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Glossary of KD 6.6-6.7

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Created by kdillane

_______bring about the bending of cilia and flagella by gripping microtubules within those organelles and sliding them against each other
motor proteins
put these in order of thickest to thinnest:
intermediate filaments
microtubules
microfilaments


microtubules
intermediate filaments
microfilaments

a molecule made up of two subunits
also a ______ protein
dimer
tubulin
polypeptides of tubulin dimers
a-tubulin
b-tubulin
how do microtubules grow in length?
adding tubulin dimers-one end accumulates and releases tubulin dimers at a higher rate than the other (called plus end)
microtubules grow out of _______
centrosomes
this has an undulating moton that generates force in the same direction as the axis
flagellum
these work like oars, alternating power and recovery strokes generating force in a direction perpendicular to the axis
cilia
what is the structural arrangement of eukaryotic flagella and motile cilia?
nine doublets of microtubules are arranged in a ring
in the center of the ring are two microtubules
"9+2 pattern"

acts as a microfilament based motor protein-contractions of muscle cells result from actin and these filaments sliding past each other
myosin
brought about by actin-myosin interactions; a circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
speeds up distribution of materials within cell
cytoplasmic streaming
______ made out of the polysaccharide _______ are synthesized by enzyme (cellulose synthase) and secreted to extracellular space where they become embedded
microfibrils
cellulose
between the layers of the cell walls
thin layer rich in sticky pectins
glues adjacent cells together

middle lamella
accounts for 40 percent of the total protein in the human body
embedded in a web of proteoglycan complexes
collagen
consists of a small core protein with carb chains covalently attached
could be up to 95 percent carbohydrates
proteoglycans
attaches the ECM to integrins in the plasma membrane
fibronectin
plant cell channels that cytosol passes through to connect the chemical environments of adjacent cells
plasmodesmata
plasma membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed against each other
prevents leakage of extracellular fluid
ex. skin cells

tight junctions
fasten cells together into sheets. anchored by keratin-intermediate filaments. Attach muscle cells to each other
desmosomes
provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell to an adjacent cell
consist of membrane proteins that surround a pore through which ions, sugars, amino acids, and other small molecules may pass
gap junctions

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