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Glossary of ISB Exam 2

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Computer Program
The sequences of instructions for the computer, which comprise software
Stored program concept
Modern hardware architecture in which stored software programs are accessed and their instructions are executed in the computer's CPU, one after another
Documentation
Written description of the functions of a software program
Hardware
Core of the system
Open Source Software
Apache
mozilla
Linux



System software
The class of computer instruction that serve primarily as an intermediary between computer hardware and application programs; provides important self-regulatory functions for computer systems

consists of system utilities
and operating system


Application software
The class of computer instructions that direct a computer system to perform specific processing activities and provide functionality for users.
System control programs
Software programs that controls the use of the hardware, software, and data resources of a computer system
Operating system
the main system control program, which supervises the overall operations of the computer, allocates cpu time and main memory to programs, and provides an interface between user and the hardwire
Multitasking/ Multiprogramming
Management of two or more tasks, or programs, running concurrently on the computer system (one CPU)
multithreading
Form of multitasking that runs multiple tasks within a single application simultaneously.
Multiprocessing
Simultaneous processing of more than one program by assigning them to different processors (multiple CPUs)
Virtual memory
Feature that simulates more main memory than actually exists in the computer system by extending primary storage into secondary storage
Graphical user interface
(GUI) system software that allows users to have direct control of visible objects (such as icons) and actions, which replace command syntax
Social interface
user interfaces that guides the user through computer applications by using cartoon like characters, graphics, animation, and voice commands
System security monitors
Programs that monitor a computer system to protect it and its resources from unauthorized use, fraud, or destruction
Proprietary application software
Software that addresses a specific or unique business need for a company; may be developed in-house or may be commissioned from a software vendor
Contract software
Specific software programs developed for a particular company by a vendor
Off the shelf application software
software purchased, leased. or rented from a vendor that develops programs and sells them to many organizations; can be standard customizable
Package
is a commonly used term for a computer program (or group of programs) that have been developed by a vendor and is availible for purchase in a prepackaged form
First generation language
The lowest level programming language; composed of binary digits; only programming language understood by CPU
Second generation language
More user friendly than first generation language; uses mnemonics for people to use
Third generation language
Requires the programmer to specify, step by step, exactly how the computer must accomplish a task
fourth generation language
allows the user to specify the desired result without having to specify step by step procedures
Visual programming languages
Use a graphical environment with mouse; icons and symbols on the screen, or pull-down menus to make programming easier
Object oriented languages
Programming language that encapsulate a small amount of data with instructions about what to do with data
Methods
instructions about what to do with encapsulated data objects
object
the combination of a small amount of data within a data
Encapsulation
process of creating an object
Re usability feature
Feature of object oriented languages that allow classes created for one purpose to be used in a different object oriented program if desired
Hyperlinks
the links that connect data nodes in hypertext
Extensible markup language
(XML) a programming language designed to improve the functionality of web documents by providing more flexible and adaptable data identification
Digital Shadow
collection of traveable data that is left behind after you use technologies like credit cards, debit cards,toll booths, smart phones, and the internet
data
raw facts
Information
Data converted into meaningful information
Database managament system
DBMS provides all user with access to all the data
Data redundancy
The same data stored in many places
Data isolation
Applications cannot access data associated with other application
Data inconsistency
Various copies of the data do not agree
Data security
Keeping the organization's data safe from theft, modification, and/or destruction
Data integrity
Data must meet contraints
Data independence
Applications and data are independent of one another. Applications and data are not linked to each other, meaning that applications are able to access the same data
Bit
binary digit "0" or a "1"
field
group of logically related characters(word, small group of words, id number)
Record
group of logically related fields ( student in a university database)
File
group of logically related records
Database
group of logically related files
data model
diagram that represent the entities in the database and their relationship
entity
person, place, thing or event about which information is maintained

record generally describes an _____

attribute
particular characteristic or quality of a particular entity

aka field

primary key
field that uniquely identifies a record
Secondary keys
are other fields that have some identifying information by typically do not identify the file with complete accuracy
Entity classes
groups of entities of a certain type (like inventory items or employees)
Instance
representation of a particular entity in a entity class
Identifies
attributes that are unique to that entity instance
a database management system
set of programs that provide users with tools to add, delete, access, and analyze data stored in one location
Relational database model
based on the concept of two-dimensional tables
Structured query language
allow users to perform complicated searches by using relatively simple statements or keywords
Query by example
allow users to fill out a grid or template to construct a sample or description of the data he or she wants
Data warehouse
repository of historical data organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization

multi dimensional

Data cube
3 dimensions: customer, product, and time
Historical data
in data warehouses can be used for identifying trends, forecasting, and making comparisons over time
Online analytical processing
(OLAP) involves the analysis of accumulated data by end users (usually in a data warehouse)
Online transaction processing
(OLTP) typically involves a database, where data from business transactions are processed online as soon as they occur
Data mart
small data warehouse, designed for the end-user needs in a strategic business unit (SBU) or department
Data goverance
approach to managing data and information across an entire organization
Master data management
method that organization use in data governance
Master data
set of core data that span all enterprise information systems
Normalization
method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form for:
minimum redundancy
maximum data integrity
best processing performance

