Glossary of Geog 120 - Exam 2

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Middle American Realm- 3 themes of regional character
1) culture contact between near-equals (Europeans and existing pop)
2) first look at tropics- closer to equator
3) balance and imbalance btwn 3 regions w/in realm
2 culture hearths in western hemisphere
1) Meso-America
2) Andean area
2 results of presence of Aztec and Mayan societies:
1) European (Spanish) imprint more obviously mixed w/indigenous cultures
2) some middle american cultures are very diff. from Spanish culture, while having Spanish characteristics
the tropics (in middle america) means:
moving out of temperate altitude, constantly warm season, area w/o cold season
tropic lines indicate:
greates poleward latitude reached by sun's direct radiation
lack of cold season in tropics implies:
1)seasons occur by precip change rather than temp change
2)diff in temp are fxn of altitude, not latitude
altitudinal zonation
living in lowlands or highlands, or somewhere in between determines what kind of agriculture is possible (tierra nevada, helada, fria, templada, caliente)
Caribbean area differs from rest of Middle America in 3 ways:
1) climate
2) agricult activities (crops and their organization)
3) colonial history
The Rimland is:
-fragmented physically
-culturally diverse thru its colonial past
-generally lowland (Caliente)
-plantation agriculture
Mainland is:
-contiguous land along isthmus btwn N & S. America
-culturally dominated by a Spanish-Amerindian mix (indigenous)
-generally temperate and highland (Templda & Fria)
-haciendo and ranchero agriculture
characteristics of plantation (rimland)
1)production for export (specialized; often 1 crop)
2)foreign ownership of production (investment in; profit out)
3)labor is seasonal (periods each yr w/no work)
4)location is humid tropical (caliente) - most complementary to Europe's markets
5)with profit as goal, operation strives for efficiency
characteristics of hacienda (mainland)
1)self-sufficiency (not specialized)
2)resident ownership (minimal investment)
3)resident labor (yr-round dependency; tenancy)
4)temperate location-templada (similar to Spain's plateau estates)
5)goal: comfort and security (efficiency-not a priority)
inequalities in hacienda system eventually led to (3 things):
1)rural-urban migration
2)migration to US for work
3)maquiladora labor
3 regions of Middle America
2)Central America
3)Caribbean Islands
1) only to share land border w/US in this realm
2) spanish-speaking America's largest pop
3) isthmus to the south is both bridge and divider
Mexico City
is a primate city; in tierra templada region in valley of mexico; near Aztec ctr of Tenochtitlan; built on old lakebed; 2 problems: site of volcanoes/earthquakes and location in broad basin/valley + pop. size (causing air poll.)
Mexico's biggest resource
oil and gas
how is British and Spanish imprint distributed in Central America?
British-influenced coastal area
What sets Central America apart from rest of region?
Panama Canal across isthmus of Panama joining Atlantic and Pacific
Greater Antilles
Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti; Dominican Republic)
Lesser Antilles
tops of a volcanic chain; archipelago islands
Location brings advantages to Caribbean in 3 ways:
1)spacial complimentarity w/higher income: warm weather- lack winters
2)proximity- nearby, cheaper to come down in winter
3)offshore banking centers (sometimes used for illegal revenues like drug money)
South American realm dominated by 3 areas:
1)Andean Mtns (on pacific side)
2)Amazon Basin
3)Brazilian Highlands
S. America grouped into 4 culture/political regions:
2)North -assoc. w/Caribb.
3)West -assoc. w/mixed pop.
4)South -outside tropics
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Earth divided into clonial spheres along 50 W longitude; spanish had west of line, portuguese east of line; cut across S. America
Non-Iberian countries that formed colonies in Northern S. America
Great Britain; Netherlands; France
Brazil's distinctive features
-large area of indigenous ppl
-has signif African cultures heritage
-2 of S. America's 3 physiographic regions (no Andes)
Why did Portuguese first penetrate Brazil's NE?
