Glossary of HGMT4150 - Miscellaneous
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- action that results in desirable conduct or performance
- Contractual rights
- derived from contracts such as an employment contract.
- due process
- *employee's right to present a position during a disciplinary action
- investigating a disciplinary problem
- 1) supervisor determines when the situation occurred
2) get the employee's view of the situation.
- the role of ethics in the management of human resources
- extends beyond the legal requirements of managing employees
employees are treated in a fair and objective way
employee's personal and work- related rights are respected and valued.
- List 2 approaches to disciplinary action
- 1) Progressive discipline
2) Positive discipline
- Legal implications
- flow from how the employee is treated
- alternative dispute resolution
- *Term applied to different types of employee complaint or dispute-resolution procedures
- Identify the job excpectancy rights of employees.
- 1) Fair and equitable treatment
2) workplace is safe and drug-free
3) Reasonable privacy
4) Access to own personnel file
5) Not disciplined for off-duty behaviour
6) notified of plant closings
- primary purpose of having disciplinary procedures
- to prevent or correct discipline problems
- employee rights
- *Guarantees of fair treatment from employers, particularly regarding an employee's right to privacy
- 3. Identify the general types of employment laws in Canada.
- 1 Employment standards Legislation
2 Labour legislation
3 Health, safety, and workers' compensation legislation
4 Human rights legislation
- Why are disciplinary practices established?
- Failure to take disciplinary action only serves to aggravate a problem that eventually must be resolved.
- Explain Progressive discipline
- 1) designed to motivate an employee to correct misconduct
2) conceptual basis is that the employee must assume responsibility For personal conduct and job performance
- Human rights legislation
- -prohibits discrimination on the basis of such areas as race, ethnic origin, marital status, and gender
- is paramount over other employment laws
-protects individuals frorn sexual and other types of harassment.
- - denying someone something because of race, ethnic background, marital status, or other prohibited grounds under human rights legislation.
- any behaviour that demeans, humiliates, or embarrasses a person.
- *Failure to provide reasonable care where such failure results in injury to consumers or other employees
- manager's role in creating a work environment that is free from harassment and discrimination
- *ensure that unacceptable behaviours are dealt with
*expected to work with employees to ensure that they are behaving and acting in an acceptable Fashion
*Line manager is key link in creating an appropnate work environment.
- 6. Explain employment equity
- - individuals are employed in a fair and unbiased manner
- legislation may be used to help achieve a more equitable workforce
- women; visible minorities; first nations and persons with disabilities are singled out as requiring political assistance to right past wrongs.
- Pay equity
- equal pay for work of equal value
job content is examined and used to compare dissimilar work in an organization.
- goal of diversity management
- to make optimal use of an organization's multicultural workforce in order to Realize strategic business advantages.
- bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ]
- A justifiable reason for discrimination based on business reasons of safety or effectiveness.
- reasonable accommodation
- Attempt by employers to adjust the working conditions or schedules of employees with disabilities or Religious preferences.
- reverse discrimination
- Giving preference to members of certain groups such that others feel they are the subjects of discrimination.
- sexual harassment
- Unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in the working environment,
- employment equity
- The employment of individuals in a fair and nonbiased manner
- designated groups
- 1 Women,
2 visible minorities,
3 First Nations peoples,
4 persons with disabilities
who have been disadvantaged in employment.
- systemic discrimination
- The exclusion of members of certain groups through the application of employment policies or practices based on criteria that are not job-related.
- diversity management
- The optimization of an organization's multicultural workforce in order to reach business objectives.
- impact of laws on the behaviour and actions of supervisors and managers towards employees
- - provincial and federal employment legislation guides accepted practices and behaviours
- laws establish certain minimum requirements regarding working conditions
- laws provide protection of basic human rights.