-attributes in the table depend only on the primary key




Input technologies
accept data and instructions and convert them to a form that the computer can understand
Output Technologies
present data and information in a form people can understand
Communication technologies
provide for the flow of data from external computer networks (ex internet/intranet) to the CPU, and from the CPU to computer networks
Server Farms
Massive data centers that contain thousands of networked computer servers
Virtualization
using software to create partitions on a single server so that multiple application can run on a single server
Grid computing
involves applying the resources of many computer in a network to a single problem at the same time
Utility computing
aka Subscription computing and on-demand computing

a service provider makes computing resources and infrastructure management available to a customer as needed for a charge based on specific usage rather than a flat rate

Cloud computing
tasks are performed by computer physically removed from the user and accessed over a network, in particular the internet
Edge computing
process where parts of web content and processing are located close to the user to decrease response time and lower processing costs
Autonomic Computing
systems that manage themselves without direct human intervention
Nanotechnology
refers to the creation of materials, devices and systems at a scale of 1 to 100 nanometers (billionths of a meter)
Super computers
Associated with government or large businesses
millions of dollar machines
mainframe
banks
midrange
smaller businesses
5-35 individuals
Tablets
monitor is also an input device
plug computer
tiny server for use in the home,
low cost and low power alternative to a pc-based home server
human data-entry
individuals enter info
source-data automation
use of scanners

benefits- less error

Microsoft Seadragon
software called photosynth, capable of assembling static photos into a synergy of zoomable, navigatable spaces
Output
generated by a computer can be transmitted to the user over several output devices and media:
monitors
printers
plotters
voice



multimedia technology
computer based integration of text, sound, still images, animation and digitized motion video
Microprocessor
made up of millions of microscopic transistors embedded in a circuit on a silicon chip
Control unit
sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them and controls the flow of data to and from the ALU, registers, caches, primary storage, secondary storage and various output devices
Arithmetic-logic unit
(ALU) performs the mathematic calculations and makes logiacl comparisons
Registers
high speed storage areas that store very small amounts of data and instructions for short periods of time
Central processing unit
(CPU) performs the actual computation, or number crunching inside any computer
Bud width
the size of the physical paths down which the data and instructions travel as electrical impulses on a computer chip
Line width
distance between transistors; the smaller the line width, the faster the chip
Moore's Law
microprocessor complexity would double every 2 years as a result of the following changes:
increasing miniaturization of transistors
making the physical layout of the chip's components as compact and efficient as possible
using materials for the chip that improve conductivity
targeting the amount of basic instructions programmed into the chip



Primary storage
stores small amounts of data and information that will be imeediately used by the CPU
Secondary storage
stores much larger amount of data and information (an entire software program) for extended period of time
ASCII Code
7 bits used in laptops and internet activity
Extended ASCII
8 bits allowing for 128 additional characters like 1/2, 1/4
Unicode
current uses 16 bits and represents over 65,000 characters - can code all languages- the first 128 as the same as in the ASCII systems- transition is seamless
Random access memory
(RAM) part of primary storage that holds a software program and small amounts of data when they are brought from secondary storage
Cache memory
type of primary storage where the computer can temporarily store blocks of data use more often
Secondary vs primary storage
Secondary=
nonvolatile
more time to retrieve data
cheaper


Magnetic tape
secondary storage medium on a large open reel or in a smaller cartridge or cassette
sequential access
data access in which the computer system must run through data in sequence in order to locate a particular piece
Magnetic disks
form of secondary storage on a magnetized disk divided into tracks and sectors that provide addresses for various pieces of data; aka hard disk
Hard drives
form of secondary storage that stores data on platters divided into concentric tracks and sectors, which can be read by a read/write head that pivots across the rotating disks
Direct access
data access in which any piece of data be retrieved in a non-sequential manner by locating it using the data's address
Optical storage devices
form of secondary storage in which a laser reads the surface of a reflective plastic platter
Compact disk, read only memory
(CD-ROM) form of secondary storage that can be only read and not written on
Digital video disk
(DVD) optical storage device used to store digital video or computer data
Flash memory
non volitile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed
Flash memory devices
electronic storage devices with no moving parts
Thumb drive
flash memory device that fits into universal serial bus (USB) ports on pc's and other devices
Enterprise storage system
independent, external system with intelligence that includes two or more storage devices

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