Glossary of Healthy Communites Exam 1
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- What is health according to the world health organization?
- a state of compelte physcial, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merly the absence of disease and infirmity
- health according to the world health organization
- NAME (other def of this word)
is a dynamic state or conidtion that is multidimensional in nature
- What is community?
- is a group of people that have common characterisics
is a group of people that have a common characterisitcs
- What is community health?
- is the health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions, both private, and public, to promote, protect, and preserve their health
is the health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditons, both private and public, to promote, protect, and preserve thier health
- community health
- What is population health?
- is the health status of people who are not organized and have no identity as a group or locaility and thier actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve thier health
is the health status of people who are not organized and have no identity as a group or locality and thier actions and conidtions to promote, protect, and preserve thier health
- population health
- What is public health?
- is the health status of a defined group of people, and governmental actions and conidtions to promote, protect, and preserve the people's health
is the health status of a defined group of people, and governmental actions, and conidtions to promote, protect, and preserve the people's health
- public health
- What is the differ btwn community and personal health?
- (1)personal-made up of individualt actions and descions that affect the health of an indivdual or his or her immediate family (2)community-are activites aimed at protecting or improving the health of a population or community
are activites aimed at protecting or improving the health of a popultion or community
- community health
includes indivdual actions and descion makings that affect the health of an indivdual or his or her immediate family
- community health
- What are (4) factors affecting community health?
- (1)physcial factors (2)socail/culture factors (3)community organization (4)individual behaviors
- What are some physcial factors that affect community health? (4)
- (1)industrial development (2)community size (3)environment (4)geography
- What are some cultural and social factors that can affect a community's health? (6)
- (1)beliefs, traditions, and prejudices (2)economy(3)poltics (4)religion (5)socioeconomic status (6)social norms
- What are some ways that community organization can affect the community (2)?
- (1)ways in which the communities organize thier resources (2)tax supported vs non-tax supported services
- What is one way that indivdual factors can affect community health?
- it takes the concerted effort of many to make it work
- What is medicare?
- is government health insurance for the ederly and those w certain disabilties
is government health insurance for the ederly and those w certain disabilties
- What is medicaid?
- is governemnt health insurance for the poor
is government health insurance for the poor
- What is one problem w medicaid and medicare?
- bc of the "baby boomers" retiring, there are more people taking out of medicaid and medicare than putting in to it
- Who does WHO serve?
- countires of the united nations
- What is the objective of WHO?
- is the attainment by all of people of the highest level of health
- What is healthy people 2010?
- is a set of health objectives for the nation to achieve over the first decade of being a new country
is a set of health objectives for a nations to achieve over the first decade of being a new country
- healthy people 2010
- Who are the two overaching goals of healthy people 2010?
- (1)increase the quailty and years of a healthy life (2)eliminate health disparties
- How many leading health indicators are there?
- Who is highlighted as group for leading health indicators and why?
- people in the USA, to increase thier quailty of life
- What are the focal areas addressed in the leading health indicators/
- mental, physcial, and health service, and health issues
- What is MAP IT?
- is a tenique used to "map out" the path toward the change you want to see in your community
is a tenique used to "map out" the path toward the change you want to see in your community
- MAP IT
- What is a epdemiolgoists?
- study outbreaks of disease, injury, and death in the human population
study outbreaks of disease, injury, and death in the human population
the primary concern is the course of disease in a pop
- What is epidemiolgy?
- is the study of the distribution and determination of diseases and injuries in human pop
is the study of the distribution and determination of diseases and injuries in human pop
- What is endemic disease?
- a disease that occurs regulatriy in popultion
is a disease that ocurs regulatiry in a population
- endemic disease
- What is a epidemic?
- is an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease in a particular population
is an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease in a particular pop
- St. Louis Encephatltis, Legionaires, AIDS, and lyme disease, are exs of (1)
- recent epidemics in the USA
- What is a epidemiolgoists?
- is one who practices epidemiolgy
is one who practices epdiemiolgy
- What is a epizootiologists?
- one who studies disease outbreaks in animals
is one who studies disease outbreaks in animals
- What is a pandemic?
- is an outbreak of disease over a wide geographical area
is an outbreak of a disease over a wide geographical area
- Who is Hippocrates?
- the father of medicine
is the father of medicine
- What is a case def?
- a set of criteria for deciding whether a person has a particular disease or other health-related conidtion
is a set of critria for decidcing whether a person has a particular disease or other health related conidition
- case defintion
- What is a rate?
