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Glossary of Jr. Horsebowl Questions

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How much water will a 1,000 pound horse drink per day?
10- 12 gallons per day
In extremely cold weather, which will produce more body heat when eaten, hay or grain?
Hay produces more heat
What are the 2 basic classifications of forages?
Legumes & grasses
What is the most important factor affecting the quality of a forage at the time of harvesting?
Stage of maturity
What is the most common method used to process forages?
Baling
What is the oldest & most common method of selecting hay?
Visual appraisal
What is the most economical source of supplemental protein?
Soybean meal
What are the 2 most important dietary energy components in feeds?
Fats & carbohydrates
What is the most commonly cubed forage?
alfalfa
What is the device used to collect samples for analysis in baled hay?
Bale probe or bale core
What is the deficient amino acid in hays & grains?
Lysine
Typically horses receive nutrients for what 3 general sources?
Hay, pastures & grains
Which feed is used extensively in diets for horses that have respiratory problems such as heaves?
Beet pulp
What is probably the simplest & least expensive dry method of processing grains?
Grinding
Which nutrients are usually considered to be the body's fuel?
Energy nutrients (carbohydrates & fats)
Describe the color of a good quality hay.
Bright, leafy green
Where is most of the nutrient value found in hays?
Leaves
What is the most readily available grain in most sections of the country?
Corn
What type of hay is the best hay for horses?
Good quality grass-legume mixed hay
Which hays tend to be the least dusty?
Good grass hay
What are the 2 basic types of forages?
Grasses & legumes
Name the 2 minerals that the horse relies most heavily on for bone formation.
Calcium & phosphorus
Name the 2 basic classifications of forages.
Legumes & grasses
Name 2 ways that barley & milo should be processed before using them in a horse feed.
Crimped or rolled (milo can also be ground)
Pelleting hay can reduce the storage space requirements by how much?
Up to 75%
How much more digestible energy is contained in grains than in hays?
Grains have 50 -60% more
Which nutrient plays an important role in physiology of performance horses & is essential for fluid balance, nerve & muscle functions & acid-base balance?
Minerals
Lysine is a type of what nutrient?
Protein (amino acid)
Name 2 disadvantages of feeding straight oats for grain.
Cost per unit of energy & variations in quality
Which feed by-product is made by drying the residual beet chips after the sugar has been extracted?
Beet pulp
If you put extruded & pelleted feed each in a separate container of equal volume, which would weigh more?
Pelleted feeds may weigh twice as much as extruded feeds
In feeding management, what is the wicking effect?
Uptake of ground moisture into a bale of hay
What nutrients are harder for an older horse to digest?
Proteins, phosphorus, fiber
What are 5 forms of harvested forages?
Square bales, round bales, hay cubes, chopped hay, pelleted hay & silage
How can the likelihood of blister beetle poisoning be reduced when feeding alfalfa hay from the southwest?
Feed early season first cutting alfalfa
How many mineral elements are required in diets of horses?
21
What percent of protein should be in a suckling foal's creep feed?
16 - 18% protein
How much concentrate can be fed at one time?
Never more than 0.75% of the horse's body weight
What is quidding?
Dropping partially chewed feed from the mouth
Which nutrient is commonly involved as co-factors for the enzymes that convert fat & carbohydrates into energy?
Vitamins
Feral & other free-ranging horses will spend how long grazing per day in good forage?
10 - 12 hours
What is the form of stored fuel for exercise of high intensity & short duration?
Glycogen
What is the primary site for digestion & absorption of fats?
Small intestines
What is the average weight of a small bale of hay?
40 - 80 pounds
What is the maximum amount of concentrates that should be fed at any one feeding?
No more than .75% of horse's body weight
How many different minerals are required in the diet of horses & what are the 2 classifications of them?
21 different minerals classified as micro & macro (major) minerals
What class of nutrients do thiamine, riboflavin & folic acid belong to?
Vitamins
Which nutrient is an important structural component for muscle tissue, growth & tissue maintenance?
Proteins
What is the term for the units of measure that describes the amount of energy needed by a horse & is equal to 1,000 calories?
Megacalories
There are considerable differences in density among horse feeds. Therefore, feeding measurements should not be by volume but by what method?
Feed by weight
When does a pregnant mare have the greatest nutritional requirements?
During the third trimester of her gestation period
What are the organic compounds required in small amounts for the normal functioning of the body that are classified as fat soluble and water soluble?
