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Glossary of Gross Anatomy Exam 3 (correct one)

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What is the thoracic cage composed of?
(1)sternum (2)12 ribs enwrapping the area from the vertebral column posteriorly to the sternum anteriorly
NAME
this is composed of the sternum and 12 ribs enwrapping the area from the vertebral column posteriorly to the sternum anteriorly
thoracic cage
What are the functions of the thoracic cage?
(1)respiration (2)protection of thoracic contents (3)regulation of intrathoracic and intrabdominal pressure (4)movement of the upper limb
NAME
some of its function include respiration, protection of thoracic contents, regulation of intrathoracic and intrabdominal pressure,and movement of the upper limb
thoracic cage
What are the (3)parts of the sternum?
(1)manubrium (2)body (3)xiphoid process
NAME
this has three parts: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
sternum
How many ribs does the rib cage have?
12
What are three kinds of ribs? (3)
(1)true (2)false (3)floating
NAME
there are three of kind of these: true, false, and floating
ribs
Where are the true ribs located?
1st to 7th ribs
NAME
these ribs are the 1st to 7th ribs
true ribs
Where are the false ribs located?
8 to 10 ribs
NAME
these ribs are the 8 to 10 ribs
false ribs
Where are the floating ribs located?
11 to 12th ribs
NAME
these ribs are the 11th to 12th ribs
floating ribs
What are the true ribs?
these type of ribs connect anterior directly through the sternum through costal cartilage and posteriorl through the vertebral column through costal cartilage
NAME
these kind of ribs connect anteriorly directly through the sternum through costal cartilage and posteriorly through the vertebral column via costal cartilage
true ribs
What are the floating ribs?
are called floating ribs bc dont articulate w the sternum anteriorly but share a common cartilage that articulates the sternum
NAME
these are ribs that dont atriculate w the sternum anteriorly but share a common cartilage that articulates w the sternum
floating ribs
(1)this refers to ribs
costal
costal refers to (1)
ribs
What is the sternum?
is the breast bone
NAME
this is the breast bone
sternum
How are ribs classifed? (2)
(1)atypical (2)typical
NAME
these can be classifed as ethier aytypical or typical
ribs
NAME
this is a landmark for CPR bc can fracture it
xiphoid process
What is the singificance of xiphoid process and CPR?
is a landmark bc it can easily fracture
T or F
the ribs are not easy to fracture
false
are the ribs easy to fracture?
no
WHat is the manubrium?
is the most superior portion of the sternum
NAME
this is the most superior portion of the sternum
manubrium
Describe what the manubrium is like
the superiorly portion shows the jugluar notch on either side of which there is a articular surface for the corresponding clavicle
NAME
its superior portion shows the jugular notch on either side of which there is a articular surface for the corresponding clavicle
manubrium
What is the body?
is the largest part of the strenum
NAME
this is the largest part of the sternum
body
What is the largest part of the sternum?
body
Where does the body of the sternum arituclate?
it atriculates w the 3rd through 7th costal cartilages
NAME
this articulates w the 3rd through 7th cartilages
body of the sternum
What is the angle of Louis?
is a prominent ridge at the junction of the manubrium and body of the sternum
NAME
this is a prominent ridge at the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum
angle of Louis
Why is the angle of Louis important?
bc it indicates the level of articulation of the costal cartilage of the 2nd rib to the sternum
NAME
this is important bc it indicates the level of articulation of the costal cartilage of the 2nd rib to the sternum
angle of Louis
What is the xiphoid process?
is the most inferior tip of the sternum that has a bifid
NAME
this is the most inferior tip of the sternum that has a bifid
xiphoid process
What is a bifid?
refers to a cleft in two
NAME
this refers to cleft in two
bifid
Where does the xiphoid process articulate?
