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Glossary of History Unit Three Exam

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How the U.S. acquired Florida?
1.Adam's Onis Treaty.
2.The seminole war broke out because idians refused to give it up.
3.Spain had very little control over Florida (Andrew Jackson occupied the state)

The results and significance of the Stephen Long Expedition of 1819-1820?
Started traveling west from St. Louis until the discovered the great plains.
Significance: Stephen F. Austin kept the area settle.
Results: Settlement goes beyond & below the great plains.

Name the primary sellers of much of the land bought by settlers?
Speculators
Name the components of the revolution in transportation in the early 19th century?
1.Roads
2.Steamboats
3.Canals

Name the inventor of the steamboat and describe the significance of the steamboat?
Inventor: Robert Fulton
Significance:
1.More steamboats are sailing because transportation doesn't cost as much
2.Two way rivers now exist.
3.More room to store goods.



Explain the origin and significance of the Erie Canal?
Origin: New York invested a bond in order to construct a canal from lake Erie to the Hudson River.
Significance: Thanks to this canal, the cost of shipping was reduced to 1/12 of the original cost. & It made NYC the commercial capital of the U.S.
Describe how the Canal Age ended?
Canals are no longer successful because railroads are now a competition and canals don't carry enough traffic to profit themselves.
Describe the new American market economy?
All manufactured good are being produced for sale, rather than consumption due transportation improvements.
Explain how the south produced large amounts of cotton?
1.credit system is establish by merchants.
2.the demand by the textile manufacturing industry.
3.the cotton gene sped up labor dramatically.
4.good land in the south west.
5.slavery provided the labor system.
6.rivers transportation.




Name the industry in which the factory system developed first?
Textile Industry
Describe the basic beliefs of the Democratric-Republicans by 1815?
1.Re-establishment of the national bank.
2.Wanted to protect tariff for industry.


Discuss Madison's positions on the protective tariff in 1790 and 1816?
He goes from opposing Hamilton's idea on protected tariffs to being for the idea.
1.he thought it gave the government too much power. (when he was governor of virgina)
2.voters are now consisting on national greatness.
3.he wants to satisfy the whole nation.
4.can't be a great nation with out manufacturing.





What were the causes of the Era of Good Feeling sand who was the president associated with the Era of Good Feelings?
President: James Monroe
Causes:
1.there's no party strife.
2.there is the era of great pride in America.


Describe the Missouri Compromise?
1.missouri applys for state hood.
2.the house approves their state hood, but wouldn't aloud slavery in missouri.
3.states would be maintained as entering missouri you become a slave in the southern valley.
4.everything north of missouri's boundary will be free.




Discuss the basic beliefs of Chief Justice Marshall?
1.state laws must apply to federal constitution.
2.strong federal courts.
3.the constitution protected property rights.
4.the states have no power to impair those rights.


Basic tenets of the Monroe Doctrine?
Principles:
1.the U.S. opposes any further colonization in the Americas.
2.The U.S. opposes efforts by European nations to extend their efforts in the Eastern hempshere.
3.U.S. will not interfere with Europe's affairs or wars.


Explain the results of the decline of deference in political terms?
Results:
1.self made men of lonely origin could rise to power and influence. (Ex. Andrew Jackson)
2.Exclusiveness of aristocratic pretension.

Describe how politics changed in the 1820's?
1.all white men could vote (if they owned property)
2.increase in dramatic rivaling
3.increase in the number of elected officials (trust the people)
4.rise of a new 2 party system (state organizations)
5.rise in political interest and participation.





Name the presidential candidates in 1824?
1.John Quincy Adams (John Adam's son)
2.Henry Clay
3.Andrew Jackson
4.William Crawford


Explain the elements and origins of the "Corrupt Bargain" of 1824?
1.Jackson wins the plurality of votes
2.Jackson assumes Henry Clay rigged the election John Quincy Adams.
3.John Quincy Adams becomes president and Henry Clay becomes secretary of state.

Describe the reasons why John Quincy Adams had problems as president?
1.there was a cloud of suspicion that his presidency was rigged.
2.he calls for more federal activity at the wrong time.
3.in 1826 John Quincy Adams had a very pro Andrew Jackson congress elected.