Vitamins
What is a by-product of sucrose refined from sugar cane, sugar beets or from the manufacture of dried citrus pulp?
Molasses
What are the 21 different elements found in organic ash of feeds after burning off the organic matter?
Minerals
What are oat groats?
Oats with the hulls removed
If the percentage of protein in the form of lysine is higher in animal products such as dried skim milk & fish meal, why is soybean meal more commonly used?
Soybean meal is considerably less expensive
Do most grains have more calcium or phosphorus?
6 - 8 times more phosphorus
Which type of hay should not be fed to horses with kidney problems?
Alfalfa
What are the 2 classifications of amino acids?
Essential & Non-essential
When buying or selling & using a hay analysis report, what factor should be a prime consideration?
RFV (relative feeding value)
Grain processing may be roughly divided into 2 categories, name them.
Dry processing & wet processing
What is the primary objective of most grain processing methods?
To improve the availability of starch
What factor is determined by the amount of seed heads of grasses & the flowers of legumes are present at the time of harvest?
Stage of maturity
What part of alfalfa provides the most nutrition?
Its leaves
What percent of fat in the diet can a horse tolerate & use for energy?
10 - 15%
What method of processing feeds forces ground feeds through a die under pressure & steam heat & produces a feed that has the consistency of dry dog food?
Extruded
Name 2 grains that must be processed before feeding.
Rye, milo, barley & wheat
Name a way feed might be processed to aid in digestion for older horses or horses with poor teeth.
Ground, crimped or pelleted
What are the 5 types of nutrients?
Water, energy (carbohydrates & fats), protein, vitamins, minerals
How much of the adult horse's body is made up of water?
65 - 75%
How much of the foal's body is made up of water?
75 - 80%
A loss of what percent of the body's total water content can be fatal?
12 - 15%
Fresh green pasture contains about how much water?
75%
How long can a horse live without water?
Few days
How long can a horse live without food?
Few weeks
Feeds that are low in fiber & high in TDN are called what?
Concentrates
Feeds that are high in fiber & low in TDN are called what?
Forages
What is the general term for the less digestible form of carbohydrates found in foodstuffs?
Fiber
What is the complex compounds of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen, which mainly supply building material for the body?
Proteins
What is the compounds of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen, which mainly supply energy to the body?
Carbohydrates
What is the term for the entire feed allowed to an animal during a 24 hour day whether all is given at one time or at different times?
Ration
What is the term for a ration that contains all of the digestible nutrients that will properly nourish an animal for 24 hours?
Balanced ration
What is the term for a ration that furnishes just enough of each of the nutrients required to support an animal, which is doing no work & yielding no product, so that it will neither gain nor lose weight?
Maintenance ration
What is the sum of the digestible protein, digestible carbohydrates & digestible fat?
TDN
What is the term for that which is left in a feed sample after the water has been removed?
Dry matter
What is the term for the minerals that are needed in very small amounts for the normal functioning of the body?
Trace minerals
What do the initials, CHO stand for in regards to nutrients?
Carbohydrates
Which of the nutrients is the primary energy nutrient?
Carbohydrates
Name 2 examples of simple carbohydrates.
Sugars & starches
Name a complex carbohydrate.
Cellulose
Which type of carbohydrates would most commonly be found in molasses, grains & lush young grasses?
Simple carbohydrates
Digested fats are very dense & provide how much more usable energy than carbohydrates?
2.25 times more
What is the by-product feed produced from the outer layer of the wheat kernel?
Wheat bran
Which nutrients are required to give power to muscles, the brain & the digestive system?
Energy nutrients (carbohydrates & fats)
Excess fat that is eaten is stored as what?
Fat
Dry matter is what is left in a feed sample after what has been removed?
Water
What are the "building blocks" of proteins from which the bodies are built?
Amino acids
What are the material that forms the protein in all body tissues?
Amino acids
Proteins consist of long chains of what materials?
Amino acids
When are proteins broken down into amino acids?
During digestion
Without iron in the blood, what could not be carried to the body cells?
Oxygen
What are considered to be the body's "building blocks"?
Proteins
How are amino acids carried to the muscle, internal organs, bones, blood, skin & hair to be used to form body tissues?
Carried by the blood
Beta carotene is converted in the body into which vitamin?
Vitamin A
What is the term for minerals that are needed in larger amounts?
