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What is the primary purpose of blood?
Blood supplies cells with necessary elements and removes waste products.
What are the basic products that are supplied to cells by blood?
Blood supplies cells with water, electrolytes, nutrients, and hormones.
What are electrolytes?
An electrolyte is a substance whose molecules dissociate into its constituent ions when dissolved.
Which ions play an important role in regulating body processes?
Ions that play an important role in regulating body processes include sodium, potassium, hydrogen, magnesium, calcium, bicarbonate, phosphate, and chloride.
What is hematology?
Hematology is the study of blood and disorders.
What is an antigen?
An antigen is a substance that can trigger an immune response, resulting in production of an antibody as part of the body's defense against infection and disease.
Where are antigens found?
Antigens are found in foreign proteins, microorganisms, toxins, and tissues from another body.
What is coagulation?
Coagulation involves a complex series of reactions in the blood plasma, whcih results in the formation of an insoluble substance called fibrin.
What is fibrin?
Fibrin is a stringy protein that is formed in blood as the end production of coagulation.
What is thrombosis?
Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot within an intact blood vessel.
What are some of the symptoms that a thrombus has formed?
Impaired blood flow through a blood vessel, reduced function of an organ or tissue, pain, or swelling.
What are some of the causes that can create an abnormal clotting tendency?
Abnormal clotting my results from a chemical imbalance in the blood, liver disease, inactivity, anesthesia, inflammation of blood vessel walls, development of atherosclerosis, or infection.
What is the coagulation cascade?
Coagulation cascade is a series of reactions in the blood triggered by tissue injury and platelet activation.
What are the two main parts of the clotting process?
The clotting process requires platelet activation and formation of fibrin filaments.
What is a platelet?
Platelets are the smallest type of blood particle and are also called thrombocytes.
What can result from a deficiency in platelets?
A deficiency of platelets can cause bleeding disorders.
What is thrombocytopenia?
Thrombocytopenia is a reduction in the number of platelet cells in the blood.
What are some of the causes of thrombocytopenia?
Thrombocytopenia may be caused by reduced rate of production of platelets by bone marrow or fast rate of destruction of platelets.
What is a leukocyte?
A leukocyte is any type of white blood cell.
What is the basic purpose of red blood cells?
The function of red blood cells is to carry oxygen to tissues at pressures sufficient to permit rapid diffusion of oxygen.
What are the characteristics of red blood cells?
Red blood cells are doughnut-shaped, with a large flexible surface area.
What is the main function of red blood cells?
The main function of the red blood cells is to act as containers for the protein hemoglobin.
What is plasma?
Plasma is the fluid part of the blood that consists mostly of water.
What is the function of plasma?
Plasma carries substances such as proteins, fats, glucose, and salts.
What are the main constituents of blood?
Half the volume of blood consists of cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, with the remainder being made up of plasma.
What are the three main types of white blood cells?
The three main types of white blood cells are granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes.
What is the principal role of white blood corpuscles?
The principal role of white blood cells is to protect the body against infection and to fight infection when it occurs.
What is the primary purpose of hemoglobin?
The purpose of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues where it is exchanged for carbon dioxide.
What is the main product of tissue metabolism?
The main product of tissue metabolism is urea.
What is bilirubin?
Bilirubin is a waste product from the destruction of hemoglobin.
What is the process for removing bilirubin from the plasma?
Bilirubin is removed from the plasma by the liver and turned into bile.
When do bilirubin levels become abnormally high?
Bilirubin levels become abnormally high in the presence of liver disease or when there is excessive destruction of red blood cells.
What are reticulocytes?
Reticulocytes are cells just released into the bloodsteam from the marrow.
What information is provided by performing a count of reticulocytes?
A count of the numbers of reticulocytes helps to estimate the rate at which red blood cells are being formed.
How are blood cells formed?
All types of blood cells are formed within the bone marrow by a series of divisions from a single type of cell called a stem cell.
What does a complete blood count test measure?
A complete blood count test measures hemoglobin concentration, and the numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in one cubic millimeter of blood.
What is the only known hemoglobinopathy of animals?
The only known hemoglobinopathy of animals is porphyria.
What is porphyria?
Porphyria is any of a group of uncommon inherited disorders caused by the accumulation in the body of substances called porphyrins.
What causes porphyrias?
Porphyrias results from blocks in the chemical processes by which heme is formed, resulting in accumulation of porphyrins.
What is hypoxia?
Hypoxia is an inadequate supply of oxygen to the tissues.
What is hypovolemia?
Hypovolemia is an abnormally low volume of blood circulating in the body.
What is an erythrocyte?
An erythrocyte is a red blood cell.
What is erythropoiesis?
Erythropoiesis is the production of red blood corpuscles.
What does it mean when a blood cell is described as being senescent?
A senescent blood cell is one which is in the state of growing old.
What is a phagocyte?
A phagocyte is a cell capable of surrounding, engulfing, and digesting microorganisms, and forms part of the body's immune system.
What is a macrophage?
A macrophage is a large phagocytic cell found in connective tissues.
What is ATP?
ATP is the abbreviation for adenosine triphosphate, the chief energy-carrying chemical in the body.
What is the purpose of the energy of ATP?
The energy of ATP is used to maintain red blood cell membrane pumps so as to preserve shape and flexibility.
What are globulins?
Globulins are any of a group of proteins characterized by being insoluble in water but soluble in dilute salt solutions.
What are the three main groups of globulins?
The three main groups of globulins are alpha, beta, and gamma globulins.
What is the role of gamma globulins?
All of the gamma globulins are antibodies.
What is the makeup of beta globulins?
Beta globulins consist mainly of low-density lipoproteins and transferrin.
What is the purpose of transferrin?
The purpose of transferrin is to carry iron in the blood.