Name the supporters of Andrew Jackson in 1828?
1.John Calhoun (John Quincy Adams vice president)
2.Martin Van Buren (northern support)
3.Francis & Amis Kendall (western influential editors)

Discuss the basic elements of the election of 1828?
1.corrupt Bargin was the rally call of Jacksonians.
2.founding of the democratic party.
3.mass democracy.
4.race becomes cast as man of the people vs. over educated aristocrat.


Describe the basic aspects of the "Spoils System"
1.an office holder would remove people and put in his own supporters.
2.Jackson viewed this as a prime example of fine democracy.
Explain Jackson's Indian policy.
1.remove all indians to areas beyond the mississippi area.
2.wanted a speedy and thrural removal.
3.asserted that indians weren't entitled to any federal protection.

Explain why the tariff hurt South Carolina so much
1.South Carolina produced and exported staple crops
2.Tariffs increased the value of their prices on manufactured imports.
3.Put a big tariff on South Carolina's rice (cost them too much to ship & produce)

Name the leader of the southern state's rights movement
John Calhoun
Explain the doctrine of nullification in 1832
1.South Carolina have the right to set aside federal laws
2.South Carolina wants to nullify any tariffs coming their way.
Describe the events and results of the Nullification Crisis of 1832
Events:
1. The tariff of abomination (S.C. is outraged)
2.Congress lowers the tariff.
3.South Carolina responds by calling a convention (they vote to nullify the tariff)
4.Jackson responds by telling his secretary of war to prepare for war.
Results:
1.Congress approves Jackson's use of force but also passed a compromise bill that lowered S.C.'s tariff to a very cheap amount.





Name the author of the Compromise Tariff of 1833
Henry Clay - Now known as the great compromiser. (he wants to be president in the next election more than anything)
Name the President of the 2nd Nation Bank.
Nicholas Biddle
(Appointed by Monroe)
-Andrew Jackson doesn't like him.

Describe the events of the Bank War of 1832
1.Henry Clay urges Biddle to seek a renewal of the banks charges.
2.Biddle seeks out a renewal plan for the banks.
3.The charter passes through Congress.
4.Jackson veto's the charter (stating the law is unconstitutional)& congress is unable to override the bill...so it doesn't pass.


Explain how Jackson destroyed the 2nd National Bank
1.Doesn't deposit anymore funds into the national bank.
2.Pull out all existing deposits.
3.Fired 2 secretary of treasury until the 3rd one withdrew all the money.
Result:
we go decades with out a national bank.



Name the candidates for president in 1836
Democrat: Martin Van Buren (Andrew Jackson hand picked)
Republicans (wig candidates): Webster, William Henry Harrison, & Hugh Lawson White.
Explain why Martin Van Buren's administration failed.
1st off he won the election.
1.the democrats take no action to do anything about the economy
2.panic of 1837 & the great depression that followed.

Explain the presidential campaign of 1840
Martin Van Buren runs again, though William Henry Harrison wins!
1.the wigs offer alternative federal actions (improvements)
2.The wigs nominated a war
3.the wigs adopted the democratic approach that appeals to the masses.


Name the principal crop of the Upper South
Tobacco!
Explain why slavery declined in the Upper South
1.prices for tobacco wouldn't cover the cost of producing.
2.tobacco severely depletes the soil.
3.the demand for slaves is dropping dramatically (so their prices rise, because they were needed in the south west for cotton pickin')

Name the principal crop of coastal South Carolina and Georgia
Rice
Name the principal crop of southern Louisiana
Sugar
Name the principal crop of the lower South
Cotton
Explain why short stem cotton flourished
because it grew quicker than the coastal island long stem cotton plants.
Explain why the economic viability of slavery was good
1.the return on investments of slavery and land were high.
2.flood control and transportation majors doubled the amount of land available in the south. (more cotton land)
Describe the demographics of slave holding
1.only 25% of whites lived in slave holding families.
2.Planters consisted of 4% of whites.
3.In the cotton bill only 40% of whites lived in slave towns.
4.Salves were about 1/3 of the entire population of the south.
5.a bare majority of slaves lived on plantations.



