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Glossary of K201 Exam 1

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analytical graphs/charts
form of graphics used to put numeric data into objects that are easier to analyze, such as bar charts, line graphs, and pie charts
antivirus programs
a utility program that guards a computer system from viruses or other damaging programs
application software
word processing, cost estimating, or accounting tasks. what the user interacts with
arpanet
advanced research project agency network, a national computer network from which the internet developed
b2b
business to business e-commerce, typically manufacturer to supplier
b2c
business to consumer e-commerce, sell of product or service to general public or end users
basic applications, productivity applications
for common tasks, such as browsers and word processors, spreadsheets, databases, management systems, presentation graphics
bitmap images, raster images
graphic file in which an image is made up of thousands of dots (pixels)
booting
starting or restarting your computer
browsers
special internet software connecting you to remote computers, opens and transfers files, displays text and images, and provides an uncomplicated interface to the internet and web documents
c2c
consumer to consumer e-commerce, individuals to individuals
cern
center for european nuclear research, switzerland, where the web was introduced in 1991
character effects
changes the appearance of font characteristics by using bold, italics, shadow, and colors
cold boot
starting your computer
warm boot
restarting your computer
computer support specialist
technical writers, computer trainers, computer technicians, help-desk specialists who provide support to customers and other end users
contextual tabs
only appear when needed and anticipate the next operations to be performed by the user
database
a collection of related information, organized so that a comp program can quickly select the desired pieces of info and display them
database files
contains highly structured and organized data created by database management programs
desktop publishing programs
allows you to mix text and graphics to create publications of professional quality
device drivers
special program connected to each device, allows communication btwn os and device
directory search
search method: list of categories or topics, narrows down search
disk cleanup
windows troubleshooting utility that eliminates nonessential files
disk defragmenter
windows utility that optimizes disk performance by eliminating unnecessary fragments and rearranging files
document files
created by word processor to save letters, papers, memos
domain name
second part of the url, name of server where the resource is located
embedded operating system
completely stored within the rom (read only memory) of the device, handheld computers and pdas
features of and os
cold or warm booting, desktop, icons, pointers, windows, menus, dialog boxes, help, files, folders
files
collection of related records that can store data and programs
filters
1) blocks access to selected web sites
2)locates or displays records from a table that fit a set of conditions or criteria when using programs like excel
flash
an interactive animation program from adobe that is usually full screen and highly dynamic, displaying moving text or complicated interactive features
folders
named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files
forms
reflects contents of one record or table, primarily used to enter new records or make changes to existing records
fragmented
storage technique that breaks up large files and stores the parts wherever space is available in adjacent sectors and clusters
functions of an os
managing resources, providing user interface, running applications
fuzzy logic
used by expert systems to allow users to respond by using qualitative terms such as great and ok
gui
graphical user interface, special screen that allows software command to be issued through the use of graphic symbols (icons) or pull down menus
hyperlinks/links
connection to related info
image editors/photo editors
app for modifying bitmap images
5 parts of an information system
people, procedures, software, hardware, data, (connectivity)
information systems manager
oversees the work of programmers, computer specialists, systems analysts, and other computer professionals
input devices
keyboard, mouse
integrated package
single program providing functionality of a collection of programs but not as extensive as specialized programs, lower cost, simple
internet
huge computer network available to everyone with a microcomputer and a means to connect to it, physical network made up of wires, cables, and satellites
keyword search
type of search, search engine compares your entry against its database and returns with a list of sites (hits) that contain your keywords
knowledge-based systems/expert systems
programs duplicating human knowledge
linux
type of unix os initially developed by linux torvalds, powerful
mainframe computers
can process several million program instructions per second. sizeable organizations rely on these room-sized systems to handle large programs and a great deal of data
memory
chips connected to the system board, holding area for data instructions and info
ram
random access memory, volatile, temporary storage that holds the program and data the cpu is presently processing, contents lost if comp is turned off
meta search engines
