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Glossary of History 100

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TL: Beginnings of human migration across Beringia into the Americas
18,000-16000 BCE
TL: Agricultural Revolution in Mesoamerica
8000 BCE- 4000 BCE
TL: First writing in Mesopotamia and the Americas (2 dates)
Meso: 3100 BCE

Americas: 250 BCE

TL: Qin Dynasty
221-207 BCE
Fall of Rome under Romulus Augustulus
476 CE
Death of Mohammed in CE and AH
CE: 632

AH: 10

Vikings reach North America
1000 CE
Mansa Musa's Haji
1325-1326 CE
Genghis Khan (chinngis)
Took power in 1206 CE, Born 1155 CE, dies in 1227 CE
Delhi Sultanate
1206-1526 CE
TRavel of Ibn Battuta
1304-1369 CE
Start of Ottoman Empire under Osman
1326 CE
Black Death from China to Europe
1320-1349 CE
Sack of Constantinople by Mehmed
1353 CE
Travels of Zheng HE:
1405-1433 CE
TL: European Renaissance
1430-1550 CE
TL: Mayans flourish
250-900 CE
TL: Cortez meets Aztecs
1519 CE
MC: Comparative
&
Transregional historical approaches

Comp: taking one subject and comparing its affects in different regions; it can be at different times thru history EX writing

Trans: Comparing something/event that happens at or in different regions at the same time.

Pax Romana
2nd Century; reached territorial height in 115-117 CE. Long period of several centuries of settled conditions established by the Roman Empire. Stands for Roman peace. Started in 30 BCE. Most violent warlike of al the Mediterranean sates yet was responsible for creating peace. Led by Octavius AKA Augustus.
Roman Empire
Start of the Reublic: 508 BC

Sacking of Rome: 476 CE

Augustus
An iconic leader for the Roman Empire. in In 27 BCE, Octavius (63BCE-14CE) assumed the title Augustus (or revered one). he set up anew political order where he and he alone controlled the army, the provinces, and the political processes in Rome. He became the first of dozens of men to rule the empire as emperor. Reigned 30 BCE-14 CE.
The Gracchi
Two brothers, Tiberus and Gaius. They attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians. For this legislation and their membership in the Populares party they have been considered the founding fathers of both socialism and populism. After achieving some early success, both were assassinated for their efforts.
Julius Caesar
Roman general. 100-44 BCE, a ruthless military man who boasted that his campaigns had led to the deaths of over a million people. Immensely charismatic and attentive to his public image and therefore had great influence and power over both soldiers and citizen soldiers
Qin Dynasty
221-207 BCE

Replaced the Zhou Dynasty. Established the ground work to make China a unified state. They created the political social and economical structures that would thereafter characterize imperial China. Forged a central state.
-Terra Cotta Army


Xiongnu
-Nomadic Military threat to the Han Dynasty- originally was not the deffense but switched to defense once the Han started fighting back under Emp. Wu's guidance.
-Yuezhi detestedthe X and had frequent armed clashed with them. Invaded the Y land and defeated them.
-between 129-124 BCE, the Han split the X into 2 tribes. -Southern tribe surrender, Northern tribe traveled toward the Meditteranean where they eventually threatened the stability the eastern flank of the roman empire.

Pax Sinica
During the Han dynasty China, the retreat of X and other nomadic people from 149 BCE-87 BCE making it the most peaceful and prosperous time. Long distance flourished, cities increased in size and population grew. material standards of living rose.
Han Dynasty
-POP: 12,233,062
-households: 58 mill in 2nd century
-206 BCE- 22 CE
-built on Shang Zhou predecessors
-formation on the edge of wider oecumene
-military struggles with neighboring middling power (land within passes)
-Expansion into Sichuan region (SW China)
-high stakes war and consolidation end of 'warring states peiod'






Qin Shi Huangdi
End the warring states period with the help of ministers and generals with a large conscripted army financed by taxation.
-First Qin emperor and changed his name to Qin SHi H. (first August emperor)
-forced defeated state's rulers and families to move to Xianyang (capital of Qin) where he could assure that they weren't gathering armies against him.

