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Glossary of IAH 241A exam 1

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Worldview
the study of music in its social and cultural contexts
Cultural context
to world view; learned and transmitted
Social context
how people divide, arrange or rank selves within culture; social stratification
Music culture
a group of people’s total involvement with music
Inclusive definition of music
is organized sound (Edgard Varese); Music is humanly organized sound and a form of communication (John Blacking)
Exclusive definition of music
music is made of socially acceptable patterns of sound (Paul Fransworth); music is the science or art of incorporating pleasing, expressive or intelligible combinations of vocal or instrumental tones into a composition having structure or continuity (Webster’s)
Enculturation
learning and acquiring a culture within a single cultural group (singing holiday songs; recipes)
acculturation
acquisition of cultural ideas from one culture group by another culture group; assumes historical contact between groups (regional food customs)
emic perspective
organized by people within a culture group (bay odians- Haitian joke and storytelling)
etic perspective
organized by researchers outside native group (kinship models)



Participants
performer, audience, spiritual participants, musical instruments
Feedback
audience response
Hierarchical
arranged by rank, title, or status
Egalitarian
more or less social equality
Cultural performances
values, beliefs, identities of people on display for insiders and outsiders in some sort of bounded frame
Public display events
festivals, scheduled by calendar or season (Christmas)
Instrument classification
Western orchestra: winds, brass, percussion, strings; Kpelle (Libera): struch and blown instruments only
Throat song
singers sing into each others’ mouths, inhaling and exhaling to produce sound
Aerophones
produce sound by setting a column of air in motion
Chordophones
produce sound with a stretched string
Membranophones
produce sound with a stretched skin
Idiophones
sound produced by unaltered material that’s struck, plucked or shaken
Electronophones
produce sound with electricity
Event boundaries
markers, phases, cues
Markers
indicates beginning and ending of music even; moves participants from one reality to another (curtain opening)
Phases
scale divisions of an event (acts, intermission, opener, headliner)
Cues
signals that coordinate action (visual-lighting, sonic-volume, tactile)
Calendar time
Christmas day
Seasonal time
summer, winter, fall, spring
Clock time
measured in seconds, minutes, and hours
Social time
measured by quality of social interaction
Personal time
measured individually in social context
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
people from different cultures, who speak different languages, have different ways of conceptualizing the world around them
Tonal language
meaning dependent on vocal inflection (Mandarin/ Cantonese Chinese)



Kayasa
Trobriand competition
Kinesics
refers to body movement
Synchrony
simultaneous occurrence of an action/arrangement
Dance
rhythmically patterned body movement
Non-verbal cues
gestures and movement with meaning in a context
Proxemics
special relations between people and objects (fixed-stage/walls-immobile and unfixed- tables/chairs/instruments-mobile)
Situational personalities
combination of factors determine individual’s perception of space (gender, age, social position, height)
personal distance
face to face
intimate distance
allowed only to a select few
social distance
with friends and acquaintances
public distance
close phase: sitting in class; far phase: watching a performance
altered state of consciousness
sleep, trance, hypnosis, meditation, drug induced (associated with drop in BP, increase in pulse rate, increase in beta-endorphin)
beta-endorphin
body’s pain killer
trance
soul can: coexist or wither with other spirits; usually happens in specific context; prepared events; learned behavior; explained differently
possession trance
condition, especially an ASC, indigenously interpreted in terms of an alien spirit
Mevlevi Sufis
Sufi branch of Islam, founder was Mevlana Celaleddin, RUMI, direct connection with God
Devr
“rotation” or whirling dance
Mevlana Celadeddin Rumi
founder of Mevlvi Sufis
Allah
God
Sema
chanting to a state of ecstasy
Dhikr
chanting the names of God (collective/individual chanting, breathing as a chant)
Nay
flute
Naat
prayer/hymn; part of Mevlevic ceremony
Taksim
improvisation; part of Mevlevic ceremony
Peshrev
signal to dance; dance moves counterclockwise; part of Mevlevic ceremony
Folk speech
non-standard, variable aspects of language; learned and performed face-to-face; conveys both info and style
“standard” language
cultural construct
Linguistic
vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation
Paralinguistic
tone, volume, speed
Kinesic
facial expression and gestures
Dialect
variety of language that differs in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation
Register
ways of speaking in a particular group
Jargon
specialized terminology used to communicate within a group as shorthand; used to distinguish group from the outside (ex: bowling- “finding the pocket”)
Taboo words
words to express extreme emotion or condition; curses; excrement; combination of the two
Glossolalia
speaking in tongues
Ritual language
used in religious contexts
Bilingualism
when person speaks more than one language
Code switching
moving from one language to another in same conversation

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