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Glossary of HOOPE

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Created by mniles06

Conception to birth
PRENATAL-Major Milestone-organogenesis This is the time from conception to birth, involves tremendous growth, from a single cell to an organism complete with brain and behavioral capabilities takes place in a nine month period.
Birth to 2 years
Infancy Major Milestone-Basic Competencies
2 to 6 years
Early Childhood Major Milestone-socialization. This period is called the "preschool years". During this time, young children learn to become more self sufficient and to care for themselves, develop school readiness skills (following instructions, identifying letters) and spend many hours in play with peers. First grade typically marks the end of early childhood!
12 to 18 years
Adolescence- Major Milestone- Identity Formation. Begins with rapid physical changes-dramatic gains in height and weight, changes in body contour, and the development of sexual characteristics such as enlargement of the breasts, pubic and facial hair, and deepening of the voice. Pursuit of independance and and identity are prominent. Thought is more logical abstract and idealistic. Spends time away from family.
18 to 35 years
Early Adulthood- Major Milestone, Life path choices. A time of establishing personal and economic independance, career development, and, for many, selecting a mate, learning to live with someone in an intimate way, starting a family and rearing children!
35 to 65 years
Middle Adulthood, Major Milestone- Generativity. A time of expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility; of assisting the next generation in becoming competent, mature individuals. and of reaching and maintaining satisfaction in a career.
65 years and beyond
Late adulthood- Major Milestone-INTEGRITY
Late adulthood is a time of life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles involving decreasing strength and health.
Freuds Theory
Convinced that problems that people have are the result of expieriences in their early life. As children grow up, their focus of pleasure and sexual impulses shift from the mouth to the anus and eventually the genitals. As a result, we go through five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Our adult personality, is based on the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.
Eriksons psychosocial Theory
Eight stages of development unfold as we go through life. At each stage, a unique developmental task confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved. This crisis is not a catastrophe, but a turning point in marked by both increased vulnerability and enhanced potential. The more sucessfully and individual resolves the crises, the healthier development will be.
Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory
States that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four age related stages of cognitive development. (sensorimotor,preoperational,concrete operational, and the formal operational stage)
Case Study
An in depth look of at a single individual. Provides information about one specific persons expieriences. Performed mainly by mental health professionals when, for either practical or ethical reasons, the unique aspects of an individuals life cannot be duplicated and tested in other individuals. EXAMPLE:Michael Rehbein who had much of the left side of his brain removed at 7 years of age to end severe epileptic seizures.
Survey and Interview
A standard set of questions is used to obtain peoples self reported attitudes or beliefs about a particular topic. Questions are clear and unbiased. Can be used to study a wide range of subjects from religios beliefs to sexual habits and gun control. One way that it is flawed is the participants try to answer in a way that is socially acceptable.
Correlational Research
The goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics. The more strongly the two events are correlated, the more effectively we can predict one event from the other. EXAMPLE: To study if children of permissive parents have less self control than other children, you would need to carefully record observations of parents permissiveness and their childrens self control.
Longitudal Approach
When the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more. Provides a wealth of information about vital issues such as stability and change in development and the importance of early expieriences for later development. EXAMPLE: in a longitudal study of life satisfaction, the same adults may be assesed periodically over a 70 year lifespan.

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