Han Wudi
206-220 BCE
vastly increased the authority of the Han dynasty. Extended Chinese influence and made Confucianism the state religion of China.
Wang Mang
Han minister and regent to a child emperor
-took over the thrown and established a new dynasty, he believed the Han had lost its mandate of heaven.
-attempted to reform:
--help the poor
--foster economic activity
--break up larger states
--prohibited the purchase and resale of land
--imposed higher taxes on artisans( to pay for store houses systems)
-his reforms did not succeed
-revolutionary leader among China. ruled from 9-23 CE








(1/2) Red Eyebrow Revolt
Red Eyebrow: Chinese peasant ban that formed in response to the unrest in civil war following the floods and famines that accompanied disastrous changes in the Huang He "Yellow River". Their forces overthrew Wang Mang who's reign had interrupted the Han Dynasty
(2/2) Yellow Turban Uprising
Demanded fair treatment of the Han state and more important equal distribution of all farm lands. COntributed to the fall of the Han dynasty.
Tarim Mummies
found in NW China, but not genetically Chinese.
Peutinger Table and Periplus
Peutinger Table (land maps): 1st cent CE,
- Romans knowledge of China and India. -Made maps based on walking there by foot.
-Only familiar with India
-thought China was tiny

Periplus: (books of sailing knowledge)
-means 'sailing around'
-sea captains recorded their landing spots and ports between their two destinations






Fall of Rome
235- end of Severan Dynasty
337- death of Sonstantine
391- banning of pagan cult
476- Sacking of Rome by Visigoths
6th CE- economic troubles
1453- fall of Constantinople to Seljuk




Perpetua/martyr
-trial of christians and gladiatorial entertainment
-varieties of christianity (pre 325 BCE)
-father wanted perpetua's baby
-gave her baby away and she killed herself Christianity


Constantine
-Ruler during the 4th Century
--didnt tax Christian bishops
--took a Roman approach to a powerful new God
--privileges to favored religious group who were responsible for god's worship
--Christians, taking Constantine's conversion as evidence of total victory for their faith, exploited their new privileges with fierce alacrity
--legalized Christianity
-Takes 25 years to get baptized as a Christian





Diaspora Judaism
the dispersion of Jews among the gentile after the Babylonian exile. Left present day Isreal.
-Very grounded
Sasanians
-Inheritors of Persian Culture
-Rule the Iranian Plateau and Mesopotamia
-overthrew the Parthians. Zorastrianism became a state religion.
-centralized govt.
controlled trade...an empire that succeeded the Parthians in mid 220s CE in Inner Eurosia



Barbarian Invasions
start in 4th century CE, continued into 5th century CE; lead to the collapse of the Western Half of the Roman Empire
Nestorian Christianity
originally christian since the Sasanian empire. Members of the church of the "east", based in Ctesiphon. Made use of the Sasanian trade to spread their faith along the Silk Roads. Settled communities across Asia. By 635 CE, est. monasteries and church in Chang'an, China.
Christians also founded colonies in southern India
Sogdians
uncivilized rulers of the Silk Roads ("Lords of the Silk Road"), "gossipers".
-ideas: religion, Nestorian Christianity pg 343
Xuanzang
A chinese Buddhist monk who travels through India to study Buddhism, where it originated in_________. He accounts his travels in Xuanzang's Record of Western Regions for the Tang emperor. He accumulates scrolls through his travels and translates them from Sanskrit to Chinese.
Mahayana (1/3)
M: (greater vehicle) movement that arose with Indian Buddhism. Became 9th century dominate influence on the Buddhist cultures on Central and E. Asia. viewed as enabling all individuals, the poor and powerless as well as the rich and powerful, to move from a life of suffering into a happy existence. Buddhism became an universalized religion. Buddha was seen as a god and it had bodhisattvas. Has a Chinese branch created by Kumarajiva called Madhyamika.
Hinayana (2/3)
(lesser vehicle) accepted buddha as the god but could not accept the divinity of bodhisattvas.
Zen Buddhism (3/3)
the school of Mahayana. ca.500 CE, brought to China by Indian priest, Bodhidharma, emphasizes meditation
Kumarajiva
-(344-413 CE)
-renowned Buddhist scholar and missionary whom they brought back to China
-starting 401, he resided at the court in Chang'an where he taught and practiced magic rituals
-became known as a promoter of Buddhist holistic medicine


