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Glossary of Gross Anatomy Exam 2

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What are (4)key charceristics of the upper limb?
(1)mobility (2)the ability to grasp (3)strike (4)conduct fine motor skills
NAME
some key characteristics of this are mobility, the ability to grasp, strike, and conduct fine motor skills
upper limb
What are (4)segments that make up the upper limb?
(1)shoulder (2)arm (3)forearm (4)hand
NAME
this consists of 4 main segments: shoulder, arm, forearm, and the hand
upper limb
Where is the shoulder located?
includes the pectoral, scapular, and lateral suparclavicular regions (2)is built on half of the pecotral gridle
NAME
this includes the pectoral, scapular, and lateral supraclavicular regions and is built on half of the pectoral gridle
shoulder
What is the pectoral gridle?
is a bony ring formed by the scapulae and clavicles
NAME
this is a bony ring formed by the scapulae and clavicles
pectoral gridle
Where is the arm located?
btwn the shoulders and the elbow (2)is centered around the humerus
NAME
this is btwn the shoulders and the elbow and is centered around the humerus
armh
The arm is centered around the (1)
humerus
the (1)is centered around the humerus
arm
What is the forearm?
contains the ulna and the radius
NAME
this contains the ulna and the radius
forearm
Where is the forearm located?
btwn the elbow nad the wrist
NAME
this is located btwn the elbow and the wrist
forearm
What is the hand?
contains the carpus, metacarpus and the phalanges and is richly supplied w sensory endings
NAME
this contains the carpus, metacarpus, and the phalanges and is richly supplied w sensory endings
hand
NAME
this located distal to the forearm
hand
Where is the hand located?
is distal to the forearm
What is the carpus?
the wrist bones
NAME
this refers to the wrist bones
carpus
What are the phalanges?
bones of the fingers and toes
NAME
these are the bones of the fingers and toes
phalanges
What does the superior appendicular skeleton contain?
is the pectoral gridle and bones of the free part of the upper skeleton
NAME
this skeleton system consists of the pectoral gridle and the bones of the upper skeleton
superior appendicular skeleton
Where does the superior appendicular skeleton articulate w the axial skeleton?
only at the sternoclavicular joint allowing great mobility
NAME
this articulates w the axial skeleton only at the sternoclavicular joint allowing great mobility
superior appendicular skeleton
The superior appendiuclar skeleton articulates w the axial skeleton at the (1)joint allowing great mobility?
sternoclavicular joint
What is the axioappendicular muscles?
support, stablize, and propel the pectoral girdle
What is the clavicle?
is the collar bone
NAME
this is the collar bone
clavicle
What does the clavicle do?
connects the upper limb to the trunk
NAME
this connects the upper limb to the trunk
clavicle
What are the 2 parts of the clavicle? (2)
(1)sternal end (2)arcomial end
NAME
this has 2 parts: the sternal end and the arcomial end
clavicle
Where does the sternal end of hte clavicle articulate?
it aritculates w the manubrium of the sternum
NAME
this arituclates w the manubrium of the sternum
the sternal end of the clavicle
What does the superior appendicular skeleton aritculate w/
the axial skeleton
Where does the sternal end of the clavlicle articulate w the manubrium of the sternum?
at the SC joint
NAME
this articulates w the manubirum of the sternum at the SC joint
the sternal end of the clavicle
What does the SC joint stand for?
sternoclavicular joint
What does the AC stand for?
acromioclavicular joint
Where does the arcomial end of the clavicle articulate w the acromion of the scapula?
at the AC joint
NAME
this articualtes w the acromion of the scapula at the AC joint
acromial end of the clavicle
What are some functions of the clavicle? (3)
(1)serves as rigid support from which the scapula and free limb are suspended, keeping the limb away from the throax so that the arm has maximum freedom of movement (2)forms one of the boundaries of the cervioaxiallry canal affording protection to the neurovascular bundle supplying the upper limb (3)transmits shocks from the upper limb to the axial skeleton
What is the scapula?
is the shoulder blade bone
NAME
this is the shoulder blade bone
scapula
Describe what the scapula looks like/ (2)
is a triangular flat bone (2)it is unevenly divided by the spine of the scapula into smaller suparspinous fossa and a much larger infraspinous fossa
NAME
this is a triangular flat bone that lies on the posterolateral aspect of the throax, overlying the 2nd and 7th ribs
scapula
Where is the scapula located?