- the number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time
is the numner of events that occur in a given pop in a given period of time
- Why are rates important?
- bc they allow for comprasion of outbreaks that occur at a different times or in different places
- What are acute diseases?
- are diseases whose peak severity of symptoms ocurs and subsides within days or weeks
are diseases whose peak severity of symptoms ocurs and subsides within days or weeks
- acute diseases
- What are chronic diseases?
- are diseases that usally last three months or longer
are diseases that usally last three months or longer
- chronic diseases
- What are notifable diseases?
- infectious diseases that can be an epidemic
are infectious diseases that can be an epidemic
- notifable diseases
- What is NETS?
- tracts notifable diseases
tracts notifable diseases
- What does NETS stand for?
- Electronic telecommunication system
- What are three important rates?
- (1)natatilty (2)morbidity (3)moratailty
- the nataility rate refers to the (1)
- birth rate
- the morbidity rate refers to the (1)
- disease rate
- the moratility rate refers to the (1) rate
- fatality rate
- What is the natailty rate?
- # of births in area in a calander yr/ population in area of the same year
# of births in area in a calander yr / population in area of the same yr
- natailty rate
- What is the morbidty rate?
- # of cases of residents w illness in area in a calander yr / pop in the area in the same yr
# of cases of residents w illness in area in a calander yr / pop in area in the same yr
- morbidty rate
- What is the mortailty rate?
- # of deaths to residents in area in a calander yr / population in the area in the same yr
# of deaths to residents in area in a calander yr/ the pop in the area in the same yr
- mortailty rate
- What are three imporant types of moribidity rates? (3)
- (1)incidence rates (2)prevalence (3)attack
- What is a incidence rate?
- # of new cases of a diseases in a certain time period / pop at risk in the same time period
# of new cases of a disease in a certain time period / pop at risk in the same period
- incidence rate
- What is the prevalence rate?
- # of new and old cases of the diseases in a certain time period / pop at risk in the same time period
is the # of new and old cases of the disease in a certain time period/ pop at risk in the same time period
- prevalence rate
- What is the attack rate?
- # of new cases in a narrowly defined pop during a spefic time period / pop at risk in the same time period
# of new cases in a narrowly defined pop during a specfic time period / pop at risk in the same time period
- attack rate
- What are three important mortailty rates?
- (1)crude death rate (2)age-specifc death rate (3)cause specfic death rate
- What is the crude death rate?
- # of deaths (all causes)/ estimated mid-yr pop
# of deaths (all causes)/estimated mid-yr pop
- crude death rate
- What is the age-specfic death rate?
- number of deaths/Estimated midyear pop
# of deaths / estimated mid yr pop
- age-specfic death rate
- What is the cause specfic death rate?
- # of deaths / estimated mid yr pop
# of deaths /estimated mid yr pop
- cause spefic death rate
- What is the case fatailty rate?
- is the percentage of cases that resulted in death
is the percentage of cases that resulted in death
- case fatailty
- what is the proportionate mortalilty rate?
- describes the relationship btwn the number of deaths from specfic causes and the total number of deaths attributed to all causes
describes the relationship btwn the number of deaths from specfic causes and the total number of deaths attributed to all causes
- prportionate mortailty rate
- How are births, deaths, and diseases reported? draw a picture
- p 32 of notes
is conducted every 10 yrs and is enumeration of a pop
- US census
- What are some sources of standardized data?
- (1)US census (2)staistica abstract of the USA (3)Vital statistics
are statistics on social, politcal, and economic organization
- statistical abstract of the USA
statistical summaries of records of major life events
- vital statistics
- What does MMWR stand for?
- morbidity and mortailty weekly reports
- What are some standardized measurements of health status? (5)
- (1)mortatilty stats (2)life expectancy (3)years of potenital life lost (4)disabilty adjusted life yrs (5)disabilty adjusted life expetancy
is a measure of assocation btwn incidence of disease in unexposed group or exposed group
- relative risk
estimates "relative risk" bc incidence measures cannot be obtained from two groups
- odds ratio for a case study
- For a epidemiological study, what three things need to be taken into consideration? (3)
- (1)who (2)when (3)where
is a graphic display of the cases of disease by the time or date of the onset of the symptoms
- epidemic curve
is the testing of hyptotheses about relationships btwn health problems and possible risk factors
- epidemiological studies
- Why is the school health program an important component of community health?
