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Glossary of Human Development- School Counseling

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Created by erikasalls

Piaget- Sensorimotor
0-18 months
perception and behavior
Piaget- preoperational
2-7
symbolic thoughts and ego centrism
Concrete Operational
7-12
measurement conservation, problem solving
Formal operational
12-adults
abstract concepts, assimilation/accommodation, schemas, and equilibrium/disequilibrium- promotes progression
Schema
cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information
assimilation
incorporating new information in to existing schemas
accommodation
formation of new mental schemas when new information does not fit in to an existing schema
Adaptation
Piaget believed that humans desire a stage of cognitive balance of equilibration. When the child experiences cognitive conflict, adaptation is achieved through assimilation and accommodation
Kohlberg
Stages of Moral Development(challenged by Gilligan)

-Preconventional
-Convention
-post conventional



Preconventional
-behave, reward,punishment-avoid punishment
-judgements are based on the consequences of behavior

Ex: Moral judgements on whats right or wrong


Conventional
-Authorities approve behavior
-Agree on certain standards of behavior
-laws of society

Ex: Laws, you go on whats legal and illegal



Post Conventional
-move away from social norms
-civil disobedience
-going against laws for a purpose

Ex: You base whats legally right or wrong based on own moral beliefs

Dying wife, does husband steal medication for wife. It is illegal but morally, its for a good purpose





Information processing
-Metacognition
Sensory input(attention/awareness)--> Working Memory(\"encode\", rehearse/organize/elaborate)-->
Long term Memory

Metacognition
thinking about and monitoring ones own thinking
Vygotsky
Social constructivist, cog. development

-problem solving with and without assistance
-self talk
-inner speech
-value of play
-guided participation
-zone of proximal development
-scaffolding







Zone of proximal development
The distance between the actual level of development and the level you can achieve when guided by a more capable peer or teacher
Scaffolding
What process of guiding the learner from what is presently known to what is to be known

The more competent person supports the learner in their endeavor to reach the new level of development

Erikson
-Psychosocial theory
-psychosocial approach
-8 stages
-central process
-core pathologies
-prime adaptive ego qualities
-psychosocial crisis





Psychosocial Theory
Erikson-
-theory of human development which purposes that COGNITIVE, EMOTIONAL, SOCIAL GROWTH are a product of the interaction between SOCIAL EXPECTATIONS at each life stage and the competencies people bring to each life challenge
Psychosocial approach
Emphasizes the interaction of BIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIETAL systems over the life span
Eriksons 8 Stages
Trust vs Mistrust (birth)
Autonomy vs. shame/doubt (early)
Iniative vs. guilt(preschool)
industry vs. inferiority (school)
identity vs. role confusion (adolescence)
intimacy vs. isolation (early adult)
generatively vs. stagnation (middle adult)
ego integrity vs. despair (maturity to death)






Central Process
the predominant mechanism through which a psychosocial crisis is resolved
core pathologies
destructive forces that result from negative resolutions of each psychosocial crisis
prime adaptive ego qualities
Mental stages that emerge in the positive resolution of each psychosocial crisis which form a basic orientation toward the interpretation of life experiences
Psychosocial crisis
predictable tension between personal competences and social expectations
Freud
Pscyhoanlytic
5 stages of development
id, ego, superego

5 stages of development- Freud
Oral- 1 yr
anal- 2 yr
phallic- 3-6yr
latency- 6-12 yr
gential- 13+



Skinner
-Behavior (pos and neg reinforcement)
-operant conditioning
-classical conditioning
extinction


operant conditioning
learning that emerges as a result of repetition and reinforcement
Classical conditioning
Learning that occurs when events take place close together in time and thus acquire a similar meaning (pavlov)
Bandura
social learning
observation
modeling
imitation
social cognition
self-efficacy




Marcia
4 stages of identity
Diffusion
Foreclosure
Moratorium
Achievement





Diffusion
Neither explore or make a commitment
Ex: Senior in HS has no idea what he wants to do with his life, therefore he has not made a committment to anything nor has he explored options
foreclosure
commitment is made w/out exploring alternatives

ex: family business, you commit to work their after HS without exploring alternatives

Moratorium
A period of free experimentation before individual identity is achieves
-Senior not sure what he wants to do, but explores and experiments to figure out what he likes and dislikes
Achievement
have typically experienced a crisis, undergone identity explorations, and made commitments
Self theory
links a person\'s understanding of the nature of the world, the nature of the self, and the meaning of interactions between self and the environment
crystallized intelligence
the ability to bring knowledge gained through past experiences into play in appropriate situations
fluid intelligence
the ability to impose organizations on information and to generate new hypotheses
attachment theory
Ainsworth
-secure attachment
-anxious-avoidant attachment
-anxious-resistant attachment
-disorganized attachment



secure attachments
explore while mom is present, engage with strangers, upset when mom leaves, happy mother returns
anxious-avoidant attachment
anxious around strangers, even when mother is present.

Child distressed when mother leaves.

Child will be ambilvalent with mother returns. Remain close but still be resentful and resistant toward mother for leaving



anxious resistant
child will avoid or ignore the caregiver and show little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns

does not explore

strangers not treated any differently than caregiver



Sternberg
analytic intelligence
creative/symbolic intelligence
practical intelligence

Personal fable
over differentiating of ones experiences and feelings from others to the point of assuming those experiences are unique from those of others

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