Macro-minerals
What is the term for minerals that are needed in tiny amounts?
Trace or micro-minerals
Name the vitamin that the horse gets from the sunlight or from sun cured hays & uses this vitamin for making strong bones.
Vitamin D
What term describes the feed nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, copper, sodium & iron?
Minerals
There are two main forms of forages, one is dry forages such as hays & straw, what is the other form of green forage?
Pastures
What is a common problem with hay that can cause breathing problems for the horse & makes the hay not taste very good?
Too much dust in hay (or mold in hay)
In very cold weather, which will produce more body heat & keep the horse warmer -- feeding more grain, more hay or more salt?
Hay
What is the normal body temperature of a normal healthy adult horse?
100 - 101.5 degrees
What is the normal pulse or heart rate for a normal healthy adult idle horse?
45 - 60 beats per minute
What is the normal breathing or respiration rate for a normal adult healthy idle horse?
8 - 15 breaths per minute
Which part of grasses can be used to determine its stage of maturity?
Head of the grass
In referring to nutrients, what to the initials, Ca stand for?
Calcium
Dehydrated forages are made by processing lush-growing, highly nutritious forages through a heated dryer called what?
Dehydrator
Which type of forage is used mostly as vitamin & protein supplements, a high fiber content & are processed through a heated dryer?
Dehydrated forages
Horses should be rotated to fresh pastures, how often?
Every 2 weeks
Which grain is high in TDN but is low in protein, fiber, calcium & phosphorus?
Corn
What health problem can be caused by feeding dusty hay?
Heaves or respiratory problems
What should be suspected if you find dull, dark hay with dust & mold inside the bale of hay to be purchased?
Hay was baled before it was dry enough
Name a dehydrated forage.
Alfalfa leaf meal
Hay that is baled too wet may have fermentation within the bale, which sometimes can cause what serious problem within the hay loft?
Fire from spontaneous combustion
What is the general percentage of molasses that is added to commercially mixed grain rations?
5 - 15%
Excessive exposure to sunlight & air can decrease the content of which nutrient in hay?
Carotene (Vitamin A)
Finely ground corn should not be fed alone, because it may increase the risk of what problem?
Colic
What are 2 physical forms in which salt may be offered to horses for consumption?
Block & loose
Allowing a hot horse to drink large quantities of water, may cause what problem?
Founder (laminitis)
Name 2 ways milo can be fed to horses.
Crushed or ground
Which part of legumes can be used to determine its stage of maturity?
Bud or bloom
Why should you feed more hay in the winter than grain if grain has a higher energy content?
Fermentative digestion of hay produces more body heat & keeps horse warmer
It is a good idea to feed what prior to placing horses in good pasture for the first time in the spring?
Hay before turning them into the pasture
In winter a horse should not be forced to eat snow to meet its water needs. How much snow would have to be eaten to equal one quart of water?
12 quarts of snow
When classifying feeds, into which category do grains, energy-rich supplements, by-product feeds, vitamin & mineral supplements fall?
Concentrates
When classifying feeds, into which category do pastures & hays fall?
Forages
Which of the 2 main forms of forages has a higher dry matter content?
Dry forages
Corn, oats, by-product feeds & supplemental vitamins, minerals or protein would be classified in which of the 3 main types of feeds?
Concentrates
Grass & legume hays, straw & pastures would be classified into which of the 3 main types of feeds?
Forages
Dicalcium phosphate is a good source of which 2 minerals?
Calcium & phosphorus
A horse weight tape can be used to estimate the weight of a horse by measuring where on the horse?
Around the heart girth
An excess of which mineral can interfere with the complete utilization of phosphorus in a ration?
Calcium
What is the term for the "hard to digest" carbohydrates in grasses?
Cellulose
What is the component that minerals have that vitamins lack?
Carbon
Fats are higher in the percentage of which 2 elements than carbohydrates?
Carbon & hydrogen
Hay that is pale yellow or of a brownish color, is likely to have what happened to it prior to baling?
Rained on or baled before it was dry
Hay stored indoors for one to two years will lose about what percentage of its nutrient content?
15 - 20%
What is general term for a feed component that aids in the support of life?
Nutrient
What is the term for the amount of a nutrient found in feed?
Crude or total nutrient
What is the term for the part of each nutrient which is digested, taken into the body & used?
Digestible nutrient
What is the term for the part of the total or crude protein of a feed that can be used by the animal?
