Glossary of Intro Study Guide Questions CH 5,6,7

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What is the study of how Disease affects body function called?
The study of the cause of a disease is called what?
What does incidence mean?
A disease's range of occurance and its tendancy to affect certains individuals more than other groups
Define Morbidity rate.
The proportion of people with a specific disease in a given populations per unit of time
Define Mortality rate.
The percentage of the population that dies from a given disease within a period of time
What is an "Acute" disease?
A disease relatively severe but usually short in duration
What is a "Chronic" disease?
A less severe disease but usually continuous or recurring for long periods
What is an "Subacute" disease?
Intermediate disease between Acute and Chronic, not as severe as acute nor as long lasting as chronic disorders
What is a disease without a known cause defined as?
What does an Iatrogenic disease result from?
From the adverse effects of treatment
What is an Epidemic defined as?
When many people in a given region acquire a certain disease at the same time
If a given disease is found to a lesser extent but continuously in a region, it's what?
An Endemic
What is a Pandemic?
A disease that is prevalent throughout the entire country, continent, or the world
Symptoms are the what?
Conditions noted by the patient
What is a sign?
Evidence which can be seen
What is a syndrome?
A group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
What is a prognosis?
A prediction of the outcome of a disease
A course of treatment is known as whant?
A therapy
What is a predominant cause of disease in humans?
The invasion of microorganisms
A microorganism that causes illness is called what?
Any disease causing organism is called what?
A pathogen
What is a local infection?
One that is restricted to a relatively small area of the body
What is a systemic (generalized) infection?
One in which the whole body is affected
What is an opportunistic infection?
An infection that takes hold because the host is weakened.
What is a vector?
An insect or animal that transmits a disease causing organism from one host to another
What is the study of microscopic organisms?
Describe a Bacteria.
Single cell organism, no true nucleus, not enclosed in a membrane
Describe a Virus.
Composed of acid and protein, Obligate parasites
Describe a Fungi.
Simple non-green plant like organisms, Yeasts and molds
The study of fungi is what?
What is a protozoa?
A single cell animal like organism
Describe Algae.
Multicellular aquatic plants
What is a parasite?
A microbe that lives on or within a living host, at the host's expense
What is a Cocci?
A round shaped bacteria
What are diplocci?
Pairs of Cocci bacteria,
Gonorrhea and Meningitis
What is a Streptococci?
Chains of Cocci bacteria,
What is a Staphylococci?
Clusters of Cocci bacteria
What are Bacilli?
Rod shaped bacteria
What is a Vibros?
Comma shaped bacteria
What is a Sprilla?
Long and wave like organisms
What is a spirochete?
An organism capable of waving and twisting motions
What causes Syphalis and Lyme disease?
Diseases caused by Rickettsiae are caused by what?
Insect bites
What is a prion?
An ifectious particle of protein
What are the four divisions of protozoa?
Amebas, Ciliates, Flagellates (Giardia), Sporozoa (malaria)
What is a Helminth?
Scientific name for a worm; A worm that is a parasite with a human host
Define Normal Flora?
A population of microorganisms that normally grows on and within our bodies
What is a hookworm?
A worm/parasite that lives in the small intestine
How is Trichnosis acquired?
By eating pork
Why are infectious diseases increasing through out the world?
Increased population, Disruption to animal habitats, Increased travel, Medical advances that keep people alive longer (opportunistic infections), The handling of food
The process of killing every living microorganism on an object is known as what?
Sterilization by means of steam under pressure is what?
An autoclave
Any aseptic that can be used on living tissuesis what?
What is an antibiotic?
A substance produced by living cells that has the power to kill or arrest the growth of bacteria
What is the most commonly used staining procedure that turns blusih-purple if bacteria are present?
Gram stain
What color does positive bacteria in an acid fast stain test turn?
The word part "chir/o" refers to what?
What does Chlamydiae cause?
Trachoma and Parrot fever
What type of worm do biting insects and birds transmit?
The filaria worm
What causes E Coli and Salmonella?
Food poisoning
A drug that treats infestations is called what?
An Anthelmintic agent
The acid fast stain is commonly used for what?
What does that word part "iatro" refer to?
Define mycoflora
A population of fungi
What is the difference between "Iatrogenic" and "Idiopathic" diseases?
Iatrogenic diseases are from the adverse effects of a treatment, and Idiopathic diseases have no known cause
What are three uses of beneficial microorganisms?
Produce oxygen, Food for aquatic animals, decompose dead bodies
What does Pyococci mean?
py = pus
cocci = round bacteria
means- a round bacteria that causes pus
The outter most part of the skin is called what?
The epidermis
What is called the "true skin" and what does it contain?
The dermis, which contains the blood vessels, the nerve endings, and the glands
What is the deepest layer of the skin called?
The subcutaneous layer
Which layer produces the new epidermal cells?
The stratum basale
What protien in large amounts protects the skin and makes the nails and hair?
What is the dark pigment that colors the skin and protects it from harmful rays of sunlight called?
The cells that produce melanin are called what?