- job analysis
- Process of obtaining information about jobs by determining the duties, tasks, or activities associated with those jobs
- job specifications
- The specific skills, knowledge, and abilities that are required to successfully perform the job
- job description
- a written description listing the types of duties and the skills (job specifications) needed to successfully perform the work
- standards of performance
- Set out the expected results of the job
- job design
- Process of defining and organizing tasks, roles, and other processes to achieve employee goals and Organizational effectiveness
- employee empowerment
- Granting employees power to change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do
- employee involvement groups
- Groups of employees who meet to resolve problems or offer suggestlons for organizational Improvement
- employee teams
- which work functions are structured for groups rather than for individuals
team members are given discretion in matters traditionally considered management
eg process improvements, product or service development, and individual work assignments
- Explain the supervisor's role in defining and designing work.
- primary individual who determines what work needs to be done.
determines what skills and abilities are needed to successfully perform the work
- Describe the relationship between planning, recruiting, and selecting people to work with the organization.
- future people requirements need to be planned
the organization needs the right number and type of employees to implement a chosen business plan
Managers play a key role in planning for the human resources necessary to achieve the business plan.
- advantages of recruiting from within the organization.
- capitalizes on investments made in recruiting, selecting, training, and developing current employees.
rewards employees for past performance
sends a signal to other employees that future efforts will pay off.
- disadvantages of recruiting from within the organization
- inbreeding of ideas and attitudes.
- advantages of external recruitment
- can bring in new ideas
acquire people with specialized skills
- disadvantages of external recruitment
- Constraints on the organization, such as a legislated employment equity plan, may lead to a different pool of applicants than what the manager may want
- objectives of the selection process
- get the right person
with the right skills
at the right time
in the right job.
- steps in the employee selection process
- 1) receipt of an application form,
2) initial interview,
3) possible employment tests,
4) interview with the supervisor,
5) reference checks,
6) hiring decision.
- sources of information used for selection decisions
- * Interviews
* Application forms or resumes
* Employment tests
- Explain the value of different types of employment tests
- * More objective than the interview.
* Can provide a broader sampling of behaviour and skills.
- approaches to conducting an employment interview
- * Unstructured
* Interviews by a single individual,
* Interviews by a panel,
* Interviews by computer interface.
- human resource planning
- * Ensuring that the people are being used as effectively as possible, where and when they are needed,in order to accomplish the organization's goals
- The process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for jobs
- job posting and bidding
- Method of communicating information about job openings
- labour market
- * Area from which applicants are recruited
- * The process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings
- nondirective interview
- * interview in which the applicant is allowed the maximum amount of freedom in determining the course of the discussion
- * the degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures
- * How well a test or selection procedure measures a person's attributes
- aptitude tests
- * Measures of a person's capacity to learn or acquire skills
- structured interview
- * interview in which a set of standardized questions having an established set of answers is used
- situational interview
- An interview in which an applicant is given a hypothetical incident and asked how he or she would respond to it
- behavioural description interview (BDI]
- *An interview in which applicants are asked questions about what they actually did in a given situation
- panel interview
- *An interview in which a board of interviewers questions and observes a single candidate
- characteristics of an effective orientation program
- *new employees are familiarized with the organization,their job, and their work unit.
*Embeds organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviours.
*supervisor is actively involved
- systems approach to training and development
- a)links training & development to the organization's goals and objectives
b)consists of five phases:
1) needs analysis,
2)training program design,
5)transfer to work environment.
- components of a training plan
- * Involves five phases:
5)transfer of training.
*Contributes to the organization's overall goals.
- Identify the principles of learning
- 1)Goal setting.
2)Meaningfulness of presentation.
5)Active practice and repetition.
7)Rewards and reinforcement.
- Identify the types of training methods
- 1) On-the-job.
3) Cooperative and internship programs.
5) Seminars and conferences.
6) Role playing and management games.
- special training programs that are currently popular
- *Basic skills training (such as literacy).
- how does a career development program integrate individual and organizational needs
- *It blends employee effectiveness and satisfaction with the achievement of the organization's strategic objectives.
*HRM practices must fit so that both individual and organization needs can be achieved.
- methods used for developing supervisors and managers
- *Mentoring programs.
*Specialized career programs for diverse workforce.