Digestive protein
What is the plant pigment that is the precursor of vitamin A?
Carotene
Simple carbohydrates are digested by enzymes in what part of the digestive system?
Small intestines
What type of carbohydrates would most commonly be found in roughages, mature pastures & hay?
Complex carbohydrates
Most cellulose is digested in what part of the digestive system?
Large intestine & cecum
Fats & oils are chemically alike except for what physical characteristic?
Fats are solid at body temperature & oils are liquid
Name one other function of fat other than to provide energy.
Aid in absorption of fat soluble vitamins
What is the term for the part of the ration that is a concentrated form of one or more of the essential nutrients?
Supplement
What is a feed stuff produced as a secondary product in the manufacturing of another feed, usually a grain?
By-product feed
Excess carbohydrates eaten are stored as what 2 sources?
Muscle glycogen or fat
Name the 3 main types of feeds.
Forages, mixed feeds & concentrates
Hay & grain contain approximately how much water?
10%
What is the term for the feed supplied to a mature idle horse that will cause neither a weight gain or weight loss?
Maintenance ration
Simple carbohydrates are digested in the small intestine by what?
Enzymes
Complex carbohydrates are digested in the large intestine & cecum by what?
Bacteria
Amino acids can be made up of what 5 elements?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen & sometimes sulfur, phosphorus or iron
How many different amino acids are found in the horse's diet?
23
How many essential amino acids are in the horse's diet?
10
How many non-essential amino acids are in the horse's diet?
13
Which of the essential amino acids is the most important to the horse?
Lysine
Lysine is the most important essential amino acid to the horse, which is the second most important?
Threonine
The type & arrangement of what, within a protein determines the quality of the protein?
Amino acids
What type of amino acids can be built within the horse's body by breaking down & reconstructing the essential amino acids?
Non-essential amino acids
Proteins are considered higher in quality when they contain more of what?
Essential amino acids
Name the chemical elements that make up proteins.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sometime sulfur, phosphorus & iron
Why are there different levels of protein in grain mixtures?
Protein levels in grain should compliment protein levels in the forages. Pastures/hays with lots of legumes require less protein in grain mix. Mature grasses have lower protein level & require more protein in the grain. Growing foals need more protein
Which type of nutrient is most important to increase in the diet of the horse that is increasing the amount of work it is performing?
Carbohydrates & fats (energy nutrients)
Name 3 different body tissues that use protein from the diet.
Muscle, skin, hair, bones, internal organs, blood, hooves
What are the 2 main types of vitamins?
Fat-soluble & water soluble
Name the 4 fat soluble vitamins.
A, D, E & K
Which vitamins are considered to be water soluble vitamins?
Vitamin C & B-complex
In what 2 parts of the body, are fat soluble vitamins stored?
Fat cells & liver
Which type of vitamins are not stored in the body & excreted with water?
Water soluble vitamins
Which 2 vitamins are essential in the diet, because they can not be manufactured in the horse's body?
Vitamins A & E
Name 2 vitamins that are produced by metabolic reactions inside the horse's body.
Vitamins C & D, niacin
Name 2 vitamins that are produced by bacteria in the horse's cecum & large colon?
All of the B vitamins & vitamin K
All of the B vitamins & Vitamin K are produced by bacteria that live in what 2 parts of the horse?
Cecum & large colon
Which vitamin is responsible for eye function, bone development & proper formation of cells?
Vitamin A
Which vitamin is responsible for bone formation, proper absorption & body used of calcium & phosphorus?
Vitamin D
Which vitamin enhances immunity?
Vitamin E
Which vitamin aids in blood clotting?
Vitamin K
Which vitamin is lost as hay ages for longer than one year?
Vitamin A
What is another name for ascorbic acid?
Vitamin C
Which 2 vitamins works to protect the body & all cells from oxidation?
Vitamin E & C
What is the term for the burning of a substance to produce energy within the body?
Oxidation
Which vitamin can be produced by the horse's liver or kidneys?
Vitamin C
What is the general term for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, folic acid & cobalamin?
B-complex vitamins
Name the vitamin that man's body can not manufacture but a horse can produce it in it's liver & kidneys?
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
What part of the horse produces vitamin D when exposed to sunlight?
Skin
What is a good source of vitamin A for a horse?
Fresh pastures & hay
What are 2 good sources of vitamin D for horses?
Sun-cured forages & sunlight
What is a good source of vitamin E for horses?