Brahma/Vishnu/Shiva
-Vishnu: Hindu god, embodied the present, most popular of the three, reincarnated as many people (Krishna, Mathura, Arjuna)

-Brahma: Hindu god, universe composed of the earth, sky, and heavenly bodies beyond the sky, the creator

-Shiva: Hindu God, on the back of the Kushan coin w/ his cow



Tang Dynasty
(618-907 CE) succeed the Sui Dynasty. Shared common borders with Islam. Competed for dominance in central Asia, influenced by one another and even shared populations, admired features of the other and encouraged travelers and traders to share info about the other society.
-Started by the Li family
Charlemagne
(Charles the Great) Ruler of France in 9th century; expanded French territories extremely.
-Charlemagne's Empire (800CE)
-crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III (bishop of rome)

Vikings
-(800-1000 CE) use their ships to be on the “warpath”

-830 burial of Vikin Queen (in Norway)

-Ships: multi useful/ multi functional & portable
--able to go over open water, up rivers and across land

-Plunder Iceland and Greenland monasteries
--took things back to central territories

-Trade with Native Americans

-Trade with Muslims in spain & mediterranian

-“Highway of Slaves” through Baltic















Mohammed
(born: 570 CE, Vision (Sura 96 - written in the Quran):
610 CE, death: 632 CE = 10 AH)
-Leader of the Islamic faith; seen as the last prophet to Muslims (no one after Mohammed can speak for God). Begins the Islamic Empire



5 Pillars fo Islam
1. SHAHADA: core entry of faith, profession of Allah
2. PRAYER: 5X a day. ritualized, specific prayer
3. FASTING: sun up to sun down
4. PILGRAMAGE/HAJJ: travel to Mecca at least once in your life
5. ALMS: giving of wealth (2.5% of net wealth)
--in christianity it’s 10% so 2.5% is less and an appealing conversion cost






Abbasid (caliphs, ulama, sharia, hadith)
-Second of the two great dynasties of the Muslim empire. (750-1000)
-Caliphs-the spiritual and political leaders of the Islamic community.
-Ulama-a council of learned men holding government acquaintance/ powerful class.
-Sharia-Islamic law.
-Hadith-record or the traditions of sayings of the Prophet Muhammad.
-Second only to the Quran.






Umayyad
•Arab Empire (661 to 750)
•Centered at Damascus
•a branch of one of the Meccan clans that seizes opportunity to lay claim to Ali’s legacy
•moved the core of Islam out of Arabia and introduced a hereditary monarchy to resolve leadership disputes- Caliphate
•Overthrown by the Abbasids in 750 CE





Sunni/Shia
Sunni (Seliuk Turks)-Regarded as mainstream and traditional branch of Islam.

Shia(Shiites)-Recognized Ali Muhammad’s cousin the fourth caliph and his descendants as rightful ruler Islamic world.



Needle Compass
-permitted sailing in cloudy weather
-year round travel
-made map making more accurate
-trade overseas was faster and more efficient




Anchorage/ Entrepots
• Egypt (Cairo/Alexandria)
• Quanzhou in Song China
• Chola India (Quilon)



Entrepots
trading stations at the borders between communities, which made change possible among many different partners, long distance traders could also replenish their supplies at these stations
Mande
Mande-speaking peoples emerged as the primary agents for integration within and beyond West Africa, using the expertise in commerce and political organization to edge out other groups living in the area.
Griot
griot profession is hereditary and their role was to preserve the genealogies and oral traditions of other people.
Sundiata aka “The Lion King” (and Mali Empire):
west African monarch founded the Empire of Mali(1100-1400). Connected west Africa to the rest of the world. Important gathering place for traders. Connected salt, gold and slave trade to the rest of the world.
Mansu Musa
Emperor of Mali. Islam leader of West Africa. Best known for pilgrimmage to Mecca in 1324
Goers on Hajj to Arabia (one year movement)


Sufism
Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge and personal experience of God.
-Sufi Islam: more mystical, easier to be drawn to & convert


