Young female cattle
- Castrated bull
- Group name for cattle
- Species name for horse
- Male horse
- Female horse
- Parturition of horse
- Name of young horse
- Young male horse
- Young female horse
- Castrated stallion
- Group name for horse
- herd or band
- Species name for sheep
- An adult male sheep
- Female sheep
- Parturition of sheep
- Young sheep
- Young male sheep
- ram lamb
- Young female sheep
- ewe lamb
- Castrated ram
- Group name for sheep
- Species name for goat
- Male goat
- Female goat
- Parturition of goat
- Name of young caprine
- Young male goat
- Young female goat
- Castrated goat
- Group name for goat
- Species name for pig
- Male pig
- An adult female pig
- Parturition of pig
- Young pig
- Young male pig
- Young female pig
- Castrated boar
- Group name for pig
- drove or herd
- Species name for chicken
- An adult male chicken
- Female chicken
- Parturition of chicken
- Young chicken
- Young male chicken
- Young female chicken
- A castrated rooster is called a ______.
- Group name of chicken
- Species name for rabbit
- Male rabbit
- Female rabbit
- Parturition of rabbit
- Name of young rabbit
- Group name for rabbit
- TPR and chromosome number for chicken
- TPR and chromosome number for goat
- TPR and chromosome number for pig
- TPR and chromosome number for sheep
- TPR and chromosome number for dairy cow
- TPR and chromosome number for beef cow
- 5 leading states for beef cattle
- 5 leading states for feeder cattle
- 5 leading states for Dairy cattle
- 5 leading states for eggs
- 5 leading states for broilers
- 5 leading states for turkeys
- North Carolina
- 5 leading states for swine
- The letters PETA stand for ________________.
- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
- ______ is the humane killing of an animal accomplished by a method which produces rapid unconsciousness and subsequent death, without evidence of pain or distress.
- ______ is the concept of ascribing human traits to animals.
- ______ is the philosophy in which the individual believes using animals for the betterment of people is acceptable, as long as the animal is treated with compassion.
- Utilitarian Philosophy
- ______ means one's place or relative position, or one's rank in the community.
- ______ are people who believe that individuals can do whatever they want to animals, and that humans are the only species with any rights.
- ______ is the movement that believes a reduction in and a minimal number of animals should be used in research, and those animals that are used should be treated as humanely as possible. The concept implies that humankind has dominion over animals, ans a
- Animal Welfare
- ______ is the movement that insists that animals have moral rights equal to those of humans. This concept is totally opposed to biomedical research using animals, sporting events using animals, using animals for clothing, entertainment, and product testi
- Animal rights
- ______ is the belief that humans are superior to animals - a prejudice or bias toward the interests of members of one's own species and against the members of other species.
- The ______ sets standards including provisions for housing, feeding, watering, sanitation, ventilation, the use of anesthesia for painful procedures, and the availability of veterinary medical and post-operative care at the federal level.
- The ______ of 1985 requires the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to create guidelines for animal use and to develop a research plan for alternatives to the use of animals.
- Animal Welfare Act (AWA)
- ______ is the study of behavior of animals.
- ______ means cutting into a live animal (originally meant "without anesthesia," because it had not been developed yet).
- ______ is the percentage of rats and mice that are used in research.
- ______ of non-human primates are used in research.
- Number of cattle in US
- 100 million (including 10 million dairy cows)
- Number of chickens in US
- 6.4 billion broilers
- A young chicken for roasting
- Number of turkeys in US
- 285 million
- Number of swine in US
- 57 million
- Number of sheep in US
- 11 million
- Number of horses in US
- 5 million
- Number of goats in US
- 2 million
- The belief that population tends to increase faster than food supply, with inevitably disastrous results, unless the increase in population can be checked by war, famine, pestilence and natural catastrophe.
- To cut apart for purposes of scientific examination.
- The transplantation of animal organs into humans
- Animal Liberation Front
- An animal in which the genetic makeup has been modified by the addition of a DNA sequence from another species
- A state of insensibility to pain, without loss of consciousness
- A state of lack of awareness or sensitivity, with or without loss of consciousness
- ______ is the view that a person should pursue his or her own self-interests, even at the expense of others.
- ______ is the philosophy where an action is determined to be morally right and outweighs any harm it might cause.
- ______ philosophies embrace the idea that people are equal to other life forms.
- ______ philosophies teach that man dominates God's creations.
- Cows are considered the most sacred of all animals in the ______ religion.
- ______ is a doctrine of non-violence or non-killing.
- All but ______ are forbidden food items according to kosher laws (birds of prey, insects, pork, hunted deer, hunted cattle, shark, lobster, turkey, and horses).
- fruit, veg, cloven animals and cud chewers, grains, fish with fins and scales, Halel
- The ______ religion forbids the eating of all meat and animal products.
