Glossary of Introductory Psycology CLEP Test

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"The focus of psychological science is the attempt to relate overt responses to observable environmental stimuli."
Which of the following types of research design is most appropriate for establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables?
The science of psyscology is typically dated from the establishment of the late-nineteenth-century Leipzig laboratory of
Wilhelm Wundt.
Which of the following control procedures would be most appropriate in evaluating the behavioral change produced by a drug?
The statement "response latency is the number of seconds that elapses between the stimulus and the response" is an example of
An operational definition.
The release of a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft is caused by which of the following?
An action potential.
A neuron is said to be polarized when
it is in a resting state.
Down syndrome is caused by
An extra chromosome.
How many pairs of chromosomes are contained in most human cells?
Damage to an individual's parietal lobes would most likely result in
a reduced sensitivity to touch.
In adults, total sensory deprivation for long periods of time produces
hallucinations and impaired efficiency in all areas of intellectual functioning.
Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the retina?
The rods are more dense in the fovea than in the periphery.
The opponent-process theroy in vision best explains which of the following?
Color afterimages.
The receptors for hearing are the
hair cells on the basilar membrane.
The picture of a road receding in the distance represents the depth perception cue known as
linear perspective.
Which of the following type of sleep pattern that becomes less prevalent as one moves from infancy to adulthood?
According to current psychological research, hypnosis is most useful for which of the following purposes?
Pain control.
Checking the coin return every time one passes a pay telephone or a vending machine is a type of behavior probably being maintained by which of the following schedules of reinforcement?
Variable ratio only.
Making the amount of time a child can spend playing video games contingent on the amount of time the child spends practicing the piano is an illustration of
Operant Conditioning.
Which of the following strategies would undermine the effectiveness of punishment?
Delaying punishment.
A teacher tells a child to sit down in class. Over the course of several days, the child is standing up more and more frequently, only to be told to sit down each time. It is most likely that the teacher's reprimands are serving as
a reinforcer.
Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
Shortly after learning to associate the word "dog" with certain four-legged furry animals, young children will frequently misidentify a cow or a horse as a dog. This phenomenon is best viewed as an example of
Stimulus Generalization.
If on the last day of a psychology class, a student is asked to remember what was done in class each day during the term, she will likely be able to remember best the activities of the first and last class meetings. This situation is an example of
The serial position effect.
Proactive interference describes a process by which
Prior learning interferes with subsequent learning.
Research has shown that students generally perform better if tested in the same room where they did their learning. This shows the importance of which of the following in memery?
Which of the following is true of recall performance on a typcial forgetting curve?
It decreases rapidly at first and then it levels off.
According to information processing theory, information is progressively processed by
sensory memory, short-term memory, and then long-term memory.
One theory of the effects of arousal holds that efficiency of behavior can be described as an inverted U-shaped funtion of increasing arousal. Which of the following accurately describes this relationship?
Low and high levels of arousal lead to poorest performance.
Which of the following presents a pair of needs from Abraham Maslow's hierarchical need structure in order from lower to higher need?
Physiological needs, safety.
In an approach-avoidance conflict, as the person nears the goal, the levels of attraction and aversion change in which of the following ways?
Both increase.
Brain waves during REM sleep generally appear as
rapid low-amplitude waves.
The requirement that prospective participants know the general nature of a study so that they can decide whether to participate is a major part of ....
C. Informed consent

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