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Glossary of History 101 Final Exam

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Abbasid
From around 760 B.C. in Islam. The Abbasid dynasty brought much change to the world of Islam and tried to break down distinctions between Arab and non-Arab Muslims.
Alcuin of York
Was known as "greatest scholar of that day" by Einhard around 780. From 782-796 Alcuin provided the leadership for the palace school in York.
Alfred the Great
King of Wessex from 871-899. He defeated the danish army in 879 and helped translate the works of the church into Old English.
Avicenna
Also known as Ibn Sina, existed in 980-1037 and was a muslim Scholar. Wrote a medical encyclopedia that became a medical textbook for medieval european university students.
Charles Martel
Served as mayor of the palace of Austasia beginning in 714. He led troops that defeated the Muslims in 732 and became ruler of 3 Merovingian kingdoms by his death in 741.
Cyril
Byzantine missionary starting in 863. Had a brother with which he created a slavonic alphabet, translated the Bible into Slavonic, and developed Slavonic church services.
Fief
The land or other type of income granted to a vassal in return for military service. Took place inthe Carolingian empire.
Scriptoria
A writing room where monks copied the works of early christianity and the works of latin classical authors. This took place in the ninth century by Benedictine monks.
The Rus
A union of eastern Slavic territories known as the principality of Kiev. Around 900 and encompasses lands between the Baltic and Black seas.
Treaty of Verdun
Took place in the Carolingian Empire in 843. SIgned by 3 brothers after their father died that they would divide the empire into 3 major sections. One for each of them.
Vassalage
Derived from a Germanic society and took place in the Carolginian Empire. It was when warriors swore an oath of loyalty to their leader.
Carruca
Was a heavy wheeled plow in 1000 to 1300 in Europe. It could turn heavy soils and allowed them to drain, making agriculture more productive.
Chanson de geste
A type of vernacular literature in the High Middle ages in Europe. It was heroic epics written for a male-dominant society.
Peter Abelard
From 1079-1142 Abelard studied and taught in northern France. He wrote sic et non, where he listed passaged from scripture and the church fathers that stood in contradiction to one another.
Romanesque
A term used to describle the art and especialld architecture of Europe. Took place in Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries.
Scholasticism
The philosophical and theological system of medieval schools, which emphasized rigorous analysis of contracidtory authorities. Began in the 11th century in Europe.
Summa Theologica
Written by Thomas Aquinas in Europe around Paris. It was a compendium of knowledge that attempted to bring together all the recieved learning of the preceding centuries into a single whole where aquainas discussed 600 articles.
Cathars
Often called Albigensians in the 12th and 13th centuries in France. They believed in a dualist system in which good and evil were separate and distinct.
Hildegard of Bingen
A nun in Germany who liver from 1098-1179. Wrote about visions she had and became known as a mystic and a prophet.
Norman Conquest
Took place in England around 1090. It brought dramatic change in England including the king having limited lands, and great families controlling large stretches of land.
Pope Gregory VII
Pope from 1073-1085 for the catholic church. Had the greatest reform of the church and sought the elimination of lay investiture
Seljuk Turks
Nomadic people from central Asia around 11th century. Flourished as military mercenaries for the Abbasid calphate.
Teutonic Knights
Founded near the end of the 12th century near Germany. Their purpose was to protect the christian Holy Land and started a was with the Slavs and forced them to convert.
Thomas Beckett
Was archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until 1170. He is venerated as a Saint and Martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
Saint Louis
King of France from 1226-1270. He was reviewed as a saint and was the only King of France to ever be canonized.
Reconquista
In Spain in the MIddle Ages. It was the reconquest of Muslim lands by christian rulers and their armies.
Cluny
Was a commune in eastern France that was founded by Duke William in 910. They encouraged art and caring for the poor and clunaic reform spread throughout France, Italy, Spain, and England until 1562.
Gaudeamus Igitur
Was a popular academic commercium song in many European countries in the early 18th century. It meant "So Let us Rejoice" and became the official song of many universities and student societies. It encourages students to enjoy student life.

Artium Baccalaureaus
Means Bachelor of Arts and is awarded for a completed undergratuate course in Liberal Arts. Began in the early 19th century in Europe.
Abbot Suger
Lived in France 1081-1151. Was one of the last France abbot-statesmen and the influential patron of Gothic arcitecture.
Ile-de-France
One of 26 regions of France. It means "Island od France." It was in the 14th century and contained Paric and the river of Seine.

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