- The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform current work
- The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an organizational problem
- Formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs, and their work unit and embedding organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviours
- task analysis
- Process of determining what the content of a training program should be on the basis of a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job
- competency assessment
- Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs
- person analysis
- Determination of the specific individuals who need training
- trainee readiness
- The consideration of a trainee's maturity and experience when assessing him or her
- on-the-job training (OJT]
- Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer
- cooperative training
- Training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal educational classes
- internship programs
- Programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations
- computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
- A system that delivers training material directly through a computer terminal in an interactive format
- transfer of training
- Effective application of principles learned to what is required on the job
- Placement of an individual in another job for which duties, responsibilities, status, and remuneration are approximately equal to those of the previous job
- Change of assignment to a job at a higher level in the organization
- Executives who coach, advise, and encourage individuals of lesser rank
- What is the organizations responsibilty when establishing disciplinary practices?
- Organizations need to clearly outline rules and expectations regarding performance and behaviour.
- performance management system
- * A set of integrated management practices
- Explain Positive discipline
- *requires a cooperative environment for joint discussion and problem solving between the supervisor and the employee.
- the purpose of a performance management system
- Allows the organization to get the right things done.
*Helps increase employees' satisfaction with their work and the organization.
- statutory rights
- *Rights that derive from legislation
- What is the relationship between training & discipline?
- 1) moulds and strengthens desirable conduct or
2) corrects undesirable conduct
3) develops self- control
- positive, or nonpunitive, discipline
- 1) focuses on early correction of employee misconduct,
2) employee takes total responsibility for correcting the problem
- the management practices necessary lor a good performance management system
- 1) clear performance expectations are set & communicated .
2)performance objectives are
clear & specific
3)coaching is supportive & helpful
4)Focusing on accomplishment of objectives during performance appraisals.
5) Recognize & celebrate good performance.
- peer-review system
- 1) system for reviewing employee complaints
2) a group composed of equal numbers of employee representatives and management appointees
3) functions as a jury
4) members weigh evidence, consider arguments,
6) vote independently to render a final decision
- different sources of performance appraisal information
- 1) Manager/supervisor who is able to evaluate contribution
4) Peers and team members
- methods used for performance appraisal
- 1) Trait approaches
2) Behavioural methods
3) Productivity measures
4) Management by objectives (MBO)
- characteristics of an effective performance appraisal interview
- 1) employee self evaluation prior to the interview.
2) Invite and encourage active participation by employees in the discusion their performance.
3) Express appreciation for what the employee has done well.
4) Minimize criticism.
5) Change the behaviour, not the person.
- *Designated individual from whom employees may seek counsel for the resolution of their complaints
- Manager and/or supervisor appraisal
- * performance appraisal done by employee's supervisor
- *Peformance appraisal done by he employee being evaluated, generally on an appraisal form completed by the employee prior to the performance interview
- subordinate appraisal
- *Performance appraisal of a superior by an employee, which more appropriate for developmental than for administrative purposes
- peer appraisal
- *Performance appraisal done by fellow employees, generally on forms that are compiled into a single profile for use in the performance terview conducted by the employee's manager
- team appraisal
- *Performance appraisal, based on TQM concepts, that recognizes team accomplishment rather than individual performance
- customer input
- *Performance appraisal that, like team appraisal, is based on TQM concepts and seeks evaluation from both external internal customers
- graphic rating scales
- A trait approach to performance appraisal whereby each employee is rated according to a scale of characteristics
- critical incident
- *Unusual event that denotes superior or inferior employee performance in some part of job
- behaviourally anchored rating scale (BARS)
- *A behavioural approach to performance appraisal that consists of a series of vertical scales, one for each important dimension of job performance
- management by objectives
- *Philosophy of management that rates performance on the basis of employee achievement of goals
- employer concerns in developing a compensation program
- 1) enhances employee motivation and growth
2) tailored to fit the needs of the company and its employees
3) employees believe the compensation be equitable.
- Internal factors that influence the setting of wages
- 1) organisation's compensation policy,
2) perceived worth of the job,
3) performance of the employee, and
4) employer's willingness to pay.
- External factors that influence the setting of wages.