- The spirit of ______ in Buddhism means the friendliness toward all living things.
- ______, a doctrine of non-violence or non-killing, means without injury and comes from Hindu and Buddhist philosophies.
- ______ meat cannot include birds of prey, shellfish, or hunted animals.
- ______ is the country where the Jump of the Goat Fiesta takes place.
- To be kosher, meat and fowl must e slaughtered by a ritual slaughterer called a ______.
- The genetic makeup of an animal is referred to as its _________.
- An alternative form of a gene located at the same locus on each of a pair of chromosomes is a _______________.
- The mating of sires of one breed or breed combination to dams of another breed or breed combination is called _______.
- The basic physical unit of heredity consisting of a DNA sequence at a specific location on a chromosome is the _________.
- __________ refers to the first-generation progeny following the parental or P1 generation.
- A _________ is a cell formed from the union of a sperm and an ovum.
- A _________ is a two-dimentional grid used to determine the possible zygotes obtainable from a mating.
- Punnett square
- __________ is an observed level of performance or physical trait of an animal.
- The mating of animals in an attempt to concentrate the genes of a superior ancestor in animals of later generations is called _________.
- ____________ is the mating of unrelated individuals.
- The mating of relatives is called __________.
- A sex cell, a sperm or an ovum, is called a ________.
- _____ was the British livestock breeder who first successfully used estimates of breeding value, selection, and systems of mating to make genetic improvement.
- Robert Bakewell
- _________ bodies, which occur in pairs in the nuclei of cells, carry the genetic material in the form of genes.
- Animals that possess the distinct characteristics of a particular breed but that have at least one parent that cannot be traced to the registry are called _________.
- ________ is a condition in which both genes at a particular locus are the same allele.
- _______ is a condition where the two alleles at a given locus in an animal are not the same.
- _____ is another name for hybrid vigor.
- Hybrid vigor is caused by the _________ mating system.
- Cell division of somatic cells is called ___________.
- Cell division of gametes is called _________.
- The removal from a herd of animals with lower genetic or phenotypic value is called __________.
- The system of mating animals that are less closely related than the average relationship in the population (no common ancestors in the immediate pedigree) is called __________.
- ___________ is an animal's offspring.
- _____ means naturally hornless.
- A _______ is a list or diagram of an animal's ancestors (usually containing genetic and performance information).
- bracket pedigree
- A trait whose measurement would fall into a discrete classification such as color or the presence or absence of horns is referred to as a __________.
- An animal recorded in the herd book of the breed is _________.
- _________ refers to two sets of homologous chromosomes; represented by 2n.
- _________ refers to having only one set of chromosomes; represented by n.
- All chromosomes except the sex chromosomes are called __________.
- _________ describes a gene that when paired with its allele covers up the phenotypic expression of that gene.
- __________ describes a gene whose phenotypic expression is covered or masked by its own allele.
- _______ is a situation in which neither allele is dominant over the other, with the result that both are expressed in the phenotype.
- ________ is the cross resulting from mating a mare with a jack (donkey).
- An animal or a recognized breed that is eligible for registry in the official herd book of that breed is called ___________.
- ________ designates the red-white color phase of Shorthorn cattle.
- partial dominance
- A trait limited to only one sex is referred to as a _______.
- sex-limited genes
- __________ refers to genes carried on the nonhomologous portion of the X chromosome.
- Sex linked
- _________ is a gene carried on the nonhomologous portion of the Y chromosome and always transmitted from father to son.
- Holandric inheritance
- The likelihood that some event or outcome will occur is the _______.
- _________ was an Austrian monk who worked with pea plants.
- Gregor Mendel
- In birds the _______ sex is the determiner of the sex of the offspring.
- _________ is a genetic disorder in horses that causes periodic episodes of muscle tremors.
- Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP)
- Animals have been used in experiments for more than ______ years
- ____ used animals in experiments, helping him to create the sciences of zoology and comparative anatomy
- _____ used animal experimentation to demonstrate that veins carried blood
- The first known blood transfusions by Dr. Lower in 1665 were performed on _______
- _______ was the first law in the modern-day world to protect farm animals from cruel treatment.
- The Body of Liberties
- ______ is the largest American animal rights organization - boasting a $40 million a year budget.
- The number of animal shelters supported by HSUS in the United States: _____
- Number of companion animals taken in by American animal shelters annually:
- 15 million
- Number of companion animals euthanized annually in the United States
- 11-13 million
- The ______ is the legislation that included the humane handling of animals prior to and during slaughter.
- Humane Slaughter Act
- What year was the American Animal transportation Act passed?
- Define soring.
- Application of chemical or mechanical agent on any limb of a horse, or any practice inflicted upon the horse, that can be expected to cause it physical pain or distress when moving
- The ______ prohibits the showing, sale, auction, exhibition, or transport of sored horses.