Jizya
you have to pay a tax if you don’t convert to a particular religion, existed for Islam
Marco Polo
(1254-1324) from Venice he & his uncle traveled 15,000 miles in 24 years
Ibn Battuta
(1304-1369) for Morocco he traveled 75,000 miles (to visit EVERYWHERE that was Muslim, without backtracking ANY routes) in 30 years
Song Dynasty
(960-1270) Arguably the worlds first industrial revolution because it was so advanced. They had paper money. Agrarian roots but manufactured porcelain and gunpowder
Feudalism/Manorialism
chivalry based on monks peasants and knights. Those who pray, work, and fight manorialism are the feudalists in Western Europe between 1000-1300 CE
Hanseatic League
German trading organization. Dominated commercial activity in Northern Europe the 13th to 15th century.
Franciscans/Dominicans:
Franciscans-any member of a Christian religious order founded in the early 13th century by St Frances of Assisi
Dominicans-Mendicant orders of the Roman Catholic Church founded by St. Dominic in 1215.


Crusades
Medieval Muslim writer. His life coincided with several medieval Muslim dynasties as well as the arrival of the first crusade.
Crusades:
• beginning 1095
• as many as 9 crusades
• reason: reclaim Jerusalem and make it Christian!





Mongols
Temujin aka Genghis Khan (1162-1227), then continued by his sons and grandsons; notably his grandson Kublai Khan, biggest empire ever (until the British)! expanded by trade or raid. Covered 22% of earth’s land and had 100 million people in its population and founded the Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty:(Mongol Dynasty)
• established in China by Mongol nomads
• stretched throughout most of Asia and Eastern Europe
• (1206-1368)
• brought the afro-eurasian worlds together




Black Death
(1320-1349) Could have been caused by climate change(small ice age) and a famine that occurred from 1315-1317. It consisted of 2 plagues called the bubonic and pneumonic which could be transferred from animal to human and back (zoonotic).

Mortality Rate-China 50%
India 0%
Europe 20% - 80%
Germany 20%
Middle East 30%







Hundred Years' War
War between France and England that took place in 14th and 15th centuries
1337-1453 (Crecy and Agincourt and longbow; canon at Castillon)


War of the Roses
(1455-1485) 30 year civil war between the houses of Lancaster and York. Both families ultimately lost out to a new family, the Tudors, who seized the throne in 1485.
Ferdinand & Isabella
Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married in 1469 to join Spain’s two most important provinces. They were major houses of Spanish Kindoms. Iberian Royal heirs.
Red Turban Rebellion
opposed to the alien Mongol Rule. Movement due to famine that result from crops failures in the 1330’s marauding began in 1350’s. The rebellion toppled the Mongol Dynasty and founded the Ming
Ming Dynasty
• founded by Zhu Yuanzhang (1368 -1398)
◦ leader of the Red turban movement
• Bureaucracy conquests, defense and religion as components of power
• Hengwu revamps irrigation and Reservoir system
• Zhu Di (yongle emperor)
◦ moves capitol from Nanjing to Beijing






Hongwu:(Zh Yuanzhang)
Founded the Ming Dynasty that ruled China for 300 years. Instituted military administrative and education reform that centered power in the emperor.
Yongle
Third Emperor of China’s Ming Dynasty. He raised Ming Dynasty to it’s greatest power. Moved the capital from Nanging to Beijing
Zheng He
chinese naval officer who traveled throughout asia to Saudi Arabia
Ottoman Empire (dynamic leaders and nature of Ottoman rule):
• Osman I (ca 1300)
◦ expands into collapsing Byzantine territory
• Murad II (1421 to 1451)
◦ active in Balkans and the West
• Mehmed (1451 to 1481)
◦ took over Constantinople and turned it into Istanbul
◦ Brought the end to the Roman Empire (Constantinople was the last roman empire city)
• Suleiman (1520-1556)
◦ led 13 military campaigns to spread the Ottoman Empire
• Nature of Ottoman Empire :
◦ ottoman Turks combine warriors ethos (and Islamic devotion) and conquer with settled administration
◦ Sultan
▪ has military and civilian administration
◦ Chief Bureaucracy
▪ handles daily administration
▪ conscripted christian youth
◦ multilingual
▪ Arabic,Turkish, European languages
▪ *significant trade interests to both west and east



















Topkapi:

• displayed the Ottoman’s view of governance
◦ the importance the sultans attached to religion
• reflected Mehmed II vision of Istanbul as the center of the world
• became the command post of empire
• the place where future bureaucrats were trained
• the place where grand vizier carried out his day-to-day running of the empire







Devshirme & Janissaries
-Devshirme: System used in the Ottoman empire that takes Christian youth and forceably coverts them to Islam and made warriors, scribes, administrators, etc. Served the Ottoman empire.
-Janissaries the conscripted chrisitan youth that were converted in the devshirme system.
can become powerful in the empire, usually strong in their beliefs.



