Glossary of History - Jahangir, Shah Jahan Aurangazeb
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- Jahangir ascended the throne?
- 1605 AD
- 1605 AD
- Jahangir ascended the throne
- Who was Nur Jahan?
- Jahangir's wife.
- Why did Prince Khurram revolt against his father?
- Nur Jahan tried to promote her son-in-law Shahrya to the throne which made Prince Khurram revolt against his father Jahangir.
- 1600 AD
- The English East India Company comes to India.
- Mention the two European travellers who visited India during Jahangir's reign. What was the outcome of this visit?
- The English East India Company sent two ambassadors, Captain William Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe to the court of Jahangir.
Jahangir gave the English permission to set up a trading post at Surat.
- Autobiography of Jahangir
- Autobiography of Jahangir
- Mention two literary sources whic give us information about Jahangir's rule.
Iqbal Nama by Mumtaid Khan
- We came from England to the court of the great Mughal who gave us permission to trade.
- Captain William Hawkins
Sir Thomas Roe
- How do we know Jahangir's sense of justice was high?
- He mentions in his autobiography that he had installed a chain of justice made of gold with 60 bells, between his palace and the bank of river Yamuna. Anyone could ring the bell and seek justice. Jahangir would personally solve the problem.
- Who translated the Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri from Persian to English
- Alexander Rogers
- When did Shah Jahan ascend the throne?
- 1627 AD
- List Shah Jahan's conquests.
- Put down the revolt of the Bundela Rajputs.
As the Bahamani Kingdom broke up, three powerful states of Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda emerged.
Shah Jahan got Bijapur and Golconda sign treaties with him and promised loyalty to the Mughals. They were not annexed but had to pay annual tributes.
Ahmadnagar was annexed.
Shah Jahan sent armies to far-away Balkh and Badakshan. But the campaign failed due to hostile geographical and climatic conditions.
An expedition to recover Kandahar also failed due to the superior artillery of the Persians.
- List the architecture that flourished under Shah Jahan's rule.
- The magnificent Taj Mahal at Agra.
Shahjahanabad - a new capital city on the banks of the river Yamuna.
Inside the city he designed the Red Fort and the grand Jama Masjid.
Remodelled buildings in the Agra Fort often replacing red sandstone with white marble.
Moti MAsjid or Pearl mosque at Agra.
- Author of Padshah Name
- Abdul Hamid Lahauri
- Abdul Hamid Lahauri wrote
- Padshah Nama
- What is the highlight of the Padshah Nama
- The paintings.
- Author of Shah Jahan Nama
- Inayat Khan
- Inayat Khan wrote
- Shah Jahan Nama
- Name a few European Literary sources of the Mughal Period.
- Bernier's Travels in the Mughal Empire ( 1656 AD - 1688 AD)
Tavernier's Travel in Inida (1640 AD - 1667 AD)
Manucci's Storia do Magor (1653 AD - 1708 AD)
- Name the four sons of Shah Jahan who fought a war of succession.
- Name the sister who sided with Aurangzeb in the war of succession.
- Whose reign was the Golden Age of the Mughal Empire?
- Shah Jahan
- Who looked after Shah Jahan in his last days?
- His daughter, Jahanara
- When did Shah Jahan die?
- 1666 AD
- When did Aurangazeb ascend the throne?
- 1658 AD
- Under whose reign did the Mughal empire reach the largest size?
- Under Aurangzeb where did the kingdom stretch?
- Kashmir in the Nort to Jinji in the South.
Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.
- Describe Aurangzeb.
- Orthodoz God-fearing Muslim and a strict disciplinarian.
A master of Arabic and Persian and could aslo speak Turki and Hindi fluently.
Paid attention to all affairs of the state.
Led a simple life and was called a\zinda pir or living saint.
- For how many years did Aurangzeb rule?
- 50 years.
- List Aurangzeb's religious poliy.
- Reimposed jaziya on non-Muslims.
Though he suspended it later due to protests it had already caused damage.
Ordered a number of temples to be destroyed but gave grants to some others.
Forbade singing in the court.
Discontinued the Parsee festival Nauroz.
Discontinued the practice of the Emperor showing himself to the public.
reserved some posts in the revenue department only for the Muslims.
- Author of Alamgir Nama
- Muhammad Kazim
- Muhammad Kazim wrote
- Alamgir Nama
- Author of Nushka-i-Dilkhusha
- Bhimsen wrote
- Author of Futuhat-i-Alamgiri
- Ishwar Das
- Ishwar Das wrote
- I waged a continuous war with the Mughal ruler and lost four of my sons.
- Sikh guru Gobind Singh.
- Why did the Sikhs form a military brotherhood.
- Aurangzeb came into conflict with the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. He was brought to Delhi and executed.
The Sikhs then took up arms against Mughal empire. The tenth Guru Gobing Singh also waged a continuous struggle against the Mughals. He lost his four sons in this process. He organised the Sikhs into amilitant force known as the Khalsa.
- Who rebelled against the Mughals in the North East?
- The Ahoms.
- Who rebelled against Aurangzeb in the North?
- The Jats of the Agra-Delhi region and the Satnamis of the Mathura region.
The rebels were put down but their plundering activities contimued.
- What the result of Aurangzeb's policy of interfering in the affairs of the Rajputs states?
- Aurangzeb's policy of interfering in the affairs of the Rajput states of Marwar and Mewar caused a lot od damage to the Mughal prestige.
The wars against them caused heavy losses of men and money.
He lost the devoted services of two of the strongest Rajput clans.
- Which was Aurangzeb's toughest struggle?
- His longest and toughest struggle was against Shivaji and the Marathas. This kept him in the Deccan for seven years.
- Give 5 reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
- 1. The policy of interfering in the affairs of the Rajput states caused a lot of damage to the Mughal prestige as well as of men and money.
2. Aurangzeb's longest and toughest struggle was against Shivaji and the Marathas. This kept him away in the Deccan for seven years.
3. His conflict with the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur and later Guru Gobind Singh also caused heavy damage.
4. Rebellion in Afghanistan were supressed but these campaigns depleted the treasury.
5. Rebellions of the Jats in the Agra-Dehi region and the Satnamis in the Mathura region were suppressed bu they continued their plundering activities.
The impact of all the above wars and Aurangzeb's prolonged absence from Northern India combined with his lack of foresight and statesmanship weakned the Mughal empire
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