- bc every citzin must pass through this instituion
- (1) is a important component of community health
- school health program
is an organized set of polices, procedures, and activites designed to prtoect, promote, and improve the health and well being of students and staff, thus improving the student's ability to learn
- coordinated school health program
- Draw what things are involved in a coordinated school health program?
- pg 61 of notes
- What is the primary role of the school health team?
- provide coordination of the various components of the coordinated school health program
thier primary role is to provide coordination of the various components of the coordinated school health program
- school health team
the role of this person is instrucion, services, school living, and coordination
- Why is their a need for school health?
- bc the health of children and thier learning are reciprocally related
- T or F
the health of children and thier learning are not related
- An unhealthy child can have (1) and (2)
- (1)trouble learning (2)disturb other students from learning
- What are the foundations of the school program?
- (1)support of school adminstration (2)well-organized school health council (3)written school health policies
are written statements that provide a framework to guide
- school health policies
- Describe the nature of the program and procedures for its implementation? (3)
- (1) development (2)implemenation (3)monitoring the status of school health policy in the USA
- What are the components of school health?
- (1)administration and organization (2)school health services (3)health education
- Researchs shows that (1) work but not all schools have them and the need for them is strong
- What is a controversy in the coordinated health program?
- differing values and religous teachings and on differences regrading the proper implemenation of the curriculm
- What is a issue w school based clinics and school linked clinics?
- have been met w resistance in certain communities
- What are some barriers to comprehensive school health education? (6)
- (1)lack of local administrative commitment (2)lack od adequate prepared teachers (3)lack of time in the school day/year (4)lack of money/funds (5)health education's lack of credibilty as an academic subject (6)lack of community/parental support and controversail topics
- What are some ways to reduce controversail school health curricula? (5)
- (1)implementing age-appropriate curricula (2)using acceptable teaching methods (3)developing school policy that allows parents/gaurdains to review the curriculm being taught and have the right to remove thier child if they believe neccesary (4)implementing a school policy for handling concerning parents (5)making sure qualifed teachers teach
- How are diseases and health problems classifed? (2)
- (1)by organ or organ system (2)causative agents
- What are some causative agents? (3)
- (1)biological agents (2)chemical agents (3)physcial agents
- What are some biological agents? (6)
- (1)viruses (2)rickettsiae (3)bacteria (4)fungi (5)protozoa (6)metazoa
- What are some chemical agents?(8)
- (1)pesticdies (2)food addictives (3)pharmoctogics (4)industrial chemicals (7)air pollutants (8)cigaratte smoke
- What do all chemical agents have in common?
- are man maid
- What are some physcial agents? (6)
- (1)heat (2)light (3)radiation (4)noise (5)vibration (6)speeding objects
- How are diseases classifed? (2)
- (1)communicable vs noncommunicalbe (2)Acute vs chronic
exs include common cold, pneumonia, mumps, measules, pertusis, typhoid fever, and cholera
- acute communicable diseases
- Give 2 exs of acute communicable diseases?
- (1)common cold (2)pneumonia
ex(s) include appendicits, poisoning, and trauma
- acute noncommunicalbe
- Give (3) examples of some acute noncumunicale diseases?
- (1)appendicitis (2)poisning (3)trauma
ex(s) include tuberculosis, AIDS, lyme disease, syphillis, and rheumatic fever
- chronic communicalbe diseases
ex(s) include diabtes, coronoary heart disease, osteoarthitis, and cirrhosis of the liver
- chronic noncummunicable
- Draw the different parts of the communicable disease model
- pg 40-41 of the notes
- What is the agent?
- the element that must be present in order for the disease to ocur
is the element that must be present in order for the disease to ocur
- What is a host?
- any susceptible organism invaded by a chemical agent
is any susceptable organism invaded by an infectious agent
- What is the environment?
- are all other factors that inhibit or promote disease transmission
are all other factors that inhibit or promote disease tranmission
- Draw the process of infection
(in other words the chain of infection)
- pg 41-43
- What is the pathogen?
- is the disease causing agent
is the disease causing agent
- What is the reservoir?
- is the habitat in which an infetious agent normally lives and grows
is the habitat in which an infectious agent normally lives and grows
refers to when the reservoir is humans
- What is antroponoses?
- refers to when the reservoir is in humans
- What is zoonases?
- is when the reservoir is a animal
refers to when the reservoir is an animal
- What is the portal of exit?
- the path by which the agent leaves the sources host
is the path by which the agent leaves the sources host
- portal of exit
- What are (2) ways that pathogens are transmitted?
