Glossary of H240 Final
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- 1. The Whig Party was made up of former Federalists and former Republicans who _____________.
- Advocated national support for economic development.
- 2. The forces of division within the Republican party in the early 1820s:
- Industrialization, Rise of the Cotton industry in the South
- 3. Circumstances of the democratization of American politics in the Age of Jackson:
- Western Migration,Growing economic individualism Increasing sectional conflict over slavery
- 4. What happened to the American political system during the antebellum period?
- Second party system arose- Democrats & Whigs replace Federalists and Republicans
Parties organized Grass roots support,Molded government in response to peoples’ will
Welcomed conflict as a way to sustain interest in political issues
- 5. Reformers of the antebellum period ___________.
- Were often Evangelistic
Realized the key to their success lay in influencing politics
- 6. Martin Van Buren’s political machine in New York was known as __________.
- The Albany Regency
- 7. What did the presidential election of 1828 demonstrate?
- The power of Public realtions
- 8. Removing officeholders of the rival political party and replacing them with members of your own party is called the ____________.
- Rotation Office a.k.a. Spoils System
- 9. Why did President Jackson veto the Maysville Road Bill?
- He thought it was unconstitutional for the national government to grant money for “special needs” groups- it was only to do so for national purposes.
- 10. Which section of the country tended to oppose tariffs?
- The South- it hurt them economically
- 11. The theory that the Union is a compact among the states and that a state has the right to override a federal law is known as _________.
- 12. The South Carolina Exposition and Protest was drawn up in opposition to the __________.
- 1820 Tariff- argued that it was unconstitutional and that states had the right to nullify it within their borders.
- 13. The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to _____________.
- Use force to collect customs duties in South Carolina.
- 13. The tariff controversy of the early 1830s showed that _____________.
- There was a big difference between the North and South in terms of exports and imports.
- 14. What was one of the reasons why Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Bank of the United States?
- Jackson thought it was a privileged and private monopoly that drained the west of specie, was immune to taxation by states, and put inordinate power in the hands of a few men, made the “rich richer and the potent more powerful.”
- 15. The term “pet banks” was applied to ___________.
- Banks that Jackson put money taken out of the National Bank into. There were 23 of them.
- 16. What did President Jackson do in his “war” on the Bank of the United States?
- He took money out of the national bank to reduce its power and put the money into the pet-banks.
- 17. The difference between “hard money” and “soft money” is ____________.
- Hard money is specie, soft money is paper that may or may not be entirely backed by specie.
- 18. Who was the main opposition to Andrew Jackson during his second term in office?
- The Whigs
- 19. Groups that supported the Whig party during the Jacksonian era:
- Northern Reformers
Supporters of Henry Clay’s American System
Advocates of public education
Advocates of Temperence
- 20. The Specie Circular ___________.
- Stated that only specie was to be accepted in exchange for public lands.
- 21. What caused the depression of 1837?
- Jackson put federal funds in state banks causing the total number of banks to double. The value of bank notes tripled and prices soared. Banks began to suspend specie payments in 1837 and overheated economy began to cool. Specie circular dried up credit.
- 22. In the late 1830s and early 1840s, what group believed that the end of the world was imminent?
- Followers of William Miller
- 24. What was the purpose of the Independent Treasury advocated by President Van Buren?
- To hold government revenues and keep them from the grasp of corporations.
- 23. Which political party had become the anti-bank, hard-money party by 1840?
- 25. Why did Vice President Martin Van Buren lose the presidential election of 1840?
- PR slip- labeled Harrison as “Old Granny” Gave Whigs the opportunity to portray him as the great frontiersman.
- 26. What was the main cause of the great increase in the popular vote between the 1836 and 1840 presidential elections?
- The hardening line between political parties piqued popular interest.
- 27. The period of revivalism that swept the nation in the early years of the nineteenth century is known as the _________.
- Second Great Awakening
- 28. The belief that people can live without sin was called ___________.
- 29. Which sect believed that Jesus was not divine but merely an exemplary human being?
- 30. Why can Mormonism be described as “pushing against the currents of American religion and society”?
- Because it originated in America, believed in modern and personal revelation, had additional scripture which some believed threatened the authority of the Bible.
- 31. The noteworthy tenets of the Shakers:
- Sexual Abstinance
Lived in tightly-knit agrarian /artisan communities
Believed the end of the world was imminent.
Thought at second coming, Jesus would take the form of a woman.
- 32. Reform movements of the Age of Jackson:
Women’s rights movement
- 33. Why did temperance reformers make one of their main targets the moderate drinkers among the laboring classes?
- Because manufacturers thought it would increase productivity
The workers themselves eventually became avid supporters of temperance because unlike the dislocation of their jobs due to the depression, drinking was something they could control.
- 34. The goals of the school reform movement in the Age of Jackson included __________.
- The transformation of schools from loose organizations to highly structured institutions that occupied most of a child’s time and energy. Wanted to do this by shifting financial support from parents to the state, compelling attendance, extending the school term, using standard textbooks, and organizing students according to age.
- 35. Who was the most famous and controversial white abolitionist?
- William Lloyd Garrison
- 36. What did most while abolitionists want?
- Legal, but not social and civil equality,
- 36. The “gag rule” was repealed in 1845 largely because of the efforts of ___________.
- John Quincy Adams
- 37. The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments called for ___________.
- The right of women to vote
- 38. What was one of the major reasons for the changing attitude toward poverty, crime, and insanity in the early nineteenth century?
- The new belief held by nineteenth century reformers that insanity, poverty, and crime were the results of drunken fathers and broken homes. The root of all evil was the fail of parental discipline.
- !!. Utopian communities:
- New Harmony, fruitlands, hopedale, brook farm, Oneida community,
- 39. Most founders of utopian communities believed that _________.
- Their communities would become models for the rest of society. They believed that competitive capitalism was unnatural.
- 40. What conclusions can you draw from a comparison of Oneida with other utopian communities of the antebellum era?
- It was much more radical, was not as concerned with economics as the other colonies were.
- 41. Features of the Oneida community:
- Free Sexuality- permitted intercourse between all male and female members of the community. Economically prosperous.
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