it articules partially w the costal cartilage of the 7th rib
NAME
this articulates partially w the costal cartilage of 7th rib
xiphoid process
What is each typical rib like? (6)
(1)has a vertebral and sternal extermity w an intervening body (2)head w two demifacets (3)neck (4)tubercle (5)angle (6)costal groove on the internal surface
NAME
these type of ribs have a vertebral and sternal extermity w an intervening body, a head w two demifacets, neck, tubercle, angle, and costal groove
a typical rib
a typical rib articules w both the body of its own verebra and w the body of the above vertebra via (1)
demifacets
a (1)rib articulaes w both the body of its own vertebra and w the body of the above veretbra via demifacets
typical
a typical rib articulates w both the (1) and (2) via demifacets
(1)body of its own vertebra (2)body of the above vertebra
the head of a typical rib's articular surface is divided into (1)by a samll ridge
demifacets
What is the tubercle?
found at the junction of the neck and body of the rib and has a facet for articulation w the tranverse process of its won veretbra
NAME
this is found at the junction of the neck and body of the rib and has a facet for articulation w the tranverse process of its own vertebra
tubercle
NAME
this type of ribs have costal groove on the internal surface
typical
How is the first rib aytpical ? (2)
it is the shortest and has the greatest curvature(2)its flattened in a tranverse plane presenting superior and inferior sides
NAME
this is one of the shortest rib and has the greatest curvature and its flattened in a tranverse plane presenting superior and inferior sides
1st rib
What are some distiguishing characterstics of the 1st rib? (5)
(1)head showing no division of articular facet(2)neck (3)absence of an angle (4)two shallow grooves on the superior surface for the subclavian artery and vein (5)wan intervening tubercle for the attachment of the anterior scalene muscle
What are some distiguishing characterstics of the 1st rib? (6)
(1)head showing no division of articular fect (2)neck (3)absence of an angle (4)two shallow grooves on the superior surface for the subclavian artery (5)and vein (6)wan intervening tubercle for the attachment of the anterior scalene muscle
NAME
this has a head showing no division of artiucular facet, neck, absence of an angle, two shallow grooves on the superior surfce for the subclavien artery and vein and an intervening tubercle for the attachment of the anterior scalene muscle
1st rib
What is the 2nd rib like?
is a transition form btwn the 1st rib and a typical rib (2)it has a curvature similar to the first rib but it is not quite as flattened (3)the angle is slight and close to the tubercle
NAME
this rib is a transition form btwn the 1st rib and a typical rib, has a curvature similar to the first rib but it is not quite as flattened, and the angle is slight and close to the tubercle
2nd rib
How are the 11th and 12th rib alike?
they share two structural similarities (1)a single articular facet on the head (2)a lack of either a neck or tubercle
NAME (2)
these two ribs share two structural similarities : a single articualr facet on the head and a lack of either a neck or tubercle
11th (2)12th ribs
What is the 11th rib like?
(3)a shallow costal groove
NAME
this rib has a aritcular facet on the head, a lack of either a neck or tubercle, or a shallow costal groove
11th rib
What is the 12th rib like?
has no costal groove
NAME
this rib has a articular facet on the head, lack of either a neck or tubercle, and no costal groove
12th rib
What is the differ btwn the 11th and 12th rib? (2)
(1)the 11th rib has a very shallow costal groove (2)and the 12th rib has none
What are the atypical ribs? (4)
(1)1st (2)2nd (3)11th (4)12th ribs
NAME
these ribs are the 1st, 2nd, 11th, and 12th ribs
atypical ribs
What is median sternotomy?
is when they split the sternum to half to open the rib cage and perform open heart surgury
NAME
this is when doctors split the sternum in half to open the rib cage and perform open heart surgury
sternotomy
What is costachondris?
is inflammation of the cartilage of the ribs
NAME
this is the inflammation of the cartilage of the ribs
costachondris
What are the symptoms of costachondris
the same as heart attack
NAME
the symptoms of this are similar to those of a heart attack
costacondris
What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
radiating shooting pain in the thorax or central pain w pain in the left arm
NAME
symptoms of this include radiating shooting pain in the thorax or central pain in the left arm
heart attack
What is the sternocostal joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the sternum and the costal cartilage
NAME
this is a the joint btwn the sternum and the costal cartilage
sternocostal joint
Where is the sternum located?
T3/T4
NAME
this is located at T3/T4
sternum
Where is the body of the sternum located?