lies on the thorax and overlying the 2nd and 7th ribs
What is the body of the scapula?
is the traingualr or blade part of hte scapula
NAME
this is unevenly divided by the spine of the scapula into smaller suparspinous fossa and a much larger infraspinous fossa
scapula
The scapula is unevenly divided by the spine of the scapula into smaller (1)and a much larger (2)
(1)suparspinous fosa (2)infraspinous fossa
NAME
this bone is commonly fractured
clavicle
The clavicle is commonly (1)
fractured
What are some causes of a fractured clavicle?
(1)an indirect force transmitted from an outstrechted hand through the bones of the forearm and the arm to the shoulder during a fall (2)or a fall directly on the shoulder
NAME
fracture of this bone may be caused indirectly by an indirect force from an outstreched hand through the bones of the forearm and arm to the shoulder during a fall or a direct fall on the shoulder
clavicle
What is the weakest part of the clavicle?
is at the junction of its middle and lateral thirds
What happens after a fracture of the clavicle? (2)
the SCM elevates the medial fragment bone (2)the trapizus muscle is unable to hold up the lateral fragment owing to the weight of the upper limb and thus the shoulder drops
What does SCM stand for?
sternocleidomastoid
What are the differ parts of the scapula? (9_
(1)body (2)glenoid cavity (3)neck (4)coracoid process (5)acromion (6)supraglenoid tubercle (7)infraglenoid tubercle (8)scapular spine (9)supraspinous fossa (10)infraspinous fossa
NAME
this is made upf oa body w borders and angles, glenoid cavity, neck, coracoid process, arcomion, supragleniod tubercle, scapular spine, supraspinous fossa, and infraspinous fossa
scapula
What makes up the pectoral gridle?
consists of clavicle and the scpaula
NAME
this consists of the clavicle and scapula
pectoral gridle
What is the glenoid cavity?
is the site of the articulation for head of the humerus
NAME
this is the site of the articulation point w the humerus
glenoid cavity
What is the acromion?
is the tip of the shoulder
NAME
this tip of the shoulder
acromion
What is the supraspinous fossia?
is a depression above the spine on the spine of the scapula
NAME
this is a depression above the spine on the scapula
supraspinous fossia
What is the infraspinous fossa?
is a depression inferior on the spine of the scapula
NAME
this is a depression inferior on the spine of the scapula
infraspinous fossa
What is the thickest part of the scapula bone?
head of the scapula
the head of the scapula is the (1)part of the bone
thickest
Where is the glenoid cavity located?
at the head of the scapula
NAME
this located at the head of the scapula
glenoid cavity
What are the parts of the arm? (6)
(1)humerus (2)radius (3)ulna (4)carpels (5)metacarpals (6)phalanges
NAME
this has four parts: humerus, radius, ulna, carpels, metacarapals, and phalanges
arm
What are the different features that make up the humerus? (14)
(1)greater tubercle (2)lesser tubercle (3)intertubercular groove (4)anatomical neck (5)shaft (6)deltoid tuberosity (7)condyle (8)trochela (9)coronoid fossa (10)oelcranon fossa (11)capitulum (12)radial fossa (13)radial groove (14)medial and lateral condyles
NAME
this has 14 different features, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, intertubecular groove, anatomical neck, shaft, deltoid tuberosity, condyle, trochela, coronoid fossa, olecranon fossa, capitulm, radial fossa, radial groove, and medial and late
humerus
What is the shaft?
the body of the bone
NAME
this is the body of the bone
shaft
What is the radial groove of the humerus?
is a marginal groove for the nerve
NAME,
in the humerus, this is a marginal groove for the nerv
humerus
What are the different features of the radius? (4)
(1)radial head (2)radial tuberosity (3)styloid process (4)ulnar notch
NAME
this has four main features: radial head, radial tuberosity, and styloid processs, and ulnar notch
radius
WHat is the largest bone in the upper limb?
the humerus
The humerus is the (1)bone is the upper limb
largest
the humerus is the largest bone in the (1)
upper limb
WHat does the word trochela mean?
pulley
What is the trochlea?