- 1) labour Market conditions,
2) cost of living,
3) collective bargaining; and
4) legal considerations.
- 4 major job evaluation systems
- 1)job ranking system.
2)job classification system,
4)Factor comparison system,
- job ranking system
- groups jobs on the basis of their relative worth
- job classification system
- jobs are grouped according to a series of predetermined grades based on a number of factors.
- Point system
- determines a job's relative worth by using a quantitative system of points
- List the parts of the compensation structure.
- * Wage and salary survey,
* Developing a wage curve,
* Development of pay rates
- Wage and salary survey
- provides information about average wage rates external to the organization
- wage curve
- indicates the rates currently paid for jobs within the organization
- List 6 types of incentive plans
- 1) Individual bonus
2) Team- or group-based
3) Merit raises
6) Employee stock ownership plan
- employee benefits that are required by law
- 1) Canada and Quebec pension plans 2) Employment insurance,
3) Workers' compensation insurance,
- Describe voluntary benefits
- 1) benefits an organization chooses to provide
2) Can include health and welfare coverage, pay for time not worked (vacation, sick leave), wellness programs, and child-care assistance.
- List the current compensation and benefits issues
- 1) Equal pay for work of equal value
2) Wage-rate compression,
3) Low salary budgets,
4) Two-tier wage system,
5) Flexible benefit plans,
- Equal pay for work of equal value
- tries to remedy the situation of undervaluing traditiorially female occupations.
- Wage-rate compression
- the differences between job classes are reduced and can create inequity.
- Low salary budgets
- by which companies have attempted to control compensation costs.
- Two-tier wage system
- new employees are paid less than pre- sent employees ior the same work.
- Flexible benefit plans
- individuals can choose benefits that best fit their needs
- direct compensation
- *Employee wages and salaries. incentives. bonuses, and commissions
- indirect compensation
- * Many benefits supplied by employers
- pay-for-performance standard
- * Standard by which managers tie compensation to employee effort and performance
- equitable pay
- * Compensation received is archived to be equal to the value of the work performed
- * Work paid according to the number of units produced
- job evaluation
- * Systematic process of Determining the relative worth of jobs in order to establish which jobs should be paid more than others within an organization
- consumer price index (CPI)
- *Measure of the average change prices over time in a fixed 'market basket" of goods and Services
- real wages
- Wage increases larger than rises in the consumer price index; that is, the real earning power of wages
- pay grades
- Groups of jobs within a particular class that are paid the same rate or rate range
- skill-based pay
- *Pay based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can perform
- comparable value
- The concept that male and female jobs that are dissimilar, but equal in terms of value or worth to the employer, should paid the same
- measures that should be taken to control and eliminate health safety hazards
- 1) Take precautions to ensure Employee safety.
2) Inform and train employees about safety and Health requirements
3) Keep records and investigate accidents.
4) Involve employees in identifying and eliminating health and safety problems
5) Provide safety training programs
6) emphasize importance of health and safety in the workplace.
7) Enforce safety procedures.
- current workplace health and salety issues
- 1) Indoor air quality,(2nd-hand smoke)
2) Repetitive strain injuries
3) Communicable diseases
4) Workplace violence
- organizational services and programs for building better health
- 1) Wellness programs
2) Employee assistance programs
3) Substance abuse programs
4) Stress management programs
- role of employee assistance programs
- 1) EAPs provide employees in need with appropriate resources.
2) EAPs typically cover financial, family, and emotional issues.
Organizations recognize that personal problems can create organizational problems.
- ways in which supervisors can support work groups on health and safety matters.
- 1) Create health and safety goals.
2) Plan for their implementation
3) Develop a process to assess goal attainment.
4) Learn from experience.
5) Continually improve the quality of the work experience.
