Glossary of Imperial Russia 1

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Great Plains and Steppe
  • Part of Southern Russia

  • Bordering where the Greeks, Romans, and Byz

System of River Roads
  • The amount of rivers that flow through Russia and to different parts of the continent

Ural Mountains
  • Mountain range that splits the continent in two: the European side and the Asian side
  • First known leader of the Rus'
  • Name may indicate a Viking influence
  • Set up first capital in Kiev

"From the Varangians to the Greeks"

  • North-south 'road' that leads “from the Scandinavian, Baltic, and Russian north of Europe to Constantinople”

Vladimir I (980-1015)

  • Vladmir the Christianizer
  • Chose between Islam, Judaism, Catholicism, and Orthodoxy
  • Chose Orthodoxy to improve relations with nearby Xtian states and the ability to choose their own leader
  • Catholicism had to bow to the Pope
Yaroslav the Wise (1019-1054)
  • Killed his brothers off to attain control of Kiev
  • Defeated the Pechenegs
  • Maintained relationships with nearby states by marrying off his relations
  • Started compiling a language (Cyrillic)
  • Designed an appanage system
Appanage or Udel in Russia
  • A system of dividing Russia into smaller princedoms to avoid infighting
  • Yaroslav would appoint the princes, then as they died off, allowed their offspring or near relatives to take over
  • Started to break down because Yaroslav was ou
Mongol Invasion and Conquest (1237-1242)
  • After conquering China, they went west to conquer the European nations
  • Arrived around 1237
  • Mongol leader Batu stopped only before France because the Golden Horde's leader had died
  • Set up Khanates that would serve as out
Crimean Khanate
  • Mongol outpost on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea
  • Where the locals mingled and intermarried with the Mongols
Astrakhan Khanate
  • Mongol outpost at the mouth of the Volga river
  • Conquered by Ivan the Terrible
  • Used the Volga river for trades with the Asian countries
Kazan Khanate
  • Mongol outpost in the Ural mountains
  • Annexed by Ivan the Terrible
Siberian Khanate
  • Mongol outpost north of Russia
  • Later invaded by the Russians
  • The people were eventually assimilated into the Russians
European Renaissance
  • Partially because of the Mongol conquest, Russia did not participate
  • May have been stunted by a few hundred years

Alexander Nevskii and the "Battle on the Ice"

  • Prince Alexander of Novgorod

  • Lead his army to fight German and Fini

Boyar Duma

  • A group of boyars that serve as a “council,” or sounding board, for the tsar.

Cultural influence of Byzantium

  • Highly influenced their religious and cultural setting.

  • Brought mos

Ivan I (1328-1340)

  • Ivan Kalita: “John the Moneybag.”

  • Increased the

Basil I (1389-1425)

  • Attacked the Volga Bulgars around 1400 and captured Great Bulgar and other towns. Treatied with Lithuania in 1408 to avoid further deadlocked, war-like struggles for land,

Council of Florence 1439

  • “The Greek clergy signed an abortive agreement with Rome, recognizing papal supremacy”--uniting the churches to fight the Muslim Turks that are attempting to tak

The Third Rome

  • Around 1054, the Catholics and Orthodox split, and Byzantine was taken over by the Turks, who were Muslim.

Dmitrii "Donskoi" (1359-1389)

  • The 9-year-old son of Ivan the Meek who inherited the throne.

Ivan III (1462-1505)

  • Ivan the Great. End of appanage and beginning of Muscovite Russia.

Khan Ahmed

  • Brought Mongol forces to fight the rebellious Russians, while trying to get alliances with Lithuania and Poland which failed.

Casimir IV of Lithuania and Poland

  • Tver asked Casimir IV of Lithuania for help when Ivan III was trying to gather all former territories of Russia together.

Battle of the Ugra River (1480)

  • The united Russian forces, under Ivan III, met the Mongols at the Ugra River.

Union of Lublin 1569

  • It merged Poland and Lithuania into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where they would have “a common sovereign and a common diet, although they retained separate la

Chosen Council

  • A small council of people hand-picked by Ivan IV for their different backgrounds and opinions, including Sylvester, a monk, and Alexy Adashev and Ivan Viskovaty, both well-t

Zemskii Sobor

  • Assembly of the landed. Titled estate holders now had some input on Ivan's decisions.

Council of Hundred Chapters 1557

  • Created by Ivan the Terrible to curb the church's power.

Sudebnik of 1550

  • First written law code, established by Ivan the Terrible.

  • It

Crimean Tatars

  • People who accepted, mingled, and intermarried with the invading Mongols.