this means pully and is the articulation site for the ulna
NAME
this means pully and is the articulation site for the ulna
trochela
What does the humerus articulate w? (2)
(1)the scapula (2)the radius and ulna
NAME
this articulates w the scapula and the radius and ulna
the humerus
Where does the humerus articulate w the scapula?
at the glenohumeral joint
NAME
this articulates w the scapula at the glenohumeral joint
the humerus
Where does the humerus articulate w the ulna and radius?
at the elbow joint
NAME
this articulates w the ulna and the radius at the elbow joint
humerus
What are the condyles of the humerus? (4)
refers to the distal end of the humerus including (1)trochlea, (2)capitulum (3)olecranon (4)coronoid (5)radial fossae
NAME
this refers to the distal end of the humerus including the trochlea, capitulum, olecranon, coronoid, and radial fossae
condyles of the humerus
WHat does capitulum mean?
"little head"
NAME
this means "little head"
capitulum
Ehat are the articular surfaces of the condyle of the humerus?(2)
(1)captiulum (2)trochlea
NAME
this has two articualar processes: captiulm and trochlea
condyle of the humerus
WHat does the coronoid fossa do?
it accomondates the coronoid process of the ulnaduring the extension of the elbow
NAME
this recieves the coronoid process of the ulna during the full flexion of the elbow
coronoid fossa
What does the olecranon fossa do?
accomates the olecranon of the ulna during extension of the elbow
NAME
this accomadtes the olecranon of the ulna during extension of the elbow
olecranon fossa
What does the radial fossa do?
accommodate the edge of the head of the radius when the elbow is fully flexed
NAME
this accomadtes the edge of the head of the radius when the elbow is fully flexed
radial fossa
NAME
this is the stabilzing bone of the forarm
ulna
What is the stablizing bone of the forearm?
ulna
What is the ulna?
is the stablizing bone of the forearm
Where is the ulna located?
is the medial and longer of the 2 forearm bones
NAME
this is the medial and longer of the 2 forearm bones
ulna
T or F
the ulna does reach and particapte in the wrist joint
false
Does the ulna reach and praticpate in the wrist joint?
no
Where is the radius located?
is the lateral and shorter of the 2 forearm bones
nAME
this is the lateral and shorter of the 2 forearm bones
radius
How do you tell the differ btwn the ulna and the raidus?(2)
(1)ulna-is the medial and longer of the 2 forearm bones (2)radius-is the lateral and shorter of the 2 forearm bones
What are the different features of the ulna? (6)
(1)olecranon process (2)trachlear notch (3)coronoid process (4)radial notch (5)ulnar head (6)styliod process
NAME
some features of this bone are the olecranon process, trachlear notch, coronoid process, radial notch, ulnar head, and styloid process
ulna
What is the trochlear notch of the ulna?
articualtes w the trochlea of the humerus
NAME
in the ulna, this articulates w the trochlea of the humerus
trochlear notch
NAME
this type of fracture normal results from a minor fall on the hand w the force being transmiteed
fractures of the surgical neck of the humerus
What usally causes fracutres of the sugrical neck of the humerus?
results from a minor fall on the hand w force being transmited
WHat usally causes tranverse fractures of the shaft of the humerus?
from a direct blow to the arm
NAME
this type of fracture usally results from a direct blow to the arm
tranverse fractures of the shaft of the humerus
T or F
bc nerves are in contact w the humerus, a fracture in the humerus may damage the nerves
true
How many bones does the carpus have?
8
What is a easy way to remember the bones in the carpus and the order they are in the wrist?
Some Lovers Try Positions That they cant handle

From the thum side: (Starting at bottom then up)
S=Scaphoid
L=lunate
T-triqutrum
P=pisiform
T=Trapezium
T=trapezoid
C=capiatate
H=harnate
Describe what the carpals look like
2 rows of 4 bones each
NAME
this has 2 rows of 4 bones each
carpals
Fractures of the (1)and (2)bone are the result of serious injury
ulna and radius
Fractures of the ulna and the radius are the result of (1)
serious injury
What is the most common fracture in people older than 50 yrs old?
fracture of the distal end of the radius
Fracture of the distal end of the radius is the most (1)fracture of people older than 50
common
NAME
this is the most common fracture in people older than 50 years old
fracture of the distal end of the radius
What is the most common fracture of the forearm?
