Glossary of IAH Final
Created by alexandrakiewiet
- Large media companies own several types of media outlets (book publishing, radio, film). Thus, they can promote and deliver content across all of these outlets. Convergence can be technological (delivering content across multiple platforms)and economic (resources are shared among media outlets).
- The recent trend has been for a few large multinational media companies to buy up smaller outlets. Thus, through mergers and acquisitions media is increasingly consolidated in the hands of a few companies.
- Many governments impose rules on the ownership, content and delivery of media. In the US, the media is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
- Because media companies investigate and select the content to be delivered, they act as gatekeepers, deciding what we can see and hear.
- The Hayes Code and the Production Code
- Beginning in 1930, Hollywood studios agreed to regulate themselves in terms of violence and indecency in film. The Hays Code, also known as the Production Code, was a set of industry regulations that remained in force until 1967. It was replaced by the movie rating system now used.
- Functions of the Media
- Information, entertainment, and advertisement
- Media Effects (Powerful, limited, moderate)
- Communications researchers have long been interested in the effects of media, especially on children. They have proposed different theories about how the media affects us. Some have believed that the media has a strong hypnotic effect while others have been more interested in how audiences consume media for their own uses.
- Cultivation Research
- The theory that if the media continually presents a certain view of the world, that audiences will come to believe that this view is reality.
- Uses and Gratification
- The theory that people use media for their own purposes, such as surveillance of the environment, social interaction, entertainment, understanding identity, and decision making.
- Because the news media chooses what stories we can see and hear, it sets the agenda for what we can know and debate.
- Digital Divide
- Some people, because of factors like geographic location, age, and income, have to access to technologies.
- News Values
- The agreement among journalists to hold certain universal standards of accuracy, objectivity, fairness and balance, absence of fakery, truth, integrity of sources, and the avoidance of conflict of interest.
- Substantive information or creative material carried by a medium.
- A repeated set of elements, such as plot, character, and setting.
- A formula, owned by a media company, that is licensed to another broadcaster in another territory.
- Social Norms
- Socially enforced rules
- The political and economic domination of one nation over anothers.
- Cultural Imperialism
- The idea that the media and other cultural forms of one nation are so powerful as to wipe out the cultural forms of other nations
- Transnational Capitalism
- The flows of capital around the world through vast production and consumption networks
- The Globalization of Sports
- (Basketball, soccer)- LaFeber claims that the globalization of sports is a form of cultural imperialism
- Nation Branding
- (Especially for the World Cup and Olympics)- National governments hire PR firms to develop advertising campaigns for them. The purpose is to promote business investment and tourism.
- The US-based movie industry that controls approximately 80% of the world market.
- The legal right of ownership over any original work of authorship in a fixed medium of expression
- Fair Use
- Exceptions to copyright rules that allow free use
- Taking a clip of music and using it in another musical composition
- A creative work consisting entirely of other works; a creative work made up entirely of samples
- Free Culture Movement
- A student-led movement to revise restrictive copyright laws
- Remix vs. Permission Culture
- The idea that cultural creativity comes from modifying prior cultural forms, and that a culture that restricts this flow too much (i.e. thru copyright) restricts creativity
- Four Freedoms
- (Free Software Foundation)- the proposed freedoms to study, apply, redistribute and modify media content
- Creative Commons License
- A license whereby a creator determines the use of his or her own work. A freer version of intellectual property than copyright
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