Glossary of Intro to Sociology CLEP glossary

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process by which smaller society can preserve major features of its culture even after prolonged contact w/ larger culture
process by which members of a civilization incorporate norms & values of other cultures
achieved status
position/rank earned through efforts of the individual
age cohort
set of ppl of @ same age passing through the life course together
age grade
set of statuses & roles based on age
ideology justifying prejudice & discrimination based on age
agencies of socialization
groups of ppl, along w/ interactions occurring w/in those groups, influencing a person's social development
agents of socialization
individuals who socialize others
feeling of powerlessness re: control of one's own destiny; a worker's feeling of powerlessness owing to inability to control work process
form of religion: all forms of life & aspects of the earth are inhabited by gods/supernatural powers
state of normlessness
anticipatory socialization
prepares individual for a role he/she is likely to assume later in life
ascribed status
position/rank assigned to individual @ birth & cannot be changed
pattern of intergroup relations: minority group is absorbed into majority pop.--> disappears as distinct group; process by which culturally distinct groups in larger civilization adopt norms, values, & language of host civilization & can gain equal statuses in its groups & institutions
power considered legitimate by those who exercise it & those affected by it - governed by norms & statuses of organizations
thry: all behavior is learned &this learning occurs through conditioning
sexual orientation twd either sex
formal organization characterized by clearly defined hierarchy w/ commitment to rules, efficiency, & impersonality
system for organizing the production of goods & services - based on markets, provate property, & business firm/company
social stratum into which ppl are born & in which they remain for life
special quality/"gift" motivating ppl to follow a particular leader
charismatic authority
authority coming to an individual through personal calling, often claimed t/b inspired by supernatural powers, legitimated by ppl's belief that the leader does indeed have God-given powers
religious organization w/ strong ties to the larger society
status of membership in a nation-state
cultural complex formed by identical major cultural features of a number of societies
civil religion
collection of beliefs & rituals existing outside religious institutions
civil society
sphere of nongovernmental, nonbusiness social activity carried out by voluntary associations, congregations, etc.
social stratum defined primarily by economic criteria ie occupation, income, & wealth
class consciousness
group's shared subjective awareness of objective situation as a class
closed question
question requiring respondent to choose among a predetermined set of answers
closed society
society: social mobility does not exist
closed stratification system
stratification system: rigid boundaries b/w social strata
collective behavior
nonroutine behavior engaged in by large nos. of ppl responding to common stimulus
communications media
institutions specializing in communicating info, images, & values @ ourselves, our communitities, & our society
set of primary & secondary groups in which individual carries out imp. life functions
shaping of behavior through reward & punishment
promise that info provided to researcher by respondent will not appear in any way that c/b traced to respondent
conflict thry
sociological perspective emphasizing role of conflict & power in society
control group
subjects not experiencing a change in independent variable
controlled experiment
researcher manipulates independent variable in order to observe & measure changes in dependent variable
core state
technologically advanced nation w/ dominant position in world economy
specific relationship b/w 2 variables
subculture challenging accepted norms & values of larger society & est. alternative lifestyle
act/omission of an act that is prohibited by law
large no. of ppl gathered together in close proximity to one another
crude birthrate
no. of births occurring during a year in a given pop, divided by midyear pop
crude death rate
no. of deaths occurring during a year in a given pop, divided by midyear pop
new religion
cultural evolution
process by which successful cultural adaptations are passed down E 1 gen to next
cultural lag
time required for social institutions to adapt to a major technological change
cultural relativity
recognition that all cultures develop own ways of dealing w/ specific demands of their environs
all modes of thought, behavior, & production handed down E 1 gen to next by communicative interaction rather than genetic trans.