T5/T9
NAME
this is located btwn T5/T9
the body of the sternum
Where is the xiphoid process located?
T10
NAME
this is located at T10
xiphoid process
What is the intervertebral joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the 2 veretbrae and has interveretbral disc in btwn
NAME
this is a joint btwn 2 veretbrae and has interveretbral disc in btwn
interveretbral joint
What is the costovertebral joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the rib and costal cartilage
NAME
this joint is btwn the rib and the costal cartilage
costovertebral joint
What is the sternoclavicular joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the sternum and the clavicle and acts on the arm for abduction
NAME
this joint is btwn the sternum and the clavicle and acts on the arm for abduction
sternoclavicular joint
What is the interchondral joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn actual cartilages
NAME
this is a joint btwn actual cartilages
interchondral joint
What is the manubiosternal joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the angle of Louis and manubrium
NAME
this is a joint btwn the angle of Louis and the manubrium
manubiosternal
What is a xiphisternal joint?
think about the name......it is the joint btwn the xiphoid process and the body of the sternum
NAME
this is a joint btwn the xiphoid process and the body of the sternum
xiphisternal joint
STOPED HERE FOR CARDS IN WORD
STOPED HERE FOR CARDS IN WORD
What is one unqiue thing about the thoracic vertebrae?
(1)are equipped w synovial joints costovertebral articulations sites w demifacets for the ribs
NAME
these vertebrae are equipped w synovial joints costovertebral articulations sites w demifacets for ribs
thoracic vertebrae
What is the costotranverse joint?
is the joint btwn the tubercle of a rib and the tranverse process of its vertebrea
NAME
this joint is btwn the tubercle of a rib and the tranverse process of its vertebrae
costotranverse joint
NAME
these joints limit the movement of thoracic cage in inspiration and expiration
costotranverse joint
What does the costotranverse joint do?
it limits the movement of the thoracic cage in inspiration and expiration
What is the synchondrosis?
is where the first pair of ribs unite w the manubirum of the sternum
NAME
this is where the first pair of ribs unite the manubirum of the sternum
synchondorsis
NAME
this is most important muscle involved in respiration
diaphragm
What is the most important muscle in involved in respiration?
the diaphargm
The diaphragm is the most important muscle involved in(1)
respiration
What is respiration?
inspiration/exspiration
Do the veretbrae move during inspiration?
no
T or F
the vertebrae move during inspiration
false
Describe the movement of the bones during inspiration
(1)the ribs move superiorly and anteriorly carrying costal cartilage w it (2)rib cage vol increases
NAME
during this the ribs move superiorly and anteriorly carrying costal cartilage w it
inspiration
During inspiration, the (1)move superiorly and anteriorly carrying costal cartilage w it
ribs
DUring respiration, the ribs move (1)and (2) and (3)carrying the (3)w it
(1)superiorly (2)anteriorly (3)inferiorly (4)costal cartilage
What makes the air go in lungs?
bc a air system that is high in pressure always moves to area of low pressure
A air system of (1)pressure always goes to a (2)system of pressure
(1)high (2)low
An air system of high pressure always go to a (1)system of pressure
low
an air system of (1)pressure always goes to a low system of pressure
high
What is the pressure and vol like during inspiration?
(1)vol increases (2)air pressure goes down
NAME
during this the vol incresases of the rib cage and the air pressure goes down
inspiration
During inspiration, the vol (1)while the air pressure (2)
(1)increases (2)goes down
When inhale, the pressure changes to a (1)system so that air moves out of the lungs to a (1)system
(1)high (2)low
NAME
this is a active phenomen
inspiration
NAME
this is a passive phenomen
expsiration
Inspiration is a (1)phneomen
active
Exspiration is a (1)phneomne
passive
What is the differ btwn inspiration and expiration?
