Glossary of History - The French Revolution
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- State the Three Estates and what they consisted of. Include percent of the land they own!
- 1st ~ Consisted of Clergy, 10% of the land. Exempt from chief tax.
2nd ~ Consisted of Nobility, 25-30% of the land. Exempt from chief tax.
3rd ~ Consisted of commoners and middle class. 35-40% of the land. Paid taxes.
Bourgeois ~ Part of the middle class, but was the lower middle class.
- What were the conditions leading to Revolution?
- Bad harvests, slowdown in manufacturing, rising food prices (from food shortage/drought), unemployment, 1/3 of population was poor, spent too much on costly wars & court luxuries. Inflation went 65% up, and buying power went down.
The king, Louie XVI raised taxes.
- What did the Third Estate want the voting method to switch to?
- They wanted every delegate to get a vote so that they could have the majority.
- What were the steps leading to the creation of the National Assembly?
- They wanted to set up a constitutional government.
They disagreed on voting methods regarding the assemblies and majority vote.
They met and drafted a constitution, then the king locked them out of their meeting place, so they held meetings in a tennis court. The King wanted to use force to stop them, but the people protested and outnumbered/mobbed the king. Royal authority collapsed, popular revolutions broke out and peasant rebellions took place.
- What was the Tennis Court Oath?
- They proclaimed themselves to be the National Assembly and said they wouldn't disband until they wrote a constitution.
- What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen?
- "the natural rights of man" to "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression."
Proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, access to public office based on talent, and stopped exemption from taxes. Excluded women from political rights.
- What was the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
- Clergy paid by the state. Eroded pope's power because the French Government now controlled the church. Sold church land to pay debts.
- What was the Constitution of 1791?
- Set up a limited monarchy. There would be a king, but the National Assembly would make the laws.
Assembly ~ Affluent representatives.
Men over 25 who paid certain taxes could vote.
- What is suffrage?
- The right to vote.
- What two things were going on during the revolution?
- Internal revolution conflict - civil war.
External war with Austria and Prussia.
- What was the Paris Commune?
- A radical mob that arrests the King, disbands the National Assembly and created the National Convention.
- Who was Georges Danton?
- Led the sans-culottes, sought revenge on those who had aided the king. Thousands arrested and massacred.
- Who was Jean-Paul Marat?
- One of the new leaders emerging.
Published radical journal called Friend of the People.
- Who were the Jacobin's?
- The Jacobin's were A club of political groups in France.
- What were the Jacobin groups?
- The Girondins ~ Wanted to overthrow the king, but let him live.
The Mountain ~ Wanted to overthrow and behead the king, Louie XIV.
- Who was the Committee of Public Safety?
- The group set up to run the government. They took control for a year to defend France from foreign and domestic threats. They were set up to prosecute internal enemies of the revolutionary republic.
Created by Gorges Danton, then by Robespierre, who had Danton beheaded.
- What was the grapeshot?
- A type of cannon that sent out a spray of bullets all over the general direction of fire.
- What was the main aim of the Reign of Terror?
- To set up the Republic of Virtue. A democratic republic of good citizens.
- What was the Reign of Terror?
- An effort by the National Convention and the Committee of Public Saftey to meet the crisis.
- Define nationalism.
- What was the National Convention?
- A democratic republic. Tried to set up DR with the Committee of Public Safety. Made process of dechirstianization. Raised largest army ever in European history. Conquered Austrian Netherlands. Killed the overobsessive Robespierre.
- What did dechristianization do?
- Closed churches, founded the Society for Revolutionary Republican Women (ready to defend new French Republic).
Worships of reason held instead of church services, years numbered from first day of the French Republic.
D failed because due to mostly catholic populace.
- What happened when the reign of terror ended?
- The National Convention reduced power of Committee of Public Safety. Churches reopened. New constitution of the Directory created more stability.
- Why were external wars going on in France during the revolution?
- Austria and Prussia made demands, France said butt out, France declared war.
- What was the Directory?
- After the reign of terror, a new constitution was created. To keep any one government group from gaining control the Constitution of 1795 made 2 Chambers. Council of 500-drafted laws. Council of Elders-accepted/rejected those laws.
750 members were chosen by Electors. CO500 forms a list for COE from which they elect five directors to act as the executive committee, leading the Directory.
- Who were Royalists?
- They wanted restoration of the monarchy.
- How did Napoleon seize power?
- French Directory's elected leaders were corrupt and used the government for their own personal gains causing economic problems and continuing wars.
He used a coup d'etat.
- What's a coup d'etat?
- A quick military seizure of power.
- What was Napoleon's government? His position?
- Consulate~ He held absolute power and said it was a republic. Napoleon set himself as the consul for life.
- What were Napoleon's policies?
- 1st- Established peace with the Catholic Church. This was called the Concordant of 1801.
2nd- Established 7 codes of law. See Civil Code.
3rd- Based new bureaucracy on talent and ability.
4th- The Bank of France ~ All tax money goes to this bank. Created small business loans to help economy.
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