Glossary of Human Body Final

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Which activity represents physiological studies?
Drawing blood from laboratory animals to determine their blood sugar levels.
Which is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex, in the levels of structural organization of the human body?
Chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level.
The popliteal region is the:
posterior knee area
The study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts is called:
Which body system secretes hormones that regulate processes such as growth and metabolism?
Endocrine System
Negative feedback systems:
operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reduced
Coxal refers to the hip region, while tarsal refers to the ankle region.
In anatomical position:
the body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward
Which is not a necessary life function:
Which life function term describes "the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in body cell"?
The arms are lateral to the chest area.
Which is a dorsal body cavity?
spinal cavity
Which of the following is the correct order of elements in a control system?
stimulus, receptor, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, responce
The survival need that is required in order to release energy from foods is:
A section that divides the body on the longitudinal plane into anterior and posterior parts is called:
coronal or frontal
Blood clotting and the birthing process are examples of negative feedback.
Which component of a homeostatic control mechanism first detects a change to the body?
The nose is superior to the forehead?
If a patient has a problem with her stomach, which abdominopelvic quadrant will you write down in her chart?
Left upper quadrant
A cross-section is also known as a transverse section.
The ovary is part of which of the following two systems:
reproductive and endocrine systems
Which is the correct sequence, going from inferior to superior, on the lateral abdominal surface:
iliac region, lumbar region, hypochondriac region
Regulating blood glucose levels and blood pressure are examples of negative feedback.
Bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints are part of which body system?
The ability to sense changes in one's environment and react to them is termed:
Enzymes increase the rates of chemical reactions.
Energy that is directly involved in moving matter is termed:
Mechanical energy
The chemical symbol for carbon is:
Which of the following is the role of phosphorus:
It is present as a salt in combination with calcium in bones and teeth; it is also present in nucleic acids and many proteins, and forms part of the high energy compound ATP
The atomic number of an atom reveals the number of:
protons in the atomic nucleus
Which statement describes gamma radiation?
gamma radiation is electromagnetic energy and is harmful to living cells
The subatomic particles that are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms are the:
When sodium reacts with chlorine:
sodium donates an electron to chlorine and becomes a positively charged ion
Which is a compound?
Sodium chloride
The joining of nucleotide molecules to form a more complex nucleic acid is an example of:
a synthesis reaction
When a solution produces equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, it is said to be neutral.
Starch and glycogen are both polysaccharides.
Which pH is an example of a base?
Keratin and collagen are examples of:
The organic compounds that function in building tissues and acting aas enzymes are the:
vitamin A can be described as:
a constituent of orange-pigmented vegetables (carrots) and fruits(tomatoes), and part of the photoreceptor pigment involved in vision
Which statement about enzymes is true:
They are biological catalysts
Which substances is matched with its correct organic group?
Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of:
Which statement about ATP is false:
its energy is captured in high-energy hydrogen bonds
Inactive or stored energy is called kinetic energy.
Alpha radiation has the least penetrating power; gamma radiation has the most.
Atoms are the smallest particles of a compound that still retain the properties of that compound.
Water is the single most abundant inorganic compound in the human body.
What are functions of lipids.
provide energy, insulation and cushioning, important building blocks of cell membranes, & help form steroid hormones such as estrogen
Which cellular organelle functions as the "powerhouse" of the cell, providing energy?
Prophase is the stage of cell division where the chromosomes first appear?
Transcription is the stage in protein synthesis where one strand of DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of a complimentary mRNA molecule.
Stratified epithelium consists of one layer of epithelium cells.
Which cellular structures function in detoxifying harmful substances, such as alcohol?
After clot formation, the next step in tissue repair involves:
formation of granlation tissue
The mitochondria consist of a stack of flattened membraneous sacs associated with swarms of tiny vesicles that are found close to the nucleus.
The movement of materials from an area of higher to lower concentration is termed diffusion.
The tissue that is usually well vasularized and has an extensive intercellular matrix is called:
connective tissue
Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as:
Intercalated discs are found in:
cardiac muscle tissue only
This epithelium tissue is found in the stomach lining, and helps in absorption and secretion is:
Simple columnar
A red blood cell placed in pure water would:
swell and burst
The nucleic acid responsible for bringing the amino acids to the "factory" site for protein formation is the:
Which statement is correct regarding RNA?
messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis
Which statement regarding transcription/translation is most correct?