(1)inspiration-is a active phenomen (2)exspiration is a passive phenomenon
Why are exspiration and inspiration possible?
bc of the recoiling and elasticity of the lungs
NAME
this is possible bc of the recoiling and elascitiy of the lungs
expsiration and inspiration
(1)is also called respiration
ventelation
ventalition is also called (1)
respiration
you have a (1)and (2)phrenic nerve
right and left
How many phrenic nerves are there?
a right and left
How many diaphragms are there?
a right and left domes
What is the phrenic nerve?
it supplies the diaphargm
NAME
this supplies the diaphargm
phrenic nerve
THe diaphargm is has (1)and (2)inverted
automatic and somatic
give example of how the diaphargm is somaticly inverted?
when you take a deep breath
Give an example of how the diaphargm is automaticly inverted?
when you are asleep
T or F
a person can live w 1 phrenic nerve
true
What happens in a person only have 1 phrenic nerve?
then only one dome of the diapharm contracts
If you lungs are not working then the (1)
diaphargm does not contract right and the accessary muscles enlarge
What does hypertrophy refer to?
when the muscle enlarges to much
NAME
this is when a muscle enlarges to much
hypertrophy
What happens if your lungs are not working right?
the diaphargm does not contract right and the acessary muscles have to work harder so they enlarge which cna compress the brachial plexus
What happens if the lungs are not working right?
the diaphargm does not contract right and the acessary muscles have to work harder so they enlarge which cna compress the brachial plexus
What does TOS stand for?
thoracic outlet syndrome
What is TOS?
is when the brachial plexus is compressed
NAME
this when the brachial plexus is compressed
TOS
What can TOS?
can be caused by the lungs not working which causes the accesary muscles to hypertrophy thus compressing the brachial plexus
NAME
this can be caused by the lungs not working which causes the acessary muscles to work harder and enlarging--thus compressing the brachial plexus
TOS
NAME
during this, the rib cage's vol decreased and air pressure increases
expiration
During expiration, the rib cage's vol (1)and air pressure (2)
(1)decreases (2)increases
What is the intercostal space?
is the space btwn each pair of ribs
NAME
this is the space btwn each pair of ribs
intercostal space
What are (3)muscles located in the intercostal space in order?
(1)external intercostal (2)internal intercostal (3)innermost intercostal
NAME
this has three muscles in it--the external intercostal, internal intercostal, and the innermost intercostal muscles
intercostal space
How many intercostal spaces are there?
11
There are (1)intercostal spaces
11
What is the external intercostal do?
e for elevates the ribs abd i during inspiration
NAME
during inspiration, this elevates the ribs
external intercostal
What kind of fibers does the external intercostal have?
fibers passing inferiorly and medially from rib
NAME
this has fibers passing inferiorly and medially from the rib
the external intercostal
How are the differ muscles found in the intercostal space different? (3)
(1)external intercostal- the fibers run inferiorly and medially from the rib (2)iternal intercostal- the muscles run at right angles (3)innermost intercostal- fibers run inferiorly and mediallly and pass the intercostal arteries,veins, and nerves
NAME
in the most inferior intercostal spaces this muscle is continous w the external obliqe muscles of the abdomen
external intercostal
Describe what the internal intercostal muscles are like
they course at right angles
NAME
these intercostal muscles course at right angles
iternal intercostal muscles
the internal intercostal muscles course at (1)
right angles
NAME
this is the deepest layer of the intercostal space
innermost intercostal space
NAME
this can be found at the superfical layer of the intercostal space
external intercostal sapce
Describe what the fibers are like for the innermost intercostal muscle?
the fibers run inferiorly and medially but btwn the two layers pass the intercostal arteries, veins, and nerves
NAME
this muscle has fibers that run inferiorly and medially but btwn the two layers pass the intercostal arteries, veins, and nerves
innermost intercostal muscles
Where are the subcostal muscles most often found?
in the inferior thorax
NAME
these are found most often in the inferior thorax
subcostal muscles
Where is the tranverse thoracis muscle located?
on the deep surface of the sternum passing to the costal cartilage 2-6
NAME
these muscles are found on the deep surface of the sternum passing to the costal cartilage 2-6
tranverse thoracis muscle
What does the levator costarum do?
elevates the ribs
NAME
this muscle elevates the ribs
levatores costarum
Where can you find the levator costarum?
