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Glossary of IAH Final

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Convergence
Large media companies own several types of media outlets (book publishing, radio, film). Thus, they can promote and deliver content across all of these outlets. Convergence can be technological (delivering content across multiple platforms)and economic (resources are shared among media outlets).
Consolidation
The recent trend has been for a few large multinational media companies to buy up smaller outlets. Thus, through mergers and acquisitions media is increasingly consolidated in the hands of a few companies.
Regulation
Many governments impose rules on the ownership, content and delivery of media. In the US, the media is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
Gatekeeper
Because media companies investigate and select the content to be delivered, they act as gatekeepers, deciding what we can see and hear.
The Hayes Code and the Production Code
Beginning in 1930, Hollywood studios agreed to regulate themselves in terms of violence and indecency in film. The Hays Code, also known as the Production Code, was a set of industry regulations that remained in force until 1967. It was replaced by the movie rating system now used.
Functions of the Media
Information, entertainment, and advertisement
Media Effects (Powerful, limited, moderate)
Communications researchers have long been interested in the effects of media, especially on children. They have proposed different theories about how the media affects us. Some have believed that the media has a strong hypnotic effect while others have been more interested in how audiences consume media for their own uses.
Cultivation Research
The theory that if the media continually presents a certain view of the world, that audiences will come to believe that this view is reality.
Uses and Gratification
The theory that people use media for their own purposes, such as surveillance of the environment, social interaction, entertainment, understanding identity, and decision making.
Agenda-setting
Because the news media chooses what stories we can see and hear, it sets the agenda for what we can know and debate.
Digital Divide
Some people, because of factors like geographic location, age, and income, have to access to technologies.
News Values
The agreement among journalists to hold certain universal standards of accuracy, objectivity, fairness and balance, absence of fakery, truth, integrity of sources, and the avoidance of conflict of interest.
Content
Substantive information or creative material carried by a medium.
Formula
A repeated set of elements, such as plot, character, and setting.
Format
A formula, owned by a media company, that is licensed to another broadcaster in another territory.
Social Norms
Socially enforced rules
Imperialism
The political and economic domination of one nation over anothers.
Cultural Imperialism
The idea that the media and other cultural forms of one nation are so powerful as to wipe out the cultural forms of other nations
Transnational Capitalism
The flows of capital around the world through vast production and consumption networks
The Globalization of Sports
(Basketball, soccer)- LaFeber claims that the globalization of sports is a form of cultural imperialism
Nation Branding
(Especially for the World Cup and Olympics)- National governments hire PR firms to develop advertising campaigns for them. The purpose is to promote business investment and tourism.
Hollywood
The US-based movie industry that controls approximately 80% of the world market.
Copyright
The legal right of ownership over any original work of authorship in a fixed medium of expression
Fair Use
Exceptions to copyright rules that allow free use
Sampling
Taking a clip of music and using it in another musical composition
Mashup
A creative work consisting entirely of other works; a creative work made up entirely of samples
Free Culture Movement
A student-led movement to revise restrictive copyright laws
Remix vs. Permission Culture
The idea that cultural creativity comes from modifying prior cultural forms, and that a culture that restricts this flow too much (i.e. thru copyright) restricts creativity
Four Freedoms
(Free Software Foundation)- the proposed freedoms to study, apply, redistribute and modify media content
Creative Commons License
A license whereby a creator determines the use of his or her own work. A freer version of intellectual property than copyright

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