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Glossary of IAH 241A EXAM 2

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cultural evolution
different cultures are at different stages of development. Four stages (primitive, savage, barbarian, civilized)
primitive
hunter/gatherers
savage
more socially organized but still basically primitive; native americans
barbarian
even more organized
civilized
white Europeans who developed this theory
pathogenic
arising from emotions
logogenic
arising from reason or logic
comparative musicology
started in the 1880s; colonial expansion; extermination or forced migration
powwow
from Algonquin language; means “healing ceremony”; part of war dances for warrior’s protection; various activities games and trading
falsetto
high pitched singing
diminutives
nicknames
vocables
to call; a word composed of various sounds or letters without regard to its meaning
monophony- two or more voices/ instruments playing same melodic pattern


tail
repeat of last phrase
yebichai
part of nightway ceremony; masked dancers impersonate gods; ritual purification; means “grandfathers of the gods”
sand paintings
depictions of the gods; invitations for gods to participate
nightway ceremony
ritual purification; sand paintings; last nine nights
enemyway ceremony
used to alleviate sickness from battle; takes place over three days; ritual reenactment of battle; enemy ghost is ritually killed
wigwam
traditional ojibwe dwelling
fry bread
fried bread; used to make Indian tacos
traditional dances (men and women)
grand entry; mens (great variety in regalia, grass dancers, fancy dancers); women (traditional, jingle dress, shawl dances)
grass dances
from northern plains people (Cheyenne, Sioux, Lakota)
fancy dances
circular bustles on arms and backs
jingle dress dances
jingles made from curved snuff tins
shawl dances
female equivalent of fancy dancers
Native American church
uses peyote
regalia
clothing worn during powwow; not costume; expression of individual, family and community
grand entry
parade of dancers and flag bearers
indian flag
curved staff with feathers
water drum
drum filled with water, used in native American church
syncretism
combination of different forms of belief or practice
African Methodist Episcopal Church
black church; Richard allen- preacher/leader
patting juba
handclapping technique for dance “patting juba”
hambone
handclapping and singing in rhyme
sung sermon
talk: regular speech patterns. Recitation: regular speech with rhythm and cadence. Chant: strong rhythm, different pitches. Song-chant: closer to song w/o full melody.song: melodic contour melody
lining out
clerk or precentor , gives each line of a hymn tune as it is to be sung, usually in a chanted form giving or suggesting the tune. It can be considered a form of call and response.
melismatic texture
more than one note per syllable
syllabic texture
one note per syllable
spirituals
African American religious folksongs
gospel
came out of holiness movement; combination of spirituals/college and jubilee quartets/blues/jazz/vocal and instrumental imporv
hemiola
metrical pattern in which two bars in simple triple time are articulated as if they were three bars in simple duple time
hocket
overlapping parts to create single musical texture
forest people
encompassing several ethnic groups from Africa
Asantehene
african clan king
timbre
tone color or quality
mande
ethnic group
jaliya
praise singing preformed by jali; serve wealthy patrons/sing about local history
kora
spiked bridge harp
mnemonics
short formula used as a memory aid
timeline
rhythmic line holding musical parts together remembered with mnemonics (kpelle)
agbekor
music and dance of Ewe people; originated as war drumming (agbe- life. Kor-clear)
vodou/voodoo
voodoo- US interpretation of Haitian culture (stereotype: black magic/dolls/ritual murders/zombies). Vodou- syncretic/monotheistic/different denominations
legba
the intermediary between the lwa and humanity
danbala
powerful spirit, associated with snakes
ogou
Lwa; presides over fire, iron, hunting, politics and war. He is the patron of smiths
ezili
spirit of love and beauty and childbirth; associated with virgin Mary
langaj
glossolalia (speaking in tongues)
ousi
take on attributes of Lwa; initiates (ousi) achieve ASC
ason
“sacred tongue of Danbala”; rattle used to conduct services
tanbou
drum
rada
cool, agricultural sprits
petwo
hot, aggressive spirits
kreyol
syncretic language with French vocabulary and African languages
nanchon
nation or family of spirits
veve
flour or cornmeal drawings that invites Lwa to ceremony
bondye
what god is called
lwa
catholic saints merged with African spirits
ougan
male vodou priest
manbo
female vodou priest
lanbi
shell horn
ogan
struck piece of metal; plays timeline
polyrhythm
combination of 2 or more contrasting rhythms

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