cueFlash

Glossary of Honors World History Chapter 12

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

Created by gleefan13

what all led to a dramatic increase in food supply
expansion of farmland
good weather
improved transportation
new crops


parliament passed laws that allowed large landowners to fence off common lands- many peasants were forced to move to towns to work in the new factories
enclosure movement
a ready supply of money
capital
people interestred in finding new business oportunities and ways to make profits
entrepreneurs
many _____ provided water power for a means of transporting materials and finished products from one place to another
rivers
describe the manufacturing of cotton
1- spinners made cotton thread from raw cotton
2- weavers wove thread into cloth on looms
tasks done by individuals in their rural homes
cottage industry
what invention produced cloth at a faster rate
flying shuttle
who invented the spinning jenny
james hargreaves, 1764
what invention made the spinning of thread faster
spinning jenny
what invention made it possible for the weavers to cath up with the spinning of thread
water powered loom
who invented the water powered loom
edmund cartwright, 1787
the cotton industry was even more productive with the improvement of
the steam engine
when did watt make changes that enabled the engine to drive machinery
1782
in 1760 britain had imported __ million pounds of raw cotton

in 1787 britain imported __ million pounds

in 1840, ___ million pounds each year



2.5
22
366

the steam engine was powered by
coal
the steam engine also led to an increase in ___ production
coal
describe the process of puddling
coke, derived rom coal was used to burn away impurities in crude iron(pig iron) and produce iron of high quality
____ improved year round transport
all weather roads
when did the first steam powered locomotive run on an industrial line
1804
the first locomotive pulled ___ tons of ore and ___ people at _ miles an hour
10
70
5

what locomotive was used on the first public railway line
rocket
when was the first public railway open and how long was it
1830
32
what two towns did the first public railway extend to
liverpool to manchester
the rocket sped along at __ miles per hour while pulling a __ ton train
16
40
1840- britain had __ miles of railroads

1850- britain had __ miles of railroads

2,000
6,000
less expensive transportation led to ______
lower priced goods
workers were forced to work __ to keep the machines producing at a steady rate
shifts
adult workers were fined for

and dismissed for

being late

serious conduct, especially being drunk

britain produced ___ of the worlds coal
1/2
first to be industrialized in continental europe were
belgium france and german states
governments provided funds to build
roads canals and railroads
in 1800 __ out of __ american workers wre farmers
6/7
between 1800 and 1860 the population in the us gre from ___ to ___ million people
5
30
who built the first paddle wheel steamboat the clermont
robert fulton 1807
the railroad began with fewer than __ miles in 1830

by 1860 it had ___ miles

100
30,000
many of the workers in the new factories of new england were
women
in 1850 two new social classes emerged-
the industrial middle class
the industrial working class
1750 pop.-
1850 pop.-
140 mil
266 mil
population grew because of a decline in
death rates
wars
diseases

eventually pitiful living conditions caused urban reformers to call on _____ to clean up their cities
government
an economic system based on industrial production
industrail capitalish
industrial capitalism led to a new middle class group called
industrial middle class
people involved in industry and banking as well as professionals like lawyers teachers doctors and government
bourgeois
the industrial middle class was
poeple who built the factories
bought the machines
figured out where markets were

the industrial middle classes qualities included
initiative
vision
ambition
greed


work hours for the industrial working class ranged from _ to _ hours a day and _ days a week
12-16
6
the worst conditions were in the ____ where the temperatures were harmful
cotton mills
tunnels with constant dampness led to
deformed bodies
ruined lungs
the number of children in the workforce declined with the
factory act of 1833
the factory act of 1833 which set _ as the minimum age of employment and those between _-_ could only work 9 hours _-_ could work 12
9
9-13
13-18

as children declined their places were taken by
women
excessive working hours for women were outlawed in
1844
a system in which society usually in the form of the government owns and controls tome means of prodcution such as factories and utilities
socialism
early socialism was largely the idea of intellectuals who believed in the ______ oand who wanted to replace ______- with ___________ in industry
the equality of all people
a british cotton manufacturer was a utopian scientist believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment
robert owen
the powers at vienna wanted to keep any certain country from controlling europe which mean balanicing ___ and ___ poowers
military political
beliefs based on tradition and social stablity
conservatism
the great powers had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitamate monarchs to their throne
principle of intervention
____ refused to accept the principle of intervention
britain
austria prussia russia and frnace used _____ to crush revoltution in ___ and ____
military forces
spain italy
a political philosophy based on enlightenment principles that said people should be free as possible from government restraint
liberalism
liberals created the ______ because the believed they should have _____ and freedom of ___ ____ and ____
bill of rights
equality before law
speech assembly press