de facto segregation
segregation created & maintained by unwritten norms
de jure segregation
segregation created by formal legal sactions prohibiting certain groups E interacting w/ others/placing limits on such interactions
respect & esteem shown to an individual
leader who uses personal charisma & political symbols to manipulate public opinion
ways in which individuals present themselves to others E body language, dress, speech, & manners
political system in which all citizens have right to participate in public decision making
demographic transition
set of major changes in birth & death rates occurring most completely in urban industrial nations in past 200 years
democratic socialism
economic philosophy based on belief that private property may exist at same time that large corps are owned by state & run for benefit of all citizens
religious organization on good terms w/ institution E which it developed but must compete w/ other denominations for members
dependent variable
variable a hypothesis seeks to explain
developing nation
nation undergoing set of transformations to increase productivity of its ppl, their health, their literacy, & their ability to participate in politcal decision making
behavior violating norms of a particular society
differential association
thry explaining deviance as a learned behavior determined by extent of a person's association w/ individuals who engage in such behaviors
processes whereby sets of social activities performed by one social institution are divided among different institutions
behavior tx ppl unfairly on the basis of their group membership
downward mobility
mov't by individual/group to a lower social stratum
dramaturgical approach
approach to reasearch on interaction in groups based on recognition that much social interaction depends on desire to impress those who m/b watching
group consisting of 2 ppl
process by which society transmits knowledge, values, norms, & ideologies & in so doing prepares young ppl for adult roles & adults for new roles
educational achievement
how much student actually learns, measured by mastery of reading, writing, & mathematical skills
educational attainment
no. of years of school an individual has completed
part of human personality: individual's conception of him/herselg in relation to others
norm specifying that a person brought up in a partcular culture may marry w/in the cultural group
endogenous force
pressure for social change that builds w/in a society
equality of opportunity
equal opportunity to achieve desired levels of material well-being & prestige
equality of result
equality in actual outcomes of ppl's attempts to improve their material well-being & prestige
ethnic group
pop w/ sense of group identity based on shared ancestry & distinctive cultural patterns
ethnic (or racial) nationalism
belief that one's own ethnic group constitutes a distinct ppl whose culture is & s/b separate E that of larger society
ethnic stratification
ranking of ethnic groups in social hierarchy on basis of e. group's similarity to dominant group
tendency to judge other cultures as inferior to one's own
study of underlying rules of behavior that guide group interaction
norm specifying that a person brought up in a paricular culture may marry outside the cultural group
exogenous force
pressure for social change exerted E outside a society
experimental group
subjects who are exposed to a change in the independent variable
forcible removal of 1 pop E territory claimed by another pop
extended family
individual's nuclear family plus the nuclear familites of his/her blood relatives
group of ppl related by blood, marriage,/adoption
family of orientation
nuclear family in which a person is born & raised
family of procreation
nuclear family a person forms E marriage/cohabitation
feral child
child reared outside human society
field experiment
experimental situation in which researcher observes & studies subjects in their natural setting
weakly sanctioned norms
formal organization
group w/ explicit, often written, set of norms, statuses, & roles that specify e/ member's relationships to others & conditions under which those relationships hold
frequency distribution
classification of data describing how many observations fall w/in e. category of a variable
sociological perspective focusing on the ways a complex pattern of social structures & arrangements contribute to social order
close, personal relationships of small groups & communities
culturally defined ways of acting as a male/female that become part of an individual's personal sense of self
gender role
set of behaviors considered appropriate for an individual of a particular gender
gender socialization
ways in which we learn our gender identity & develop according to cultural norms of masculinity & femininity
generalized other
a person's internalized conception of the expectations & attitudes held by society
intentional extermination of one pop by a more dominant pop
study of aging & older ppl
term used to refer to well-organized but impersonal relationships among the members of modern societies
section of a city that is segregated racially/culturally
any collection of ppl who interact w/ one another on the basis of shared expectations regarding one another's behavior
Hawthorne effect
unintended effect resulting E attn given to subjects in an experimental situation
person whose primary sexual organs have features of both male & female organs, making it difficult to categorize the individual as male/female
sexual orientation tws opposite sex
tendency to marry a person who is similar to oneself in social background
sexual orientation twd same sex
horticultural society
society whose primary means of subsistence is raising crops, which it plants & cultivates, often developing an extensive system for watering the crops
human ecology
sociological perspective emphasizing relationships among social order, social disorganization, & distribution of pops in time & space
statement specifying a relationship b/w 2/more variables that c/b tested E empirical observation
part of human personality E which all innate drives arise
ways of thinking that organize human consciousness
social process whereby an individual chooses role models & attempts to imitate their behavior
systems of values & norms that members of a society are expected to believe in & act on S question
impression management
strategies on uses to "set a stage" for one's own purposes
social group to which an individual has a feeling of allegiance; us., but not always, a primary group
independent variable
variable the reseracher believes causes a change in another variable
informal organization
group whose norms & statuses are generally agreed upon but are not set down in writing
informed consent
right of respondents t/b informed of purpose for which info they supply w/b used & to judge degree of personal risk involved in answering questions, even w/ an assurance of confidentiality
more/less stable structure of statuses & roles devoted to meeting the basic needs of ppl in a society
institutional discrimination
systematic exclusion of ppl E equal participation in a particular institution b/c of group membership
sociological perspective viewing social order & change as resulting E all repeated interactions among individuals & groups
interest group
organization that attempts to influence elected & appointed officials regarding a specific issue/set of issues
intergenerational mobility
change in the social class of family member E 1 gen to the next
internal colonialism
thry of racial & ethnic inequality that suggests that some minorities are essentially colonial ppls w/in larger society
intragenerational mobility
change in the social class of an individual w/in his/her own lifetime
Jim Crow
system of formal & informal segregation existing in US E late 1860s to early 1970s
role relations among ppl who consider themselves t/b related by blood, marriage,/adoption
thry explaining deviance as a societal reaction that brands/labels as deviant ppl who engage in certain behaviors
laissez-faire capitalism
economic philosophy based on the belief that the wealth of a nation c/b measured by its capacity to produce goods & services & that these c/b maximized by free trade
norms written by specialists, collected in codes/manuals of behaviour, & interpreted & applied by other specialists
legal authority
authority legitimated by ppl's belief in the supremacy of the law; obedience is owed not to a person but to a set of impersonal principles
ability of a society to engender & maintain belief that existing political institutions are most appropriate for that society
life chances
opportunities an individual will have/be denied Eout life as a result of his/her social-class position
life course
pathway along an age-differentiated, socially created sequence of transitions
life expectancy
average no. of years a member of a given pop can expect to live
lifetime negative experiences
experiences that cause long-term stress, ie death of child/spouse
linguistic-relativity hypothesis
belief that language determines possibilities for thought & action in any given culture
process whereby interest groups seek to persuade legislators to vote in their favor on particular bills
long-distance upward mobility
form of upward mobility in which a person rises during his/her own lifetime E low family status to membership in a professional/managerial elite
macro-level sociology
approach to study of society focusing on major structures & institutions of society
economic institution regulating exchange behavior E est. of different values for particular goods & services
large no. of ppl who are all oriented twd a set of shared symbols/social objects
mass public
large pop of potential spectators/participants who engage in collective behavior
master status
status taking precedence over all of an individual's other statuses
material culture
patterns of possessing & using products of culture
complex of cities distributed along a major axis of traffic and communication, w/ total pop exceeding 25mil
economic philosophy based on belief tat wealth of a nation c/b measured by its holdings of gold/other precious metals & the state should control trade
metropolitan area
central city surrounded by no. of smaller cities & suburbs closely related to it socially & economically
micro-level sociology
approach to study of socity focusing on patterns of scoial interaction at individual level
middle-level sociology
approach to study of society focusing on relationships b/w social structures & individual
minority group
pop that, b/c of members' physical/cultural characteristics, is singled out E others in society for differential & unequal tx
changes experienced by societies & individuals as a result of industrialization, urbanization, & development of nation-states
term used to describe a theistic belief system centered on belief in single all-powerful God
strongly sanctioned norms
multinational corporation
economic enterprise w/ headquarters in one country & conducting business in one/more other countries
belief of ppl that they have the right & duty to consitute themselves as a nation-state
largest territory w/in which a society's political institutions can operate S facing challenges to their sovereignty
natural selection
relative success of organisms w/ specific genetic mutations in reproducing new generations w/ new trait
nonterritorial community
newtork of relationships formed @ shared goals
normative order
array of norms permitting a society to achieve relatively peaceful social control
specific rules of behavior
nuclear family
2/more ppl related by blood, marriage,/adoption who share a household
objective class
social class w/ visible, specific relationship to means of production
occupational prestige
honor/prestige attributed to specific occupations by adults in a society
rule by a few ppl who stay in office indefinitely rather than for limited terms
open question
question not requeiring respondent to choose from predetermined answers. Respondent may answer in his/her own words
open society
society in which social mobility is possible for everyone
open stratification system