at the proximal attachment on the tranverse processes and btwn the tubercle and angle of eafch rib below
NAME
these muscles can be found at the proximal attachment on the tranverse processes and btwn the tubercle and angle of each rib below
levator costarum
What are the additiontal muscles of respiration? (5)
(1)serratus posterior superior (2)serratus posterior inferior (3)scalenus anterior (4)scalenus medius (5)scalenus posterior
NAME
these muscles incude the serratus posterior superior, serratus posterior inferior, scalenus anterior, scalenus medius, and scalenus posterior
additional muscles of respiration
What are the main muscles of respiration? (5)
(1)diaphargm (2)external intercostal (3)internal intercostal (4)innermost intercostal (5)subcostal
NAME
these include the diaphargm, external innercostal, internal intercostal, the innermost intercostal, and the subcostal muscle
the muscles of respiration
Where does the serratus posterior superior attach?
it attaches on the spinous processes of the last cervical vertebrae and the first two thoracic vertebrae (2)the angles of ribs 2-5
NAME
this muscles attaches on the spinous processes of the last cervical vertebrae and first 2 thoracic vertebrea and the angles of ribs 2-5
serratus posterior superior
What is the function of the serratus posterior superior?
it elevates the ribs 2-5
NAME
this elevates the ribs 2-5
serratus posterior superior
Where is the serratus posterior inferior attach?
the spinous process of T11-L2 and (2)inferior border of ribs 9-12
NAME
this muscle attaches at the spinous process of T11-L2 and inferior border of ribs 9-12
serratus posterior inferior
What does the serratus posterior inferior do?
it flexes the ribs aiding in inspiration
NAME
this muscle flexes the ribs aiding in inspiration
serratus posterior
Make a chart of the muscles of respiration and accessary muscles of the respiration w functions
see notes
Where is the scalenus medius located?
it attachs on the tubercles of C2-7 to superior surface of the first rib
NAME
this attaches on the tubercle of C2-C7 to the superior surface of the first rib
scalenus medius
Where does the scalneus anterior attach?
from the anterior tubercle of C3-6 and on the first rib
NAME
this attaches from the anterior tubercle of C3-C6 and on the first rib
scalenus anterior
Where is the scalenus posterior located?
the posterior tubercles of C 4-6 to the 2nd rib
NAME
this attachs on the posterior tubercle of C4-C6 to the 2nd rib
scalenus posterior
What does the scalenus posterior do?
elevate the first 2 ribs and are critcal in quiet respiration
NAME
these muscles elevate the first 2 ribs and are critical in quiet respiration
scalenus posterior
What are the (3)scalene muscles in order?
(1)scalenus anterior (2)scalenus medius (3)scalenus posterior
NAME
there are three of this muscle: anterior, medius, and posterior
scalenus
WHere is the brachial plexus located?
it is sandwiched in btwn the scalenus anterior and medius
NAME
this is sandwiched btwn the scalenus anterior and medius
brachial plexus
What are the (5)andominal muscles? (from superfical to deep)
(1)rectus andominus (2)external oblique (3)internal oblique (4)tranverse abdominus (5)auadratus lumbroum
What is the rectus sheath?
is a sheath that encloses the rectus abdominus
NAME
this is sheath that encloses the rectus abdominus
rectus sheath
What does the rectus abdominus do?
flexes the trunk
NAME
this muscle flexes the trunk
rectus abdominus
NAME
this is the most powerful trunk flexor
rectus abdominus
What is the most powerful trunk flexor?
rectus abdominus
NAME
this muscle is known as the "6 pack"
rectus abdominus
What gives the rectus abdominus its well developed appearance?
the tendious intersections of the rectus abdominus
The anterior rectus sheath of the rectus abdominous is bound to the rectus at several points called (1)
tendinous intersections
What are tendinous intersections?
is where the anterior rectus sheath is bound to the rectus andominous muscle
What does inferiormedially mean?
it means that the fibers run inferiorly and medially
NAME
this is jst another way of saying the fibers run inferiorly and medially
inferiormedially

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