European Renaissance:
• Rebirth of cultural production in Western Europe
• New Greek and Roman text became accessible scholars put them to use
• made a break with the church centered Medieval world
• Humankind’s achievements and errors in this world were now studied
• developed new aesthetic and secular foundation for elite education
• spread
◦ economic prosperity
◦ book circulation
◦ interstate competition
• challenged the church with humanist thought and classic culture
• impressive trading cities with focus on patriotism
• helped Europe rebound by fostering banking and trade.












Chimu Empire
• of Moche Valley
• 1000 to 1460 CE
• pulled into the Inca empire
• centered at Chan Chan (population 30,000) and high status goods
◦ with palaces, funerary monument with status goods
• multiple ecological zones irrigation to facilitate agriculture, llama-borne cotton trade
◦ no real domesticated helpful animals
• followed by Incas, who spread out of Cuzco region by the 15th century and are met by Spaniards, led by Pizzaro in 1526








Toltecs
• 900 to 1100 CE
• 60,000 people
• capital at Tula
• from Teotihuacan reaching into Texas
• maize-based economy
• Cahokia, near st.Louis Missouri
◦ trade ranging from great lakes to Appalachians to Florida
▪ salt, tools, pottery, jewelry








Cahokia
• near st.Louis Missouri
◦ trade ranging from great lakes to Appalachians to Florida
▪ salt, tools, pottery, jewelry



Teotihuacan
• 300 BCE
• the largest city state in Mesoamerica
• growing scale of political and social integration
• in the heart of the fertile valley of central Mexico
◦ fertile soil, ample supply of water fostered high agricultural activity
• sustained a metropolis of about 100,000 - 200,000 ppl
• did not mutate into an empire
• reasons for the fall of he city is NOT known








Mayans
• 250 to 900 CE
• Americas is described as “the world apart” in terms of our text book, “worlds together, worlds apart”
◦ compared to the universalizing that was going on in Eurasia at the time
• Teotihuacan (ca 300ce)
◦ NW of where Mayan culture develops
◦ trading/warring city-state falls to attack in the 5th century
• Mayanss “big” common culture (about10 million people)in Yucatan made up of ritual centers, united by religion and world view (not by a ruler or capital city)
◦ does not build on continuous pre-existing culture
◦ lack of animals and connectivity
▪ just llamas
• Mayans connected agrarian villages, focused on ritual centers
◦ relate to neighbors through trade, warfare and tributary relations
• Stratified with shamanistic king
◦ blood rituals, constant warfare
◦ slash and burn agriculture















Aztecs
• Hierarchical state
◦ centered on Tenochtitlan (founded in 1325)
• Montezuma II (1502 to 1520)
◦ leader when Cortez and Spaniards arrive in 1519
• Eyewitness account by Bernal Diaz
◦ compare huge markets full of goods from all over the world
◦ describes bloody human sacrifices







Columbian Exchange
• Columbus sailed to the Americas in 1491
• brought back goods from the Americas
◦ pumpkin
◦ peanuts
◦ tomatoes
• traded goods to the Americas from Eurasia
◦ animals (sheep, horses, cattle)
◦ foods
◦ spices
◦ DISEASES! (small pox, whooping cough, cold, pneumonia, black death)










What is the bigger world historical picture fit into the “Fall of Rome”?
While the fall of Rome has an internal component, Rome’s fall cannot make sense without thinking about the broader transregional...
Which of the following is NOT a feature of the world 1000-1300?
An Africa that is somewhat disconnected from the rest of Afroeurasia
What is the most significant transregional world historical aspect of Mehmed “the Conqueror”’s conquest of Constantinople-Istanbul in 1453?
The strategic location of Istanbul allowed for Ottoman control of East-West trade
According to this class, all of the following are good approaches to truly WORLD history, except:
Regional/Civilization-specific studies that emphasize the deeds of great men.

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