What are low-density lipoproteins?
Lipoproteins are substances involved in the transport of fats in the blood circulation.
What are two types of alpha globulins?
Two types of alpha globulins include antitrypsin and haptoglobin.
What is the role of haptoglobin?
Haptoglobin is found in the blood where it binds together hemoglobin and prevents it from being excreted in the urine by the kidneys.
Which hormones monitor the concentration of glucose in the blood?
Blood sugar levels are kept within limits by inulin, glucagon, epinephrine, coricosteroids, and growth hormone.
What is the main function of glucose?
Glucose is the body's chief source of energy for cell metabolism.
What is hemolysis?
Hemolysis is the destruction of red blood cells, a process that releases iron for new red cells, bilirubin which is converted to bile, and other breakdown products of the red cell.
What is chemotaxis?
Chemotaxis is the movement of a cell or organism toward or away from a chemical stimulus.
What is lysis?
Lysis describes the destruction of a cell by damage to its outer membrane.
What is interferon?
Interferon is a group of proteins produced naturally by the body cells in response of viral infections and other stimuli.
What is histamine?
Histamine is a chemical present in cells that is released during an allergic reaction.
What are the three types of granulocytes?
The three types of granulocytes are neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
Which is the most important granulocyte?
The most important granulocytes are neutrophils which make up 60% of all white blood cells.
What is the main purpose of neutrophils?
Neutrophils are responsible for isolating and killing invading bacteria.
What is aggregation?
Aggregation is the clumping of blood cells.
What is albuminuria?
Albuminuria is the presence of the protein albumin in urine.
What does the presence of albumin in the urine indicate?
The presence of albumin in the urine usually indicates a failure of the kidney's filtering mechanism.
What is the most abundant protein in the body?
Albumin is the most abundant protein in the body.
How is albumin created in the body?
Albumin is made in the liver from amino acids absorbed from digested protein.
What are the two most important functions of albumin?
Albumin regulates movement of water between tissues and bloodstream by osmosis, as well as helps to retain substances in circulation by binding to them.
What is an alkali?
Alkali is known as a base and is chemically defined as a donor of hydroxyl ions.
What is alkalosis?
Alkalosis is a disturbance in the body's acid-base balance.
What are the two types of alkalosis?
The two types of alkalosis are metabolic and respiratory.
What is a cause of metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by sever vomiting.
What is the cause for respiratory alkalosis?
Respiratory alkalosis is caused by a reduction in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
What are amino acids?
Amino acids are a group of chemical compounds that form the basic structural units of all proteins.
What are the characteristics of amino acids?
Each amino acid molecule consists of nitrogenous amino and acid carboxyl groups of atoms linked to a rink of carbon atoms.
What are the differences between proteins?
The difference between proteins is the arrangement of amino acids.
What does the term humoral describe?
Humoral is a term used to pertain to the fluids of the body.
What are the two branches of the immune system?
The two branches of the immune system are humoral and cellular.
Which type of lymphocyte cells are responsible for humoral immunity?
B cells are responsible for humoral immunity.
Which types of lymphoctyte cells are responsible for cellular immunity?
T cells are responsible for cellular immunity.
What is the difference in the formation between T and B cells?
B cells migrate directly to organs, while lymphocytes migrate to the thymus and differentiate further under the influence of thymic hormones to become T cells.
What do stimulated T cells produce?
Stimulated T cells produce lymphokines, which are chemicals that destroy abnormal cells.
What are immunoglobins?
Immunoglobins are antibody molecules.
What are some of the classes of immunoglobins?
Classes of immunoglobins include IgA, IgM, IgG, and IgE.
What is the functional characteristic of IgA?
IgA is the principal antibody of respiratory and intestinal secretions.
What is the functional characteristic of IgM?
IgM is the first antibody produced in response to a newly recognized antigen.
What is the functional characteristic of IgG?
IgG is the principal antibody of the circulating blood.
What is the functional characteristic of IgE?
IgE is the principal antibody involved in allergic reactions.
What does the term neoplastic refer to?
Neoplastic refers to the progressive abnormal multiplication of cells.
What are mast cells?
Mast cells are a type of cell that plays an important part in the body's allergic response.
What is the role of mast cells during an allergic response?
Allergens stimulate the release of antibodies which attach themselves to mast cells, and mast cells release histamine.
What is atopy?
Atopy is a predisposition to various allergic reactions.
What is urticaria?
Urticaria is a skin condition characterized by the development of itchy wheals.
What is the most common known mechanism of urticaria?
The most common known mechanism of urticaria is an allergic reaction in which the chemical histamine is released from skin cells, causing fluid to leak from capillaries into skin tissues.
What is aplasia?
Aplasia is the incomplete or reduced growth and development of any organ or tissue.
What is fibrosis?
Fibrosis is an overgrowth of scar or connective tissue.
What are some of the causes of fibrosis?
Fibrous tissue may be formed as an exaggerated healing response to injury, infection, inflammation, or lack of oxygen in tissue.
What is endothelium?
Endothelium is the layer of cells that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic ducts.
What is the purpose of endothelium?
Endothelium cells are squamous to provide a smooth surface that aids flow of blood and lymph, and helps prevent formation of blood clots.
What are the characteristics of Von Willebrand's disease?
Von Willebrand's disease is an inherited lifelong bleeding disorder caused by a defective gene.
What is anemia?
Anemia is a condition characterized by insufficient circulating hemoglobin.
What are the characteristics of regenerative anemias?
Regenerative anemias have a high reticuloycte count and are due to red blood cell loss.
What are the characteristics of nonregenerative anemias?
Nonregenerative anemias have poor bone marrow response and reticulocyte count is low.
What does low corpuscular volume indicate in an anemic animal?
A low MCV indicates iron deficiency from slow loss of blood.

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