What is the purpose of Sebaceous glands?
They secrete sebum, which lubricates the skin and hair, and prevents it from drying
The eyelashes are associated with which glands?
The Meibomian glands
The sweat glands are known as what?
Sudorferous glands
What type of glands regulate body temperature?
Eccrine glands
Which sweat glands are located in the armpits and groin area?
The Apocrine glands
Which glands are located in the ear?
The ceruminous glands
Where are the ciliary glands located?
At the edges of the eye
What is the name of the muscle that causes "goose bumps"?
Arrector Pili
What are the four major functions of the skin?
1. Protection against infection, 2. Protection against dehydration, 3. Regulation of body temperature, 4. Collection of sensory informaiton
What is a touch receptor is called what?
Meissner Corpuscle
What is a deep pressure receptor called?
Pacinian Corpuscle
The main pigment of skin is called what?
What produces melanin?
Paleness of the skin caused by reduced blood flow is called what?
Redness of the skin is called what?
A bluish coloring of the skin is called what?
A yellowish discolorization of the skin caused from bile in the blood is called what?
Any wound or local damage to tissue is called what?
A lesion
Lesions may be accompanied by Erythema. What is Erythema?
Redness of the skin
What is a Macule?
A spot that is neither raised nor depressed. IE. Freckle
What is a Papule?
A firm raised area IE. pimple
What is a Pustule?
A vessicle filled with Pus
What is a Vesicle?
A blister or small sac that is filled with fluid
What is an excoriation?
A scratch into the skin
What is a laceration?
A rough jagged wound
What is an ulcer?
A sore caused by disintegration and death of tissue
What is a fissure?
A crack in the skin
How is burn tissue destruction is categorized?
1. Superficial partial-thickness, Epidermal burn 2. Deep partial-thickness, Epidermal and portions of Dermal 3. Full-thickness, Epidermal/Dermal/and Subcutaneous
Using the rule of 9's, what is the number associated with one side of the head, arms, groin, legs, and chest area's?
Head = 4.5%, Arms = 4.5%, Groin = 1%, Legs = 9%, Chest = 18%
What is the Vernix Caseosa?
The cream cheese like coating produced by fetal sebaceous glands
What is the scientific term for the widening of the blood vessels?
What is the scientific term for the narrowing of the blood vessels?
What is the pigment found in blood called?
What term refers to any skin disorder?
What is the most common type of acne called?
Acne Vulgaris
A malignant tumor of melanocytes is called what?
What is the scientific name for itching?
Atopic dermatosis is better known as what?
What is a decubitus Ulcer better known as?
A bedsore
A disease that causes blister-like lesions, filled with pus containg virtulent bacteria is what?
Watery vesicles on the skin and mucous membranes is caused by what?
Herpes simplex virus
The overgrowth of epidermis that leads to silvery scales is what?
The viral infection that produces lesions on the skin and is seen in children as chicken pox is what?
A small tumor caused by a virus of the human papilloma virus is what?
A wart or verruca
What are three types of connective tissue found in the integumentary system and its location and function?
1. Hard connective, produces new skin 2. Elastic connective, contains blood vessels and the nerves 3. Loose connective, Subcutaneous insulates the body
What are two ways the skin maintains constant body temperature?
The dermal sweat glands produce sweat and its blood vessels constrict
What are the skins 3 sources for pigment?
Melanin made by Melanocytes, Hemaglobin from red blood cells, Carotene from food
What is the shaft of the long bone called?
What is the membrane that lines the marrow cavity of a long bone called?
What type of bone makes up most of the arms and legs?
The long bone
What cavity of the bone contains the marrow?
The Medullary cavity
The irregular ends of the long bone are known as what?
The distal and proximal epiphysis
Bone tissue is also known as what?
Osseous tissue
The hard bone found in the shafts of long bone is called what?
Compact bone
What type of bone is made up of a meshwork of small bony plates filled with red marrow?
Spongy/Cancellous Bone, found at the epiphyses of long bones and the center of other bones
What kind of marrow do the ends of long bones contain?
Red Marrow
What is the Haversian canal?
A channel on dense bone containing the nerves and vessels
Yellow marrow, comprised largely of fat, is located where?
In the central cavities on long bones
What is the Periosteum?
The membrane that covers the outside of bones
The cells that produce bone tissue are called what?
What is the Endosteum?
The membrane that lines the marrow cavity of a bone
A fibrous protein that gives strength and resistance to tissue is what?
The cells involved with bone resorbtion are called what?
Bone growth in children occurs where?
In the Epiphyseal plates
What is the head of a bone?
A rounded, knoblike end
What is the process of a bone?
A large prjection of a bone IE. the upper part of the Ulna that creates the elbow
What is the condyle of a bone?
A rounded projection
What is the crest of a bone?
A distinct border or ridge IE. Ilia crest
What is the spine of a bone?
A sharp projection from the surface of a bone
What is a Foramen?
A hole that allows a vessel to pass through or between bones
What is a Sinus?
An air space in skul bones
What is a Fossa?