- (1)direct (2)indirect
- What is direct transfer?
- is immediate transfer
is immediate transfer
- direct transfer
- How can a pathogen by tranfered directly?
- (1)direct contact (2)droplet spread
means it can be transferd by either direct contact or droplets
- direct transfer
- What are the different ways that a pathogen can be transfered directly?
- (1)airborne (2)vehicleborne (3)vectorborne
means it can be transferd by either air, a vehicale, or vector
- indirect transfer
- What are the differ ways that a agent can enter ?
- (1)respiratory (2)oral (3)skin (4)intravenous (5)GI
- What is the final link of the chain of infection?
- new host
- Draw the noncommunicable disease model
- p 44 see notes
- What does CHD stand for?
- Coronary heart disease
- What is CHD?
- when the coronary aerties are damaged
is when the coronary aerties damaged
- What is atherosclerosis?
- is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from the build up of fatty deposits on the walls of the blood vessel
is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from the build up of fatty deposists on the walls of the blood vessel
- What is cerebrovascular disease?
- is when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted
is when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted
- cerebrovascular disease
- Cerebrovascular disease refers to (1)
- a stroke
- (1) refers to a stroke
- cerebrovascular disease
- What is a maligant neoplasm?
- ocurs when cells lose control over thier growth and division
ocurs when cells lose control over thier growth and cell division
- maligant neoplasm
- What is metastasis?
- is when parts of the tumor break off and travel to the rest of the body's organs and cont thier growth
is when parts of the tumor break off and travel to the rest of the body's organ and cont thier growth
- (1), (2), and (3) are important in priortizing prevention and control efforts
- (1)leading causes of death (2)yrs of potiental life lost (3)economic cost to soceity
- What are the levels for preventing diseases? (3)
- (1)primary (2)secondary (3)teritary
is the forestalling of the onset of the illness or injury during the pre-pathogenesis period
- primary prevenation
is the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease before the disease becomes advanced
- secoundary prevenation
- What is secoundary prevenation?
- is the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease before the disease becomes advanced
- Wht is tertiary prevenation?
- is the retaining, reeducation, and rehabilitation of the patient who has already incured disability
is the retaining, reeducation, and rehabiliation of the patient who has already incured disability
- tertiary prevenation
- How can pathogens be prevented from infecting people? (5)
- (1)pasteurization (2)chlorination (3)antibiotics (4)antivirals (5)disinfectants
- How can communialbe diseases be prevente from the human reservoir? (4)
- (1)isolation (2)survelliance (3)quarantine (4)drug treatment
- How can communicalbe diseases be prevented from the portal of exit? (5)
- (1)gowns (2)masks (3)condoms (4)hair nets (5)insect repellents
- How can communiacble diseases be prevented from being transmitted?(7)
- (1)isolation (2)hand washing (3)vector controling (4)sanitary engineering (5)sneeze glass (6)sexual abstinence (7)safer sex
- How can communiable diseases be prevented from entering the host? (4)
- (1)masks (2)condoms (3)safety glasses (4)insect repellants
- At a primary level, how can a noncommunicalbe disease be prevented? (8)
- (1)adquate food intake (2)good opportunites for good eduaction, employment, and housing (3)efficient community services (4)health promotion (5)access to medical services (6)protection from the environment (7)protection from occupational hazzards (8)empowerment of ones own health
- At a secoundary level, how can noncommunicalbe diseases be prevented? (6)
- (1)mass screenings (2)case-finding measues (3)adequate health personal, equipment, and facilites (4)personal screening (5)hemoccult tests (6)pap tests
- At a tertiary level, how can noncommunicalbe diseases be prevented? (5)
- (1)adequate emergency medical personnel services, and faciilites (2)understand unmodifable risk factores (3)lifestyle changes (4)support groups (5)counseling
- What is primary prevenation?
- the forestalling of the onset of an illness or injury during the pre-pathogenesis period
- What is a mental illness?
- is a diagnosalbe mental disorder
is a diagnosalbe mental disorder
- mental illness
- T or F
mental illness is a major community health issue
- mental illness
- (1) is a major community health issue
- mental illness
- What is mental health?
- is a state of succesful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activites, fulfilling relationships w other people, and the ability to adapt to change and cope w adversity
is a state of succesful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activites, fulfilling relationships w other people, and the ability to adapt to change and cope w adversity
- mental health
health conditions that are charaterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior assocaited w distress and/ or impaired functions
- mental disorders
- What are some non-govenermental agenices for mental health?
