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Glossary of James History Landscape

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Created by jhale2009

allee
evenly spaced row of trees, often an alley of trees
amenagement
organization of space
bois
woods (hunting park)
bosques/bosquets
park planned for a purpose
cabinets de verdure
an enclosure, a cabinet of greenery
chateau
castle
jardin
garden in french
parterre de broderie
low hedge or flower gardens creating a pattern (meant to be seen from above)
patte d'oie
goosefoot intersection, long central axis splits into 3
pottage
kitchen garden
quincunx
geometric pattern consisting of five coplanar points, four of them forming a square or rectangle and a fifth at its center.
rond point
round point, in hunting parks areas that allow horseback riders to both reconvene, turnaround, or kill animals
caryatid
column in the shape of a female at the acropolis in athens
azulejo
tiles...
qanat
underground engineering of the transfer of water, comes from ancient mesopotamia
chahar bagh
coming from islamic tradition, quadparti garden
chinampa
floating islands
espalier
controlling the growth of plants
firm ornee
the ornamental working farm
grotto
a small enclosed space, like a cave that implies presence of water
exedra
semicircular form that reaches up into an arch
promenade
walkway
portico
porch
mirador
window opening to a beautiful view
Kevin lynch's 5 points for understanding urban form
district, path, landmark, edge, node
acropolis
city of eternity, city built on top of hill to be close to the Gods
axis mundi
point of connection between sky and earth where the four compass directions meet
genius Loci
spirit of place
Delphi
the sanctuary and temple complex prayed to the God Apollo
Eden
idea of garden as paradise and utopia
procession
to go forth, advance
Colister garth
an enclosed courtyard
Colonnade
long sequence of columns joined by their entablature, often free-standing, or part of a building.
enfilade
a series of rooms
villa rustica
villa set in the open countryside
villa urbana
urban villa
ramp Douce
double ramps
aquaduct
a water supply or navigable channel constructed to convey water
feng shui
an ancient Chinesesystem of aesthetics believed to use the laws of both Heaven (astronomy) and Earth (geography) to help one improve life by receiving positive qi
moon gate
a circular opening in a garden wall that acts as a pedestrian passageway, and a traditional architectural element in Chinese gardens
pagod
a tiered tower with multiple eaves
pavilion
a free-standing structure sited a short distance from a main residence, whose architecture makes it an object of pleasure
rockery
rocks are size of person to bring the sense of mountain to garden
yuan
garden
bosco
garden
casino/casini
house
fresco
any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings
tapis vert
an unbroken expanse of lawn used as a major element of a landscape design
reflecting pool or canal
a small pool or canal used for meditation or viewing pleasures and nothing else
forecourt
an open area in front of a structure's entrance
boulevard
usually a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare, divided with a median down the center, and roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage, often with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery
City Beautiful movement
a reform movement in North American architecture and urban planning that flourished in the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities
Haussman, Baron Georges
Prefect of the Seine under Napoléon III hired by Napoleon III on 22 June 1852 to "modernize" Paris. He hoped in hiring Haussmann that Paris could be molded into a city with safer streets, better housing, more sanitary, hospitable, shopper-friendly communities, better traffic flow, and, last but not least, streets too broad for rebels to build barricades across them and where coherent battalions and artillery could circulate easily if need be
parkway(s)
median
urban form // urban fabric
city, planning for large numbers of people, multiple jobs, mass numbers of cars, transportation, health, safety, housing, commercial, etc.
Mughal
imperial power that began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of India by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century
quadripartite
dividing objects into four equal parts at 90 degrees such as a chahar bagh
Temple Tomb of Hatshepsut
Egypt, 1470 BC, New Kingdom Architect, P=Female Pharaoh Hatshepsut.
Area goes underwater when Nile Floods


Casa del Fauno
Pompeii, Italy. 1st Century A.D. P=Wealthy Citizen
It’s a villa Urbana


Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Iraq, 600 BC. P=Nebudchadnezzar II
He built it for his homesick wife


Alhambra
Granada, Spain. 13 Century AD. P=Islamic Ruler Mohamed
Water cools the interior space


Villa d'Este
Tivoli, 16th century. D= Pirro Ligorio. P= Cardinal Ippolito
Has playful water fountains


Belvedere Cortile
Vatican City, 16th Century. D= Bramante. P= Pope Julius II.
Popes bedroom is above the courtyard.


Villa Lante
Italy. 16th Century. D= Barozzi da Vignola. P= Cardinal Gambara.
The garden is filled with allusive allegory


Taj Mahal
India. 17th Century. D= Lahauri. P= Shah Jahan
Structure was built as a tomb for his 3rd Wife.


Versailles
Paris, France. 17th Century. D= Andrew Le Notre. P=King Louis XIV
Lots of Apollo Imagery


University of Virginia - "The Lawn"
Charlottesville, VA. 19th Century. D= Thomas Jefferson. P= Jefferson
Rotunda is ½ scale of the Pantheon


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