The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it, except that uracil is substituted for thymine.
The coded information that dictates the structure of a protein molecule is a:
Active and passive transport are similar in that:
both require a difference in concentration
Once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, which of the following statements best describes what happens:
a lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid materials
Which processes require the use of carrier molecules:
facilitated diffusion and solute pumping
The plasma membrane:
regulates the entry and exit of cell materials
Bone, adipose and carilage belong to which tissue group:
Smooth muscle is normally found in:
lining hollow organs such as the intestine
The three major components of the cytoplasm are the:
cytosol, organelles, and inclusions
During anaphase, chromosomes cluster and align in the center of the cell.
Exocrine glands typically secrete their products into a duct.
Which tissue is incorrectly matched to its appropriate location?
Areolar - lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is termed exocytosis.
The primary lipids found in the cell membrane are:
phospholipids and cholesterol
The system of fluid-filled canals coiling and twisting through the cytoplasm is called the:
endoplasmic reticulum
Which is not a serous membrane:
the cutaneous membrane
The skin is a:
cutaneous membrane
Mucous membranes are located:
lining the stomach
The most external skin region is composed of:
stratified squamous epithelium
Which layer insulates deeper tissues from extreme temperature changes that occur outside the body:
subcutaneous connective tissue
What is the correct sequence in layers of the epidermis going from outermost to the innermost layer:
stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum
The "tanning" effect (darkening of the skin) that occurs when a person is exposed to the sun is somewhat protective due to:
increased production of melanin that helps to block ultraviolet light
What is found in the dermis:
pain and touch receptors
When the body temperature rises, which of the following takes place?
eccrine glands become active
The papillary layer of the dermis has structures called:
dermal papillae
The secretion of sebum is stimulated:
by hormones, especially male sex hormones
A physician estimates the volume of fluid lost in a severely burned patient by:
using the "rule of nines"
If a person has severe burns, the two most life-threatening concerns are:
dehydration and infection
The outermost layer of the epidermis is the stratum corneum.
Collagen is found in large amounts in the outermost layer of the epidermal cells of a hair.
The secretions of the eccrine glands are:
99% water, sodium chloride, and trace amounts of wastes, lactic acid
When an individual is exposed to extremely low air temperatures, the vasculature of the skin will dilate so that blood will flush into skin capillary beds and heat will be dissipated.
The major portion of the skin is comprised of the dermis
The thickened, proximal area of the nail is called the nail matrix, and it is responsible for nail growth
Which of the following groups of bones in the human body, categorized according to shape, is correct
sternum - flat bones
The epiphysis represents the long axis, or shaft, of a long bone.
A completely immovable joint is termed:
The axial skeleton includes all of these except:
Interstitial growth is bone growth in a lengthwise direction.
Which is an example of a synovial joint?
Knee joint
Which of the following categories of bones is generally cube-shaped:
short bone
Red bone marrow functions to ________, whereas yellow bone marrow functions to ________.
produce cells; store fat tissue
The presence of an epiphyseal plate indicates that:
bone length is increasing
Which of the following is a depression on a bone:
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon contains:
blood vessels and nerve fibers
The small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called:
The process of long bone growth is controlled by ________, wheras bone remodeling is controlled by ________.
growth hormone and sex hormones; osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.
Ribs numbered 11 and 12 are true ribs because they have no anterior attachments.
Which of the following is NOT one of the major processes controlled by hormones:
body coordination
Hormone concentrations are USUALLY regulated by:
negative feedback mechanisms
The type of endocrine stimulus that involves changing blood levels of certain ions and nutrients is called:
humoral stimulus
The pituitary is located:
in the "turk's saddle" of the sphenoid bone
Tropic hormones:
stimulate other endocrine glands
Which of the following is NOT an anterior pituitary hormone:
antidiuretic hormone
The hormone that triggers ovulation of an egg from the female ovary is
luteinizing hormone
An enlargement of the thyroid is called
Which of the following is NOT a function of oxytocin:
stimulation of menstruation
Another name for antidiuretic hormone is:
Which of the following is NOT a thyroid hormone:
parathormone (parathyroid hormone)
Which of the following is NOT produced by the adrenal cortex:
thyroid hormone
The glucocorticoids do all of the following except:
regulate salt content of the blood

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