- (1)national alliance for the mentally ill (2)
- What are some federal agenices for mental health?
- (1)US public health service (2)the center for substance abuse treatment (3)the center for substance abuse prevention (4)center for mental health services
- What are some future challenges for mental health in managed care organizations? (3)
- (1)evidenced-base medicine (2)cost containment (3)behavioral health care service
- What are some future challenges for the parity issues? (2)
- (1)mental health parity act (2)there is still not fully parity in health care coverage btwn general health care services and mental health care services
- What is the health care system like?
- has a variety of providers and settings
- is there a national health care serivce?
- What are some concerns with the structure of the health care system's stucture? (3)
- (1)informal cooperation of providers (2)disease treatment vs health care (3)conglomeration vs system
- What are some major concerns in the USA ? (6)
- (1)medical care cost (2)drug abuse (3)budget deficit (4)crime (5)unemployment (6)AIDS
- What is the spectrum of health care delivery?
- refers to the types of heath care provided
- What are the parts of the medical partice? (3)
- (1)primary (2)secondary (3)tertiary
- What kind of heatlh care delivery are there? (2)
- (1)long term practice (2)end of life pratice
- Describe long-term health care delivery?
- has restoratice care and long term care
- What is a end of life practice?
- care provided to those who have less than six months left to live
is care provided to those who have less than six months to live
- end of life pratices
- Hopstice is a ex of a (1)
- end of life pratice
- What makes up primary care?
- (1)front line (2)education (3)promotion of nutrion (4)safe water and santion (5)maternal and child health care (6)immunization (7)treatment common diseases and injuries (8)provide essential drugs
includes front line, education, promotion of nutrion, safe water and sanation, maternal and child health care, immunization, treatment of common diseases and injuries, and provide essential drugs
- primary medical care
- What is secondary medical care?
- is specialezed health care
is specialzed medical care
- secoundary health care
- What are the two types of secondary medical care?
- (1)acute (2)subacute
ex(s) of this care include emergency care, care provided by a physicans, and hospital or outpatient
- secondary medical care
- What are some ex(s) of secondary medical care? (3)
- (1)specailzed care by physicans (2)hospital or outpatient (3)emergency care
involves restorative care and long term care
- long term pratice
- What is tertiary medical care? (4)
- (1)highly specialized and technological (2)is for those w unusual or complex conditions (3)academic health care centers (4)specailzed hostpitals
is highly specialized and techonological and for those w unnusual or complex conidtions
- tertiary medical care
ex of this medical care is specialized hospitals
- tertiary medical care
a ex of this medical care is acadaemic health centers
- tertiary medical centers
- What are some types of illnesses that require a person to get tertiarty medical care? (4)
- (1)AIDS (2)cancer (3)heart disease (4)surgery
this type of medical care might deal w illness like AIDS, cancer, heary disease, and surgery
- tertiary medical care
- What is restorative care?
- is health care provided to patients after surgury or other forms of treatments
supports services that provide holistic care for dying persons , thier familes and loved ones
- hospice health care
- What are the differ types of health care providers? (5)
- (1)independent (2)limted (3)nurses (4)allied health care proffesionals (5)public
include chiorpactors, acupenturists, naturopaths, and homepaths.
- nonallopathic refers to (1)
- alternative medicine
ex(s) include dentists optometrists, paodiartists, and psychologists
- limted health care providers
- GIve some exs of limited health care providers? (4)
- (1)dentists (2)optometrists (3)podiatrists (4)psychologsts
- What is does RN stand for?
- registered nurse
- What does LPN stand for?
- licensed pratical nurses
- What does BSN stand for?
- bachelor of science in nursing
- What does APN stand for?
- advanced pratice nursing
- What are the differ types of nurses? (4)
- (1)LPN (2)RN (3)BSN (4)APN
provide services that assist, facialte, and complement work of physicans
- Allied health care proffesionsals
work in public health clinics and voluntary agencies
- pubic health care proffesionals
- What are (4) types of health care facilities?
- (1)practionar offices (2)clincs (3)hosptials (4)ambulatory care
are privately owned pratices
- practioner offices
- Do most people have access to a primary care physican?
- T or F
every person has access to a medical care servies
- Who are most vunerable to not having medical insurance? (7)
- (1)younger people (2)less education (3)lower income (4)nonwhites (5)not us citzens (6)males (7)locations
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