Glossary of HRM

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human capital
the knowledge, education training, skills, and expertise of a firm\'s workers
the tendency of firms to extend their sales, ownership, and/or manufacturing to new markets abroad
functional authority
the authority exerted by an HR manager as coordinator of personnel activities
staff manager
a manager who assists and advises line managers
line manager
a manager who is authorized to direct the work of subordinates and is responsible for accomplishing the organization\'s tasks
staff authority
gives the manager the right authority to advise other managers or employees
line authority
the authority exerted by an HR manager by directing the activities of the people in his or her own department and in service areas (like the plant cafeteria)
the right to make decisions, direct others\' work, and give order
human resource managment
the process of acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating employees, and of attending to their labor relations, health and safety, and fairness concerns
management process
the five basic functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling
the person responsible for accomplishing the organization\'s goals, and who does so by managing (planning, organizating, staffing, leading and controlling) the efforts of the organization\'s people
people with formally assigned roles who work together to achieve the organization\'s goals
Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
the section of the act that says an employer cannot discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin with respect to employment
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
the commission, created by Title VII is empowered to investigate job discrimination complaints and sue on behalf of complainants
affirmative action
steps that are taken for the purpose of eliminating the present effects of past discrimination
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
this office is responsible for implementing the executive orders and ensuring compliance of federal contractors.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
this act requiring equal pay for equal work, regardless of sex
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA)
This act prohibiting arbitrary age discrimination and specifically protecting individuals over 40 years old
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
The act requiring certain federal contractors to take affirmative action for disabled persons
Pregnancy Discrimination Act
An amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits sex discrimination based on \"pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.\"
Uniform guidelines
guidelines issued by federal agencies charged with ensuring compliance with equal employment federal legislation explaining recommended employer procedures in detail
protected class
persons such as minorities and women protected by equal opportunity laws, including title VII
Civil Rights Act of 1991 (CRA 1991)
it places burden of proof back on employers and permits compensatory and punitive damages
\"mixed motive\" case
a discrimination allegation case in which the employer argues that employment action taken was motivated not by discrimination, but by some nondiscriminatory reason such as ineffective performance
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
this act requiring employers to make reasonable accommodations for disabled employees; it prohibits discrimination against disabled persons.
adverse impact
the overall impact of employer practices that result in significantly higher percentages of members of minorities and other protected groups being rejected for employment, placement, or promotion.
disparate rejection rates
a test for adverse impact in which it can be demonstrated that there is a discrepancy between rates of rejection of members of a protected group and of others
4/5ths rule
Federal agency rule that minority selection rate less than 80% (4/5ths) that of group with highest rate evidences adverse impact
restricted policy
another test for adverse impact, involving demonstration that an employer\'s hiring practices exclude a protected group, whether intentionally or not.
Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
requirement that an employee be of a certain religion, sex, or national origin where that is reasonably necessary to the organization\'s normal operation. Specified by the 1964 Civil Rights ACt
alternative dispute resolution or ADR program

Grievance procedure that provides for binding arbitration as the last step
diversity generally refers to the variety or multiplicity of demographic features that characterize a company\'s workforce, particularly in terms of race, sex, culture, national origin, handicap, age and religion
managing diversity
maximizing diversity\'s potential benefits while minimizing its potential barriers
reverse discrimination
claim that due to affirmative action quota systems, white males are discriminated against
Job analysis
The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it
Job description
A list of a job duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities - one product of a job analysis
Job specifications
A list of a job \"human requirements,\" that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on - another product of a job analysis
organization chart
A chart that shows the organization-wide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates with whom
process chart
A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job
Daily listings made by workers of every activity in which they engage along with the time each activity takes
position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs that are subdivided into minor groups of jobs and detailed occupations
Job enlargement
assigning workers additional same level activities
Job rotation
systematically moving workers from one job to another
Job enrichment
Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition
Competency based-job analysis
Describes the job in terms of measurable, observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, behaviors) that an employee doing that job must be exhibit to do the job well
Employment (or human resource) planning
The process of deciding what positions the firm will have to fill, and how to fill them
Trend analysis
study of a firm\'s past employment needs over a period of years to predict future needs
ratio analysis
a forecasting technique for determining future staff needs by using ratios between, for example, sales volume and number of employees needed
scatter plot
a graphical method used to help identify the relationship between two variables
qualifications (or skills) inventories
manual or computerized records listing employees\' education, career and development interests, languages, special skills, and so on, to be used in selecting inside candidates for promotion
personnel replacement charts
company records showing present performance and promotability of inside candidates for most important positions
position replacement card
a card prepared for each position in a company to show possible replacement candidates and their qualifications
employee recruiting
finding and attracting applicants for the employers open positions
recruiting yield pyramid
the historical arithmetic relationships between recruitment leads and invitees, invitees and interviews, interviews and offers made, and offers made and offers accepted
Job posting
publicizing an open job to employees (often by literally posting it on bulletin boards) and listing its attributes, like qualifications, supervisor, working schedule, and pay rate
succession planning
the ongoing process of systematically identifying, assessing, and developing organizational leadership to enhance performance
applicant tracking systems
online systems that help employers attract, gather, screen, compile, and manage applicants
alternative staffing
the use of nontraditional recruitment sources
on demand recruiting services (ODRS)
a service that provides short term specialized recruiting to support specific projects without the expense of retaining traditional search firms
college recruiting
sending an employer\'s representatives to college campuses to prescreen applicants and create an applicant pool from the graduating class
application form
the form that provides information on education, prior work record, and skills
business plan
provides a comprehensive view of the firm\'s situation today and of its company wide and departmental goals and plans for the next 3 to 5 years
management by objectives (MBO)
a technique in which supervisor and subordinate jointly set goals for the latter and periodically assess progress toward those goals
strategic plan
the company\'s plan for how it will match its internal strengths and weaknesses with external opportunities and threats in order to maintain a competitive advantage
a course of action the company can pursue to achieve its strategic aims
strategic management
the process of identifying and executing the organization\'s strategic plan, by matching the company\'s capabilities with the demands of its environment
vision statement
a general statement of the firm\'s intended direction and shows, in broad terms, \"what we want to become\"
mission statement
summarizes your answer to the question, \"what business are we in?\"
corporate level strategy
type of strategy that identifies the portfolio of businesses that, in total, comprise the company and the ways in which these business relate to each other.
competitive strategy
a strategy that identifies how to build and strengthen the business\'s long term competitive position in the marketplace
competitive advantage
any factors that allow an organization to differentiate its product or service from those of its competitors to increase market share
functional strategy
strategy that identifies the board activities that each department will pursue in order to help the business accomplish its competitive goals
the exporting of jobs from developed countries to countries where labor and other costs are lower
strategic human resource management
formulating and executing human resource policies and practices that produce the employee competencies and behaviors the company needs to achieve its strategic aims
strategy map
a strategic planning tool that shows the \"big picture\" of how each department\'s performance contributes to achieving the company\'s overall strategic goals
HR scorecard
a process for assigning financial and non financial goals or metrics to the human resource management - related chain of activities required for achieving the company\'s strategic aims and for monitoring results
digital dashboard
presents the manager with desktop graphs and charts, and so a computerized picture of where the company stands on all those metrics from the HR Scorecard process
high-performance work system (HPWS)
a set of human resource management policies and practices that promote organizational effectiveness
human resource metric
the quantitative measure of some human resource management yardstick such as employee turnover, hours of training per employee, or qualified applicants per position
value chain
identifies the primary activities that create value for customers and related support activities
HR audit
an analysis by which an organization measures where it currently stands and determines what it has to accomplish to improve its HR functions

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