Colles fracture
NAME
this is the most common fracture of the forearm
colles fracture
Colles fracture is the most common fracture of the (1)
forearm
What is Colles fracture?
is a complete fracture of the distal 2 cm of the radius
NAME
this is a complete fracture of the distal 2 cm of the radius
Colles fracture
What does cominuted mean?
broken into pieces
nAME
this means broken into pieces
cominuted
What does avulsed mean?
broken off
NAME
this means broken off
avulsed
(1)is often refered to as the dinner fork deformity
Colles fracture
The Colles fracture is often refered to as the (1)
dinner fork deformity
What usally causes a Colles fracture?
from forced dorsiflexion of the hand
NAME
this type of fracture usally results from forced dorsiflexion of the hand
Colles fracture
What usalyl causes fractures of the scaphoid?
from a fall on the palm with the hand abducted
NAME
this type of fracture usally results from a fall on the palm w the hand abducted
fracture of the scaphoid
Why do the union of fractured parts of the scaphoid take so long to heal?
bc of the poor blood supply
The union of fractured parts of the scaphoid take a (1)time to heal
long
T orF
the union of the fractured parts of the scaphoid take a short time to heal
false
What is the thickest metacarpal bone?
the 1st metacarpal
The 1st metacarapal is the (1)of the metacarpal bones
thickest
Describe what the metacarapls are like?
there are 5 numbered from thumb side
nAME
There are 5 hand bones numbered from the thumb side
metacarpals
How many phalanges are there?
(1)2 in the thumb (2)3 in all others --numbered from thumb side as proximal, middle, and distal
NAME
there are 2 finger bones in the thumb and 3 in all others---and are numbered from thumb side as proximal, middle, and distal
phalanges
What is unique about each indivudal phalanx? (3)
they all have (1)a base (2)shaft (3)head
NAME
each one of these bones has a a base, shaft, and head
phalanges
The subclavian artery gives off to form the (1)
thycocerival trunk
The (1)artery gives off to form the thycoverical trunk
subclavian artery
What is the thyrocervical trunk?
Think of "cervical"and where the vertebrae is located (aka the neck).

supplies the neck, and shoulders w blood
nAME
this supplies the neck and shoulders w blood
thyrocervical trunk
What is the axiallary artery?
supplies the chest and shoulder w blood
NAME
this supplies the chest and shoulder w blood
axiallary artery
What is the brachial artery?
supplies the upper arm
NAME
this supplies the upper arm and becomes the radial and ulnar arteries
brachial artery
What are the radial and ulnar arteries?
supply the lower arm and anastomose
nAME
these supply the lower arm and anstomose to form the palamar arches
radial and ulnar arches
What are the palamar arches?
supply the digital arteries w blood
nAME
these supply the digital arteries w blood
palamar arches
Describe blood flow from the arms to the tips of the fingers going away from the heart? (6)
starts w the (1)subclavian artery which gives off to the (2)thyrocervical trunk (3)axiallary artery (4)brachial artery (5)radial and ulnar arteries (6)palmar arches
Deep to the skin in the upper limb is (1)
subctuaneous tissue
Subcutaneous tissue is also called (1)
superficial fascia
(1)is also called superficial fascia
subcutaneous tissue
What is the pectoral fascia?
invests the pectoralis major and is continuous inferiorly w the fascia of the anterior abdominal wall
NAME
this invests the pectoralis major and is continous inferiorly w the fascia of the anterior abdominal wall
pectoral fascia
What is axillary fascia?
forms the floor of the armput (axilla)
NAME
forms the floor of the axilla
axiallary fascia
What is clavipectoral fascia?
encloses the subclavius and the pectoralis minor
NAME
this encloses the subclavis and the pectoralis minor
clavipectoral fascia
What is the costocoracoid membrane?
contains the pectoral nerve
NAME
this contains the pectoral nerve
costocoracoid membrane
What is the deltoid fascia?
invests the deltoid and is continuous w the pectoral fascia
NAME
invests the deltoid and is continous w the pectoral fascia
deltoid fascia
What is the brachial fascia?
is sheath of deep fascia that encloses the arm like a snug sleeve
NAME
this is sheath of deep fascia that encloses the arm like a snug sleeve
brachial fascia
the anterior fascial compartments can be also called (1)
flexor
the (1)fascial compartment can be also called flexor
anterior
The posterior fascial compartment can also be called (1)
extensor
the (1)fascial compartment can also be called the extensor
posterior
WHat is the antebrachial fascia?
are fascial compartments that surround the foreaerm
NAME
these are fascial compartments that surround the forearm
antebrachial fascia
What is the extensor retinaculum?
holds the extensor tendons in postion
NAME
this holds the extensor tendons in postion
extensor tendons in postion
the (1)divides the forearm into anterior and posterior fascial compartments
medial and lateral intermuscular septa
The medial and lateral intermuscular septa divides the forearm into (1)
anterior and posterior fascial compartments
NAME
these nerves supply the skin of the upper limb
cutaneous nerves in the subcutaneous tissue
what do cutaneous nerves supply?
the skin in the upper limb
The cutaneous nerves supply the (1)
skin in the upper limb
What does C3 and C4 supply?
the region at the base of the neck, extending over the shoulder
NAME
these nerves supply the region at the base of the neck, extending over the shoulder
C3 and C4
WHat do the C5 nerve supply?
the arm laterally
nAME
this nerve supplies the arm laterally
C5
What does the nerve C6 supply? (2)
the forearm laterally (2)the thumb
NAME
this nerves supply the forearm laterally and the thumb
C6
What does the nerve C7 supply? (2)
supplies the (1)middle finger (2)ring fingers (3)the middle posterior surface of the limbs
NAME
this nerve supplies the middle finger, ring fingers, and the middle posterior surface of the limbs
C7
What does the C8 supply? (3)
the little finger (2)the medial side of the hand (3)the forearm
NAME
this nerve supplies the little finger, the medial side of the hand, and the forearm
C8
What does the T1 supply?
the middle of the forearm to the axilla
NAME
this nerves supplies the middle of the forearm to the axilla
T1
What does the T2 supply?
(1)a small part of the arm (2)the skin of the axilla
NAME
this nerve supplies a small part of the arm and the skin of the axilla
T2
Where do most cutaneous nerves of the upper limb come from?
the brachial plexus
NAME
most of these type of nerves come from the brachial plexus
cutaneous nerves of the upper limb
most cutaneous nerves of the upper limb are derived from the (1)
brachial plexus
The cutaneous nerves of the shoulder are derived from the (1)
cervical plexus
NAME
these type of nerves are come from the cervical plexus
cutaneous nerves of the shoulders
Most of the cutaneous nerves of the (1)are derived from the cervical plexus
shoulder
Most of the cutaneous types of the shoulder are derived from the (1)
cervical plexus
What is the cervical plexus?
is a nerve network consisting of a series of nerve loops formed btwn the anterior rami of the first 4 cervical nerves
NAME
this is a nerve network consisting of a series of nerve loops formed btwn the anterior rami of the first 4 cervical nerves
cervical plexus
What nerves make up the suparclavicular nerve? (2)
C3 (2)C4
NAME
these are nerves are C3 and C4
supraclavicular nerves
What do the supraclavicular nerves supply?
the skin over the clavicle and the pectoralis major
NAME
these nerves supply the skin over the clavicle and the pectoralis major
supraclavicular nerves
What are the nerves that make up the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm? (2)
(1)C5(2)C6(3)C7(4)C8
NAME
these nerves include C5,C6, C7, and C8
the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm
What do the posterior cutaneous nerves of the arm supply?
the skin on the posterior surface of the arm
NAME
these nerves supply the posterior surface of the arm
posterior cutaneous nerves of the arm
What are the nerves the make up the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm? (
(1)C5(2)C6(3)C7(4)C8
NAME
these nerves include C5,C6,C7,and C8
posterior cutaneous nerves of the forearm
What ares does the posterior cutaneous nerves of the forearm supply?
supplies the skin on the posterior surface of the forearm
NAME
these nerves supply the skin on the posterior surface of the forearm
posterior cutaneous nerves of the forearm supply
What are the different types of nerves that make up the superior lateral cutaneous nerves of the arm? (2)
(1)C5 (2)C6
NAME
these nerves includes C5 and C6 (2)
superior lateral cutaneous nerves of the arm or (2)the inferior lateral cutaneous nerves of the arm

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