automatically submits your search engine request to several indices and search engines and then creates an index from received info
microprocessor
central processing unit (cpu) of a microcomputer controls and manipulates data to produce information, contained on a single integrated circuit chip and is the brains of the system
minicomputers
refrigerator sized machines falling in btwn microcomputers and mainframes in processing speed and data storage capacity, used by medium sized companies or depts of large companies
modem
short for modulator-demodulator, communication device that translates electronic signals from a computer into electronic signals that can travel over phone lines
multimedia
technology that can link all sorts of media into one form of presentation, such as video, music, voice, graphics, and text
network
arrangement in which various commications channels are connected through two or more computers, largest in the world is the internet
network administrator
also known as network manager, comp pro who ensures that existing info and communication systems are operating effectively and that new ones are implemented as needed, responsible for meeting security and privacy requirements
network os
nos, interactive software btwn apps and comps coordinating and directing activities btwn comps on a network, located on hard disk of one computer (network server)
network server
coordinates all communications btwn other comps
os
software that interacts btwn app software and the comp, handling such details as running programs, storing and processing data, and coordinating all comp resources, including attached devices, most important program on comp
output devices (examples)
monitors, printers
plug ins
program that is automatically loaded and operates as part of a browser
presentation file
saves presentation materials like handouts, notes, etc.
presentation graphics
combine a variety of visual objects to create attractive and interesting presentations
protocols
rules for exchanging data btwn comps, ex: http://
query
question or request for specific data in a database, used to analyze data
reports
can be lists of fields in a table or selected fields based on a query, typically include sales summaries, phone lists, mailing labels
ribbons
feature of microsoft office 2007, replaces menus and toolbars by organizing commonly used commands into a set of tabs
types of secondary storage
hard disk, solid state storage (flash memory cards, usb drives, optical disks (cds, dvds, hi def))
software/programs
contains step by step instructions, directing the comp for each task in processing data
software suites
individual app programs that are sold together as a group
spam blockers
software that uses a variety of different approaches to identify and eliminate spam or junk mail
specialized apps
programs that are narrowly focused on specific disciplines and occupations, ex: multimedia, web authoring, graphics, virtual reality, ai
speech recognition
the ability to accept voice input to select menu options and dictate text
spreadsheets
computer produced spreadsheet based on the traditional accounting worksheet that has rows and columns used to present and analyze data
story board
design tool for planning the overall logic, flow, and structure of a multimedia presentation
supercomputers
fastest calculating device ever invented, processing billions of program instructions per second, used by very large organizations like nasa
system software
background software that enables the app software to interact w/the comp, system software consists of the os, utilities, device drivers, and language translators, works w/ app software to handle technical details
system unit
part of microcomputer that contains the cpu, also known as system cabinet or chassis, container that houses most of the electronic components
top level domain
tld, last part of an internet address, identifies the geographical description or organization identification, ex: .com
uninstall programs
a utility program that safely and completely removes unwanted programs and related files
unix
an os originally developed for minicomputers. now important b/c it can run on many of the more powerful microcomputers
url
uniform resource locator, for browsers to connect you to resources on the web
utilities
perform specific tasks related to managing comp resources or files, ex: norton
utility suites
a program that combines several utilities in one package to improve system performance
virtual reality
interactive sensory equipment (headgear and gloves) allowing users to experience alternative realities generated in 3d by a computer, thus imitating the physical world
virus
hidden instructions that migrate through networks and os and become embedded in different programs, designed to destroy data or display messages
web
introduced in 1991 and prior to it, the internet was all text, web made multimedia interface possible, includes graphics, animations, sound, video
web authoring programs/html editors/web page editors
word processing program for generating web pages
what if analysis
spreadsheet feature in which changing one or more numbers results in the automatic recalculation of all related formulas
windows
platform extending capability of dos
word processors
create, edit, save, print documents and text
worksheet files
created by electronic spreadsheets to analyze things like budgets and to predict sales
connectivity
capability of the microcomputer to use info from the world beyond ...

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