- occupational injury
- *Any cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation resulting from a workplace accident
- occupational illness
- *Abnormal condition or disorder resulting from exposure to environmental factors in the workplace
- industrial disease
- disease resulting from exposure relating to particular process, trade, or occupation in industry
- Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS]
- Documents that contain vital information about hazardous substances
- repetitive-strain injuries (RSls]
- *Injuies involving tendons of the fingers, hands, and arms that become inflamed from repeated stresses and strains
- employee assistance program
- *Program to provide short-term counselling and referrals to appropriate professionals
- *any adjustive demand caused by physical. mental, or emotional factors that requires _ coping behaviour
- Identify 6 different types of alternative dispute-resolution procedures
- 1) Step-review systems
2) Peer-review systems
3) Use of hearing officers
4) Open-door system
5) Ombudsperson system
- progressive discipline
- *Application of corrective measures by increasing degrees
- wrongful dismissal
- *Terminating an employee's employment without just cause
- step-review system
- System for reviewing employee complaints and disputes by successively higher levels of management
- hearing officer
- *Person who holds a full-time position with an organization but assumes a neutral role when deciding cases between management and the aggrieved employees
- open-door policy
- *Policy of settling grievances that identifies various levels management above the immediate Supervisor for employee contact
- *Set of standards of conduct and moral judgments that help to determine right and wrong behaviour
- labour relations and the supervisor
- *Labour relations influences what a supervisor does and how an employee is treated.
- Cite the reasons employees join unions
- 1) Dissatisfaction with pay and benefits.
2) Dissatisfaction with managerial practices.
3) Desire For recognition and status.
- Describe the process by which unions organize employees and gain recognition as their bargaining agent.
- 1) Employees make contact with a union representative.
2) Union schedules meeting with other employees
3) Application is made to labour relations board.
4) Labour relations board grants bargaining rights.
- Describe the functions labour unions perform at the national and local levels
- 1) National unions help organize local unions.
2) National unions help train and educate local unions.
3) Local unions negotiate collective agreement & process grievances.
- How does public-sector labour relations differ from private-sector?
- 1) specialized legislation
2) political element in labour-management relations
3) Strikes may be banned
- changing conditions that effect labour organizations.
- 1) Foreign competition
2) technological changes
3) Decline in public image of labour 4) Attempts to organize white-collar workers
5) Innovative workplace practices, resulting in increased employee satisfaction
- labour relations process
- *Logical sequence of four events:
(1] workers desire representation,
(2] begins its organizing campaign,
(3) collective negotiations lead to a contract, and
(4) the contract is administered
- union shop
- *Provision of the collective agreement that requires employees to join the union as a condition of their employment
- unfair labour practices
- *Specific employer and union illegal practices that operate to deny employees their rights and benefits under labour law
- *Acquisition of exclusive rights by union to represent the employees
- management rights
- *Decisions regarding organizational operations over management claims exclusive rights
- craft unions
- *Unions that represent skilled craft workers
- industrial unions
- Unions that represent all workers-skilled, semiskilled, unskilled-employed along industry lines
- employee associations
- *Labour organizations that represent various groups of professional and white-collar employees in labour-management relations
- union (shop] steward
- *Employee who, as a nonpaid union official, represents the interests of members in their relations with management
- compulsory binding arbitration
- Binding method of resolving collective-bargaining deadlocks by a neutral third party
- final-offer arbitration
- *Method of resolving collective- deadlocks whereby the arbitrator has no power to compromise but must select one or Another of the final offers submitted by the two parties
- forms of bargaining power that a union may utilize to enforce their bargaining demands
- 1) picket/ strike,
2) boycott the employer
- employer's power during negotiations comes from its ability to
- 1) lock out employees
2) operate during a strike by using managerial or replacement employees.
- 2 principal methods by which bargaining deadlocks may be resolved
- 1) Mediation
- negotiation deadlocks
2) Interest arbitration
- finalize the collective agreement
- used in the public sector, where unions are Largely prohibited from striking.
- Give examples of current collective-bargaining trends
- * Attitudes of less-adversarial collective bargaining.
* A restructuring of attitudes by both managers and union officials and members
- Identify the major provisions of a collective agreement
- 1) provisions governing the labour-management employment relationship.
2) wages rates of pay,
3) overtime differentials,
4) holiday pay,
5) hours (shift times, days of work),
6) working conditions (safety issues, performance standards, retraining].