stratification system in which boundaries b/w social strata are easily crossed
opinion leader
individual who consistently influences attitudes & behavior of others
any social group to which an individual does not have a feeling of allegiance; m/b in competition/conflict w/ in-group
model comprising existing thries & methods; general way of seeing world that dictates what kind of scientific work s/b done & what kinds of thry are acceptable
participant observation
form of observation in which researcher participates to some degree in lives of ppl being observed
pastoral society
society whose primary means of subsistence is herding animals & moving w/ them over wide expanse of grazing land
dominance of men over women
jobs & economic benefits that party leaders can exchange for votes & political influence
peer group
interacting group of ppl of @ same age w/ significant influence on norms & values of members
percent analysis
mathematical operation transforming absolute no. into proportion as part of 100
peripheral area
region supplying basic resources & labor power to more advanced states
plea bargaining
process in which a person charged w/ a crime agrees to plead guilty to a lesser charge
pluralist model
thry stating no single group controls political decisions; plurality of interest groups influence those decisions E process of coalition building & bargaining
pluralistic society
society in which different ethnic & racial groups are able to maintain their own cultures & lifestyles while gaining equality in the institutions of the larger society
political institution
set of norms & statuses pertaining to exercise of power & authority
political party
organization of ppl who join together to gain legitimate control of state authority
political revolution
set of changes in political structures & leadership of a society
theistic belief system incl numerous gods
ability to control behavior of others, even against their will
power-elite model
thry stating that political decisions are controlled by an elite of rich & powerful individuals even in societies w/ democratic political institutions
attitude that pejudges a person based on real/imagined characteristic of a group to which that person belongs
primary deviance
act resulting in labeling of the offender as deviant
primary group
small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face associations
right of a respondent to define when & on what terms his/her actions m/b revealed to general public
phenomena not considered sacred
occupation w/ body of knowledge & developed intellectual technique transmitted by formal educational process & testing procedures
psychological process whereby we atribute to other ppl behaviors & attitudes that we are unwilling to accept in ourselves
psychosocial risk behaviors
behaviors that are detrimental to health
public opinion
values & attitudes held by mass publics
inbreeding pop devloping distinctive physical characteristics that are hereditary
ideology based on belief that an observable, supposedly inherited trat is a mark of inferiority that justifies discriminatory tx of ppl w/ that trait
rate of reproductive change
difference b/w crude birthrate & crude death rate for given pop
criminal who is returned to prison after having served at least 1 term there
reference group
group that an individual uses as a frame of reference for self-evaluation & attitude formation
relative deprivation
deprivation as determined by comparison w/ others rather than by some objective measure
set of coherent answers to dilemmas of human existence making the world meaningful; system of beliefs & ritual serving to bind ppl together into a social group
depth of a person's religious feelings
intense, deliberate socialization designed to change major beliefs & behaviors
rite of passage
ceremony marking transition to a new stage of a culturally defined life course
formal pattern of activity that expresses symbolically a set of shared meanings
way a society defines how an individual is to behave in a particular status
role conflict
conflict occurring when in order to perform 1 role well a person must violate the expectations associated w/ another role
role expectations
society's expectations @ how a role s/b performed, together w/ the individual's perceptions of what is requred in performing that role
role strain
conflict occurring when the expectations associated w/ a single role are contradictory
role taking
trying to look at social situations E standpoint of another person E whome 1 seeks a response
term used to describe phenomena regarded as extraordinary, transcendent, & outside everyday course of events
set of respondents selected E specific pop
sample survey
survey administered to selection of respondents drawn E specific pop
rewards & punishments for abiding by/violating norms
convenient target for hostility
knowledge obtained as a result of process of developing & testing hypotheses
scientific method
process by which thries & explanations are contructed E repeated observation & careful description
secondary deviance
behavior engaged in as a reaction to experience of being labeled as a deviant
secondary group
social group whose members have shared goal/purpose but are not bound together by strong emotional ties
religious organization rejecting beliefs & practices of existing churches; us. formed when a group leaves the church to form a rival organization
process where dominance of religion over other institutions is reduced
ecological & institutional separation of races/ethnic groups
semiperipheral area
state/region in which industry & financial institutions are developed to some extent but that remains dependent on capital & technology provided by other states
biological differences b/w males & females, incl primary sex characteristics present @ birth & secondary sex characteristics developing later
ideology justifying prejudice & discrimination based on sex
manner in which a person engages in the intimate behaviors connected w/ genital stimulation, orgasm, & procreation
significant other
any person who is imp. to an individual

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