- ___ was the year the Animal Welfare Act first became law in the United States
- Which animals were originally covered by the Animal Welfare Act?
- Cats, dogs, primates, guinea pigs, hamsters and rabbits.
- What is a DQP?
- Designated Qualified Person
- The ____ Act makes it a felony and imposes a fine of up to $10,000 and a jail sentence of up to a year for individuals who injure a person during an attack on an animal enterprise.
- Animal Enterprise Protection
- The ____ requires animal shelters to hold and care for dogs and cats for at least five days before providing them to a dealer.
- Food, Agriculture Conservation & Trade Act
- Why did Hitler denounce Christianity as a "symptom of decay?"
- Because Christianity didn't advocate vegetarianism
- What types of laws did the Nazis pass to protect animals in 1930s Germany?
- Regulation on slaughter of animals and banning vivisection. Mercy killing of animals.
- What are the objectives of most animal rights organizations?
- 1. Banning use of animals
2. Impeding, curtailing, and controlling the conduct of research using animals by doing the following acts:
a. Attacking laboratories
b. Raising the costs of conducting experiments using animals by increasing regulations
c. Establishing the rights of humans to act as guardians of animals or agents in the enforcement of animal welfare
d. Diverting funds from research projects
- What are the objectives of most animal welfare organizations? What are the differences with animal rights organizations?
- Most animal welfare organizations recognize the necessity to use animals in some research to find prevention and treatments for various diseases. Their main concern is that excess animals should not be used, that animals should not be cut apart for repetitious work that could be demonstrated with other non-live animal means, and that anesthesia and analgesics should be used when appropriate so that animals do not suffer needlessly.
- Cite recent accomplishments of animal rights groups. In which areas have these groups not been successful?
- 1. Bills introduced in several state legislatures that ban the use of animals in biomedical research
2. Bills introduced in several state legislatures that establish the fact that animals have rights
3. In 1987, more than 85 separate bills were introduced in state legislatures. Today, there are close to 100 separate bills introduced every year across the country.
- What is the leading, radical, terrorist animal rights group in both the United States and Great Britain?
- The ___ was the first legislation in the world to regulate the use of animals in research.
- 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act in England
- Why did Bernard feel that monkeys should not be used in animal research?
- Because they resembled human beings
- What was Bernard's justification of using animals in research?
- He felt that the science of life can be established only through experiment, and we can save living beings from death only after sacrificing others.
- In 1959, ____, written by Russell and Burch, described a method of minimizing unnecessary suffering and use of animals in laboratories.
- The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique
- ______ means (whole-animal) research
- in vito
- CAAT is located at which institution?
- John Hopkins' University
- _______was the year the AWA was initially passed by Congress.
- CAAT stands for ___________.
- Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing
- USDA stands for ___________.
- United States Department of Agriculture
- In 1985, the United States Congress passed 2 laws that required facilities conducting biomedical research on animals to establish IACUCs. These laws were:
- 1. Health Research Extension Act (HREA)
2. Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act (ISLA)
- IACUC stands for ______.
- Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees
- NAM stands for ______.
- Non-Affiliated Members
- The ______ has an obligation to review all research projects proposed for PHS support prior to their receiving funding.
- ______ must prepare reports of animal facility inspections and submit them to the institutional official.
- Institutions using only rats and mice in research and/or teaching, while receiving federal funds, must have a(n) _____ associated with their animal care and use program
- A(n) ________ is the spokesperson for the animals being used in any research facility using animals.
- In most institutions, the _______ is responsible for the training and instruction to institutional personnel on humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation.
- vet and her staff
- Humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation would include the following:
- 1. The basic needs of each species of animal
2. Proper handling and care for the various species of animals used by the facility
3. Proper pre- and post-procedural care of animals
4. Aseptic surgical methods and procedures
- 2 commonly used sources for researchers to obtain information on appropriate methods of animal care and use, alternatives to the use of live animals in research, and unnecessary duplication of research would include the following:
- 1. National Agricultural Libray
2. National Library of Medicine
- The _______ was prepared specifically toward farm animal research activities with special consideration given to current practices and issues in commercial agriculture
- Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (Agri Guide)
- P.I. stands for ______ on any research project.
- Principal Investigator
- _______ refers to substitution, either wholly or in part, of the animal model with a non-animal model.
- _______ is a non-animal test used to test fro carcinogenicity - but is made from mouse liver cells.
- ______ and _____ are two methods used to reduce the numbers of animals used in experiments without compromising results and statistical integrity.
- Transgenics, computer simulation
- APHIS stands for _________.
- Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
- List the three Rs:
- 1. replacement
- _____ is an experiment done within a whole living organism.
- in vivo
- _____ is an experiment done in an artificial environment outside the living organism.
- in vitro
- HREA stands for _______.
- Health Research Extension Act
- ISLA stands for _______, an amendment to AWA.
- Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act
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