A depression on a bone surface
What is a Meatus?
A short channel or passageway
The skeleton is divided into two main groups of bones, what are the two and what is contained in them?
1. Axial, 80 bones The head and trunk; 2. Appendicular, 126 bones the limbs, shoulders and hips
What bone forms the forehead?
The frontal bone
What bone forms the top and the side walls of the cranium?
The Parietal bone
What bone forms the sides and some of the base of the skull
The temporal bones
What bone is located between the eyes?
The ethmoid bone
What bone resembles wings?
The sphenoid bone
What saddle-like depression holds and protects the pituitary gland?
The Sella turcica
Which skull bone forms the posterior and part of the base and contains the foramen magnum?
The occiptal bone
What is the flat immoveable joint that unites the bones of the skull?
A suture
What suture joins the frontal bone with the two parietal bones?
The Coronal suture
What suture joins the temporal bone with the parietal bone on the lateral surface of the cranium?
The Squamous suture
What suture joins the occiptal bone with the parietal bones in the posterior cranium?
The Lambdoid suture
What suture joins the two parietal bones along the superior midline of the cranium?
The Sagittal suture
How many bones are in the facial portion of the skull?
The lower jaw bone, also the only moveable bone of the skull is called what?
The mandible
The two bones that fuse in the midline to form the upper jaw ar what bones?
The maxillae
What is the bone called that forms the two cheeks?
The zygomatic bones
The two bones that lie inside the corner of each eye is called what?
The lacrimal bones
Which bone is shaped like a blade and forms the lower part of the nasal septum?
The vomer
The palatine bones form the back part of what?
The hard palate
What are the three tiny bones in the middle of each ear called?
The "U" shaped bone that connects the tounge and other muscles to the skull is called what?
The hyoid bone
The soft spots in the infant skull are called what?
Describe the five regions of the vertebral column?
1. Cervical C1-C7, 2. Thoracic T1-T12, 3. Lumbar L1-L5, 4. Sacral 5. Coccyx
Which curve develops when an infant holds his head upright?
The cervical curve
How many ribs are on each side of the human body?
What are the true ribs?
The first seven ribs which connect directly to the sternum
What are the false ribs?
The remainin five pairs of ribs. The do not connect directly to the sternum and connect to the cartilage of the 7th rib
What are the spaces between the ribs that contain the muscles, blood vessels and nerves called?
Intercostal spaces
The sceintific name for collar bone is what?
The sceintific name for shoulder blade is what?
The bone that contains the manubrium and xiphoid process is called what?
The sternum
The section of the spinal column that forms part of the biny pelvis is called what?
The sacrum
What are the primary curves of the spine?
The thoracic and sacral curves
What re the secondary curves of the spine?
The cervical and lumbar curves
What is the process that joins the clavical to the scapula called?
The acromion
The shallow socket that forms a ball and socket joint with the humerous is called what?
The glenoid cavity
What does the coracoid process do?
Attaches muscles
The lateral bone of the lower leg is what?
The Fibula
What is the medial bone of the forearm called?
The Ulna
What is the sceintific name for the thigh bone called?
The Femur
What is the lateral bone of the forearm called?
The Radius
What is the proximal bone of the arm called?
The Humerus
The bones that make up the palm of the hand are what?
The metacarpal bones
The bones found at the tips of the fingers and the toes are waht?
An exaggerated thoracic curve of the spine is what?
A malignant tumor arising in the growing region of a bone is called what?
Tuberculosis of the spine is called what?
Potts disease
The broken bone protrudes through the skin in what kind of fracture?
Open fracture
An exxagerated thoracic curvature of the spine is called what?
The pubic symphasis is an example os a cartilaginous, slightly moveable joint known as what?
The bands of connective tissue that hold the bones together in a synovial joint are called what?
The small, fluid-filled sacs near some synovial joints are called what?
Turning the palm down or backward is called what?
Drawing a large arm circle in the air is an example of what movement?
An excess of uric acid can result in a painful joint disorder called what?
A degenerative disease that primarily occurs in weight baring joints is what?
The word part "-penia" means what?
Lack of
How many phalanges are in each hand?
The part of the ulna that forms the elbow is called what
The olecranon
Where would you find a malleolus?
On the Tibia and Fibula
What is the socket that holds the head of the femur called?
The acetabulum
The greater trochanter is a large projection on what bone?
The femur
A malignant tumor arising in bone is called what?
To avoid developing osteomyelitis, one should consume what supplement?
A fracture where the broken ends of the bone are jammed into each other is known as what?
Impacted fracture
A fracture where the break does not go all the way through the bone is known as what?
Greenstick fracture
The loss of height in elderly people is the cause of what?
The change in heeight between intervertebral discs
A freely moveable joint is known as what?
Wgat is the smoothe layer of connective tissue that protects the bone surfaces in a synovial joint called?
Articular cartilage
The turning of a bone on its own axis is called what?
When you point your toes you are preforming what type of movement?
Plantar flexion
The word part "cost" refers to what?
The ribs

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