Explain the origins and influence of the large planters of the Old South
Origins:
self made men, often hard driving business men who made their wealth from other occupations than farming. Invested their money in slaves and land.
Influence:
Their influence was greater than 4% should have. They dominated society in the plantation areas.


Discuss the general terms the treatment of slaves
1.Economic self interest and paternalism (humanity) limited the harsh aspects of slavery.
2.The whole system of slaves depended on swift or severe punishment.
3.The slave holders were under nourishing their slaves, exceeding what economic consideration thought was abusive.
4.1/3 of slave sales were for closer. (splitting up the family through slave sales)


Describe the economic characteristics of the yeomen of the Old South
yeomen - owned farms and provided their own labor.
1.they had very limited opportunities to produce for markets.
2.women participate in all kids of labor.
3.families were very large.


Describe the economic and political world of the yeoman.
1.They were Jacksonian democrats (wanted self made men)
2.Voted for their own kind, eternal improvements, and for banks.
3.Never voted to end slavery.

Explain the origins and purpose of the more rigid slave codes of the post-1830 south
1.Institution of slavery becomes even harsher (laws limited literacy, suppressing churches)
2.codes are coming from the ruling class (planters)
3.concerns of slave rebellions (fear that yeomen would abolish slavery)
4.eliminate access of voting abolitionists.


Describe the foundations of the pro-slavery arguments
1.slavery is natural and proper for people of African decent.
2.slavery is claimed in the bible.
3.slavery is the humanitarian way.
4.the wage slavery system of the north are being treated worse than the south.


Describe how slaves resisted slavery
1.they were mentally damaged by slavery
2.rebellion (organized violence)
3.slaves began running away (the underground railroad)
4.indirect or passive ways of resisting slavery (poisoning, stealing, destruction of property)


Explain the position of Free Blacks in the South
About 6% of blacks in the south were free.
1.they were watched and controlled because of the fear that they'd rebel.
2.free blacks had to have a white guardian.
3.Excluded from meetings and certain occupations
4.a slave trader could still strip them of their papers and resale them at auctions.
5.they were all in a weak position for rebellion against slavery.




Describe African American religion in the 19th century
1.religion was extremely important (it reduced the dehumanization of slavery)
2.it was protestantism (it stressed the portion of the bible that focused on the aspirations of slavery)
3.it was their joy in life.
4.strong liberation through songs and sermons.
5.



Describe the major aspects of slave family life in the 19th century
1.family was extremely important.
2.households on plantations contained children.
3.marriages were generally dissolved by death.
4.on small plantations, children were raised by the mother only.
5.fidelity was weak.
6.family ties were very long lasting.




What were the characteristics of the 2nd Great Awakening?
1.Begins in the south and spreads throughout the nation.
2.Huge camp out meetings.
3.Wide spread growth of church membership and religious sentiment.
4.Heavy reliance in preachers and emotionally charged vitals.


What were the primary effects of legacies of the 2nd Great Awakening?
1.increased church membership and devotion to christ.
2.Missionaries were sent out to reform people.
During the first decades of the 1800s, why was alcohol use seen by many as one of the greatest threats to public morality?
1.consumption of alcohol was 3 times as much.
2.alcoholism was extremely present.
3.increase in crime and family threats.

By the end of the 1830s, what were the results of the temperance movement?
1.the movement altered drinking habits.
2.per person consumption of liquor dropped more than 50%
During the period from about 1820 to 1850, who was the most influential supporter of the common school movement.
Horse Men!
What were the different approaches of the anti-slavery movement to the elimination of slavery?
1.moral persuasion to free slaves and colonization.
2.enacted abolishing laws to end slavery.
What was the "Underground Railroad" and who were it's primary operators?
it was an escape route for slaves in the south. No more than 100,000 slaves escaped to freedom.
In what ways was the anti-slavery movement a failure, and in what ways was it a success?
Failures:
1.Never convinced the majority of Americans to abolish slavery.
2.inspired more incompetent attitude towards slavery.
Success:
1.Brought slavery to the foreground and convinced people it was morally wrong.



What earlier reform movement led directly to the antebellum women's rights movement?

Abolitionists movement (because women wanted to be involved)
What were the demands of the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848?
1.voting rights for women.
2.and to have control over the husbands priorities as well.

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