Fresh green forages (some in hay & grains)
Name 2 good sources of vitamin K for horses?
Pastures & hays (some is produce by bacteria that lives in cecum & large colon)
What are the 2 main types of minerals?
Macro-minerals & trace or micro-minerals
What are the 5 main types of feed nutrients needed by a horse?
Water, energy (carbohydrates & fats), protein, vitamins, minerals
What does the initials, TDN stand for when talking about feed?
Total digestible nutrients
Name 3 vitamins needed in the horse's diet to keep the horse healthy.
Vitamins A, B, C, D, E & K
Name 3 of the most important energy-rich grains fed to horses.
Corn, oats, barley & milo
Which 2 minerals are essential to bone formation, bone maintenance & strength of the skeletal system?
Calcium & phosphorus
In addition to bone formation & maintenance, which mineral is also necessary for proper muscle contraction & relaxation?
Calcium
In addition to bone formation & maintenance, which mineral is also involved in the transfer of energy throughout the body?
Phosphorus
Which mineral is a component of bones & teeth & plays an important role in muscle contraction & metabolism of nutrients?
Magnesium
Which mineral is required for the productions of some amino acids & vitamins?
Sulfur
Which mineral is a component of insulin?
Sulfur
Which hormone is needed to regulate blood sugar concentration?
Insulin
Which mineral is required for regulation of osmotic pressure of the cells?
Sodium
Which mineral is required for digestion in the stomach as hydrochloric acid?
Chloride
Which mineral helps keep bone & blood vessel elastic & plays a role in the production of melanin?
Copper
Which mineral helps bone growth & is involved with protein & carbohydrate utilization?
Zinc
Which mineral is required for the hemoglobin molecule that carries oxygen in the blood?
Iron
Which mineral is needed for carbohydrate & fat metabolism & helps to build cartilage?
Manganese
Which mineral is needed for production of hormones in the thyroid gland?
Iodine
Which mineral works with vitamin E to protect the body tissue & maintains muscle coordination?
Selenium
What mineral is needed for the production of cobalamine, a B-complex vitamin?
Cobalt
What is cobalamine?
A B-complex vitamin
If feeding a protein supplement is high in energy value, why not always add it to a ration?
It is useless if protein requirements are complete in balanced rations, it is expensive & can cause digestive upsets.
Spring pastures can be quite laxative, which type of pastures tend to be the most laxative?
Legume pastures
What are 2 different kinds of salt used for horses?
White salt & trace mineral salt
What do the initials, TDN stand for?
Total digestible nutrients
Name 4 by-product feeds from the grain milling industry commonly used in horse feeds.
Wheat bran, rice bran, wheat middlings, rye middlings
Oats nutritional value varies considerably due to the proportions of what 2 parts of the grain?
Fibrous hull to nutritious inner kernel of grain
Before purchasing hay, it is a good idea to do what simple test of quality?
Open several bales & examine them for quality
Name 3 nutrients that are found in higher levels in legumes than grasses.
Protein, energy, calcium, phosphorus
What is the term for a colorized salt with small amounts of minerals?
Trace mineral salt
Because it is sticky, sweet & smells good, this is added to a grain ration to increase the appetite of the horse, what is it?
Molasses
Name 2 ways barley can be fed to horses.
Rolled or ground
Since barley can cause colic if fed alone, it should be mixed with at least what percent of oats?
At least 25% oats
Other than a source of nutrition, what is another use of a pasture?
Exercise
Of the following which 2 will have the highest percentage of TDN: grains, grasses, hays, protein supplements?
Grains & protein supplements
What is the safest & easiest grain to feed?
Oats
What grain is higher in protein & fiber but lower in energy than corn?
Oats
Name 4 commonly used mineral supplements added to horse feed.
Salt, iodized salt, ground limestone, steamed bone meal, dicalcium phosphate
Of the 4 most commonly used protein supplements, which one is the lowest in protein & usually is not the most economical source of protein?
Linseed meal
Name 2 problems that can be caused by heavy rain on nearly cured mowed hay.
Loss of carotene (vitamin A), carbohydrates & protein
Why should salt be available to horse at all times, especially in the summer?
They lose significant amounts of salt in sweat, which may not be replaced by the grain portion of the ration alone
What is the term for the number of horses that can be properly grazed on a plot of land?
Carrying capacity
Which hays tend to be the most dusty?
Pure legumes

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