Livovian War (1558-1583)

  • Ivan headed towards the west so Russia could acquire the Baltic Port.

Feodor (Theodore) I (1584-1598)

  • Child of Ivan IV from his second wife, Kucheny.

  • Was very wea

Time of Troubles (1598-1613)

  • Feodor produced no heir, so there was no natural heir to the throne.

Boris Godunov (1598-1605)

  • Feodor's regent, from a Mongol gentry family, and brother-in-law to Feodor.

Basil Shuisky (1606-1610)

  • Investigated the death of Dmitrii. He originally claimed it was an accident—that the boy had slit his throat while playing with a knife before an epileptic seizure.

The Felon of Tushino/False Dmitrii II

  • False Dmitrii II knew he was an impostor and made claims for the throne that Basil held for a short amount of time.

Sigismund III

  • King of Poland.

  • Allowed the Tushino's Russian gentry'

Michael Romanov (1613-1645)

  • Metropolitan Philaret's son.

  • A specially called zemskii

Peace of Deulino (1618)

  • Poland was able to keep Smolensk and “other gains in western Russia,” but would release Russia prisoners, including Michael Romanov's father, Philaret.

Alexis Romanov (1645-1676)

  • Son of Michael Romanov, succeeded him as tsar at 16.

  • Dealt l

Ulozhenie of 1649

  • New legal code

  • First systemization of Muscovite laws since 1

Bogdan Khmelnitsky

  • Leader of the Ukrainians.

  • He lead the Ukrainians to push the

War of Ukrainian Liberation (1648)

  • Ukraine was under rule of Poland.

  • Groups of cossacks, or sic

Union of Pereslavl (1652)

  • An assembly of Cossack Ukrainians decided that they would accept the authority and protection of Moscow.

Patriarch Nikon

  • Promoted by Alexis to Great Sovereign, though he held more Catholic ideals of the church being more powerful than the state.

Raskol (church schism)

  • There were a few mistranslations in some Muscovite religious texts and rituals, and occasionally a member of the clergy would bring up correcting and revising them.

Treaty of Andrusovo (1667)

  • Long-lasting treaty that ended the Thirteen Years War between Russia and Poland.

Sophia Miloslavskaya

  • Her mother was the first woman married to Tsar Alexis.

  • She h

Treaty of Eternal Peace (1686)

  • Prince Basil Golitsyn helped to settle differences between Russia and Poland

Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689)

  • Peace settlement between Russia and China.

  • It allowed Russia

Capture of Azov in Turkish War (1696)

  • Because the first campaign against Azov failed, Peter the Great urged his men to build a better fleet, using his knowledge gained by traveling to foreign experts on navy and

Grand Embassy (1696-98)

  • Peter the Great went on a trip to western nations after the Capture of Azov to gain more knowledge so he can continue to win battles.

Treaty of Constantinople (1700)

  • An agreement with the Turks that ended the Russo-Turkish war.

"Window into Europe"

  • Russia acquired part of the Baltic, which allowed it a “window into Europe,” where it could become directly involved with European affairs.

Battle of Narva (1700)

  • The Swedish king sent a large army to fight the Russian army that was besieging the fortress of Narva.

Battle of Lesnaia (1708)

  • The Swedish king rested his army in Ukraine, though that king had secretly turned against Sweden.

Battle of Poltava (1709)

  • The Swedish army was attacking a small fortress, Poltava, and the Russians, lead by Peter the Great himself, came to defend it.

Conrad Bulavin

  • Lead a social uprising of the Don Cossacks, “provoked by the government's determination to hunt down fugitives and... by the Old Belief.”

Bashkir Uprising (1705-1711)

  • A monk and a member of the streltsy started a successful uprising in Astrakhan against the upper classes and Peter's foreign influences.

Treaty of Nystadt (1721)

  • After defeating Poland, Russia acquired Livonia, Estonia, Ingermanland, and certain islands

Academy of Sciences (1725)

  • Meant to “develop, guide, and crown learning in Russia,” after Peter the Great's death.

Supreme Secret Council

  • Created by Catherine I to “deal with matters of exceptional significance.”

Peter II

  • Catherine I's son.

  • He was almost 12 when he became emper

Ernst Johan Biron

  • Anne's Courland lover who “became the most hated figure and symbol of the reign.”

Treaty of Belgrade (1739)

  • Ended the Austrian-Turkish war, that Russia was invited into.

Treaty of Abo (1743)

  • Sweden attacked Russia to acquire more territories, but lost.

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