liberals also wanted (religious)
separation of church and state
religious tolerance
liberals believed that laws should be made by a _____ elected by qualifed voters
legislature
liberals thought that voting rights only applied to
men of property
for nationalists people owe their chief political loyalty to the _____ rather than another political unit
nation
nationalists thought that each _______ should have their own government
nationality
most liberals believed freedom could only be possible in people who ________
ruled themselves
when did liberalism and nationalism begin to break through conservative domination of europe
1830
In france _______ overthrew the bourbon monarch ________ in _____ and established a _________
liberals
charles X
1830
constitutional monarchy


who supported the new leader Louis-Phillipe
upper middle class
who replaced Charles X
Louis-phillipe
______ which had belonged to the former ________ rebelled and created an independent state through _______---
belgium
dutch republic
nationalism

what happened in france, 1846
severe economic problems
the monarchy of france was overthrown in
1848
a group of _______ and _______ republicans set up a ________ or temporary government
moderate
radical
provisional

a government in which leaders are elected
republic
the provisional government called for the election of representatives to a ______________ that would draw up a new constitution
constituent assembly
election in france for the constituent assembly was to be led by
universal male suffrage
what means all adult men can vote
universal male suffrage
provisional government also set up ______ to provide __ for the unemployed
national workshops
work
from march to june the number of unemployed enrolled in the national workshops rose from ____ to ____
66,000
120,000
when were the national workshops closed
june 21
when was the new constitution ratified
november 4 1848
the new constitution set up a republic called the
second republic
the second republic had a
single legislature
president
when was the election for the presidency held
december 1848
who won the presidency for the second republic
louis napoleon bonaparte
an all german parliament called the ________ was held to fulfill a _____ and _____ dream, to prepare a _____ for a new united germany
frankfurt assembly
liberalist
nationalist
constitution


did the frankfurt assembly fail
yes
did the frankfurt assembly make a constitution
yes but there was no way to make the leaders accept it
the austrian empire was a-
multinational state
what is a collection of different peoples in a state
multinational state
what are 10 nationalities in austria
germans
czechs
magyars
slovaks
romanians
slovenes
poles
croats
serbians
italians








in march 1848 what happened in germany
the austrian foreign minister metternich was dismissed
what happened in june 1848 in germany
austrian military forces crushed czech rebellions in prague
the hungarian revolutionaries were finally subdued in
1849
in ____ a revolt broke out against the _____ and _________ (austrians)
1848
lombardy
venetia

the expanision to the balkans would give russia access to the
dardanelles and meditteranean sea
where did people begin to look in italy for leadership in achieving the unification of italy
piedmont
who ruled the kingdom of piedmont
the royal house of savoy
what was all included in piedmont
piedmont, the island of sardinia, nice, and savoy
who was the ruler of the kingdom of piedmont
king victor emmanuel 2
who did cavour make an alliance with
louis napoleon
why did cavour make an alliance with louis napoleon
policy of economic expansion-increased government revenues-large army-defeat austrians-help (france)
when did cavour provoke the austrians into invading piedmont
1859
cavour gave france____ and ____ for making the alliance
nice
savoy
austrians gave piedmont _____ but still remained control of _______
lombardy
venetia
what new leader arose in southern italy
giuseppe garibaldi
giuseppe garibaldy raised an italian army of a thousand volunteers called the _____
red shirts
the two sicilies are
sicily and naples
naples and the entire kingdom of the two siciles belonged to _________ in early september
garibaldi
garibaldi chose to turn over his conquests to
piedmont
what happened on march 17 1861
a new kingdom of italy was proclaimed under king victor emmanuel 2
the italians gained control of ______ as a result of a war between ______ and _______
venetia
austria
prussia

In the ___________ the new italian state became an ally of prussia, prussia won and the italians were given _______
austro-prussian war of 1866
venetia
in _____ during the _________ french troops withdrew from ____ their withdrawal enabled the italian army to annex rome on _________. _____ became the new captial of the italian state
1870
franco-prussian war
rome
september 20, 187
rome



prussia was known for its
militarism
the politics of reality
realpolitik
politics based on practical matters rather than on theory or ethics
realpolitik
who was the foremost practictioner of realpolitik
otto von bismarck

Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards