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Glossary of Government Chapter 19 & 20

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Qualities of the Constitution
1. provides a basic framework for govt

2. leaves details to be imposed by statutory law

3. makes direct grants of authority to specific institution

4. provides a means for orderly change in and of govt

5. should be restrictive, requiring continual modifications to meet contemporary requirements







statutory law
law enacted by legislative body

constitution
document setting the legal framework for a political system, establishing governmental bodies and defining their power
TX constituitions
1. one of the most difficult- 90,000

constitution of 1872- coahuila y tejas
1. tx was part of mx

2. laws were in spanish; anglo-tx were not subject to all laws

3. catholicism was the state religion

4. unicameral congress

5. 12 deputies- 2 from tx

6. governor and vice governor

7. increase of anglo immigration; concept of westward expansion, mx decided to be more restrictive with laws











the constitution of the republic of texas- 1836
1. republic constitution

2. came out of conflict

3. bicameral congress

4. slaver was legal; no importation of outside slavery

5. no official religion

6. elected president









federalism
constitutional arrangement in which power is formally divided between national and subnational governments
republic of texas
the period during which texas was an independent natoin
constitution of 1845
tx joins union; 28th state

bicameral congress; meet every 2 years

could be divided into as many as 5 states

governor and lieutenant governor; elected; appointed secretary of state and attorney general with senate confirmation





civil war constitution-1861
tx secedes from the union

civil war constitution

pledge allegiance to the confederate by public officials

slavery was legal

greater protection given to slavery

2 party system destroyed over issues of slavery/secession









secession
withdrawal from the union
confederacy
a national government created by states that relies on the states for its authority
constitution of 1866
tx rejoins the union

tx has a provisional govt and a military govt to reintegrate rebel states into the union

slavery abolished

repudiation of the secession ordinance of 1861

repudiation of the debt from the confederacy







radical reconstructionists
the group of republicans who took control of the U.S. congress in 1866 and imposed military governments on the former confederate states after the civil war
reconstruction constitution-1869
tx adds to the 1866 to further comply with the union

uses the constitution of 1845 as a model

local govt was weakened, more powers to the state

governor serves 4 terms

elected president

governor allowed to appoint officials including the judiciary

centralized statewide educational system

slaves receive the right to vote

legislative meet annually

















grange
organization formed int eh late nineteenth century to improve the lot of farms; limited taxes, govt spending, restricted big business like banks and railroads in the tx constitution 1876
complete overhaul of constitution
make into what is desired; make it modern

time consuming

who will be in charge of the rewrite; conflict of interest





limited govt
constitutional principle restricting govtal authority and spelling out personal rights
decentralization
proposed reform for govt agencies intended to increase efficiency in administration and create closer contacts with the local public; permits regional and local offices to manage their own performances without close supervision form headquarters
initiative
procedure by which voters propose constitutional amendments or other laws through petitions subject to adoption by a popular vote
referendum
vote by the general electorate on a public policy issue, such as a constitutional amendment or statute
right to work law
law prohibiting the requirement that a person join a union in order to hold or get a job
deregulation
a lessening of govt control over the actions of business and industry
urban
area in and around major cities
myth of origin
a commonly accepted, traditional story of how texas came to be
individualism
attitude, rooted in classical liberal theory and reinforced by the frontier traditions that citizens are capable of taking care of themselves with minimal govtal assistance
urbanization
process by which a predominately rural society or area becomes urban
population density
number of residents living within the boundaries of a city, county, or state in relationship to the land area; a significant factor in determining the level of local public services
high tech
new tech based on scientific research
bio tech
producing vaccine/medicine and genetic engineering
ramifications of population
increase of hispanic culture

economic; job loss, demand for more goods, spending more money

social; ride in catholicism; assimilation of cultures; education

political; immigrants cannot vote, certain elites are in charge, voting is not a high priority because of coming from corrupt govt





houston
ports (2nd largest), NASA
upper rio grande
agriculture

manufacturing

metroplex
financial

business

high plains
agriculture
south tx border
poorest counties in tx

high unemployment

large hispanic population

agriculture

livestock

food processing plants









individualistic subculture
govt should interfere in private activities as little as possible but make public accommodations

ex: only basic needs programs

moralistic subculture
it is the govt duty to provide for the welfare of its citizens

ex: church, bible belt, charity

traditionalistic subculture
govt should be ran by few elites

public influence is limited

ex: tx board of education



why increase
birth rate

migration/immigration

culture

large families

religion

seeking jobs because of economy

education

tx geography

large companies















hispanics
latin america

spain

tx originally part of mx

near tx/mx border





asian americans
railroads brought asians to the U.S.

1% increase each decade

political refugees

changing in immigration policy





political culture
a set of attitudes and sentiments that give order to the political process

beliefs of how the public thinks govt should run; more state rights; tx thinks they can secede; less govt

native americans
once had 23 tribes

now only 3; tigua, kickapoo, alabama-coushatta

trail of tears



trail of tears
many native americans were kicked off their land and they perished as a result from diseases
demographics
population characteristics
african americans
brought by slavery to cultivate cotton

live predominately in urban areas

tx population % close to national %



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