- Management rights refers to
- the supremacy of management's authority in all issues except those shared with the union through the collective agreement.
- Describe a typical grievance procedure.
- 1) 3 to 5 steps, each having specific filing and reply times.
2) higher steps involve higher-level managers and union officials
3) final step may be arbitration.
4) Arbitrators render a final decision for problems not resolved at lower grievance steps.
- Explain the basis for arbitration awards.
- 1) wording of the collective agreement.
2) Hearing testimony and evidence including how parties interpreted the collective agreement.
3) Arbitration criteria against which cases are judged.
4) did the offence actually occur was the imposed penalty appropriate?
- collective bargaining process
- *Process of negotiating a collective agreement, including use of economic pressures by both parties
- pattern bargaining
- *Bargaining in which unions negotiate provisions covering wages and other benefits that are similar other agreements existing within the industry or region
- bargaining zone
- *Area within which the union and the employer are willing to concede when bargaining
- *situation in which unionized workers refuse to perform their work
- *Union tactic to encourage others to refuse to patronize an employer
- *Strategy by which the employer denies employees the opportunity to work by closing its operations
- 1) Third party in a labour dispute
2) meets with one party and then the other
3) suggests compromise solutions or 4) recommends concessions from each side that will lead to an agreement
- 1) neutral 3rd party
2) resolves a labour dispute by issuing a final decision in an agreement
- interest arbitration
- *Binding determination of a collective-bargaining agreement by an arbitrator
- rights arbitration
- *Binding determination of a complaint (grievance) that something in the collective agreement has been violated
- residual rights
- *Concept that management's authority is supreme in all matters except those it has expressly conceded to the union in the collective agreement
- defined rights
- *Concept that management's authority should be expressly defined and clarified in the collective agreement
- grievance procedure
- *Formal procedure that provides for the union to represent members and nonmember in processing a grievance
- grievance resolution
- *Process in which a neutral third party assists in the resolution of an employee grievance
- expedited arbitration
- *An agreement to bypass some steps in the grievance process
- submission to arbitrate
- *Statement that describes the issues to be resolved through arbitration
- Describe the bargaining process and the bargaining goals and strategies of a union and an employe
- 1)Each side list goals they wish to achieve & try to anticipate the others goals
2) Both sides sensitive to:
a) current bargaining patterns
b) cost-of-living trends, and
c) geographical wage differentials. 3) process includes negotiations & power tactics used to support demands
- Explain how federal and provincial legislation provides the frame-work for labour relations.
- 1) Laws determine who can unionize.
2) Laws require that unions and employers bargain in good faith.
3) Laws enable unions to strike and employers to lock out.
- Factor comparison system
- *job is evaluated on a factor-by-factor basis
*this type of system is typically used for legislated pay equity purposes.
- Identify the steps in an effective performance management system
- 1)Clarify the work (jobs to be done).
2)Set goals and establish a performance plan.
3)Regular and frequent coaching.
4)Conduct formal review of performance.
5)Recognize and reward performance.
- To create a safe and healthy work environment the supervisor:
- 1) is familiar with occupational health & safety legislatlon
2) Enforces health and safety standards
3) Protects employees from physical hazards, unhealthy conditions, & unsafe acts of other employees.
- apprenticeship training
- * System of training
* skilled trades
* instruction and experience, provided on and off the job
* covers practical and theoretical aspects of the work
- arbitration award
- * Final and binding award
* issued by an arbitrator
* in a labour-management dispute
- authorization card
- * A statement
* signed by an employee
* authorizes union to act as a representative of the employee in collective bargaining
- bargaining unit
- *Group of 2 or more employees
* share common employment interests & conditions
* grouped for collective bargaining purposes
- * Process of measuring one's own services and practices against the recognized leaders
* to identify areas for improvement
- business agent
- * Normally a paid labour official
* responsible for negotiating administering the collective agreement * works to resolve union members' problems
- constructive dismissal
- *Changing an employee's working conditions
* compensation, status, or prestige is reduced
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