-b/c of Treaty of Tordesillas
-became resupply ctr; close to Africa's coast where Portuguese used to sail
-environmentally, Brazil's NE unusual b/c of tierra caliente coast, surprisingly dry season (Aw climate)-tropical savanna; dry winter
-coastal cities sea-oriented for slavery,whaling, export
Amazon Basin
-Brazilian govt encourages settlement in Amazon; major road construction here improves accessibility away from rivers but causes loss of biodiversity and biomass
-indig ppl living here affected negatively
Rio de Janeiro
-magnif. harbor
-grew as Brazil's national capital for years; cultural ctr, an dtourist destination
-but also have favelas (slums)
Sao Paulo
grew b/c of agricultural processing, manufacturing, financial services
Brazil's agriculture based on 4 main products:
coffee, soybeans, oranges, tobacco
Brazil's SE
-became indust. heartland b/c of rich minerals in Belo Horizonte
-when became too populated, govt began program in 50s to move pop away into interior
Attempt to move Brazil's population away from SE into interior by:
-in 1960s, moving capital from Rio de Janeiro 600+ miles interior to Brasilia (became a forward capital)
Brazil's population flow trend:
1)Portuguese came into NE Brazil
2)some moved to SE Brazil
3)then move to "empty" frontier (b/c of forward capital)
S. America's North includes:
2 former Spanish colonies
1 former British colony
1 former Dutch colony
1 current French colony
S. America's North like Caribbean b/c:
1)European scramble for colonies
2)early plantation development
3)early intro of African labor
-Caracas as polit and cult ctr
-In NW, geologic structure "cups" Lake Maracaibo where oil was discovered (more than 90% of Venezuela's export earnings)
-affected by Andes range
-capitals of each region cut off from others causes regional loyalties stronger than natl. loyalties
-drug trade amplifies instability
Colombia's urban structure of capitals:
-Bogota: polit, cult, transport. ctr
-Cali: agricult: sugar, coca
-Medellin: agricult: coffe
-Barranquilla: import-export
S. America's West has 4 states:
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay
S. America's West shares 5 main characteristics:
1)less productive economies
2)low per capita incomes; most of pop is poor
3)low urbanization
4)at least 1/2 of pop. is Indian
5)are continent's only land-locked states
Characteristics of Andes Mtns
-wet in north, dry in south
-most ppl in Ecuador and Peru live in highlands
-widens in Peru and Bolivia ("elbow")
high flat plateu; where much of Indian pop of Peru and Bolivia live b/c is good for pasture and mining and echoes pre-Colombian times (Incas lived here)
Drug trade caused by:
1)regional isolation
2)lack of integration w/rest of state
3) poor, rural largely Indian pop
4)loss of work in tin mines
5)widespread shrub natl to area
6)large and growing demand from large wealthy pop for illegal product of plant (coca)
"balloon effect" of drug trade
-Bolivian and Peruvian drug sources eliminated --> moved to Colombia --> eliminated in Colombia --> moved back to Peru/Bolivia
3 countries of S. America's Southern Cone
Chile, Uruguay, Argentina
3 characteristics of S. America's Southern Cone
1)more than 90% European and mestizo
2)"European" economy (commercial, relatively high income..)
3)outside tropics-latitude and altitude both matter (climates = dry, temperate)
3 themes of Subsaharn Africa Realm
1)role of physical setting
2)colonial impacts
3)post-colonial challenges
Africa's unique features
1)continental outline - no major indentations/peninsulas
2)very small coastal plain
3)many escarpments in S. Africa; is a plateau-higher in southern end
4)river patterns: major rivers flow off the plateau
5)immense basins- once filled w/water
6)almost no folded mtns
7)The Great Rift Valley
Effects of Africa's unusual features:
1)narrow coastal plains
2)few natl. harbors- most artificial
3)mvmt via river routes
4)hydroelectric potential
5)metallic minerals potential
Africa's unusual climate pattern b/c:
1)equatorial location
2)seasonal shifts
3)resulting sequence from equator (rainforest -> savanna -> steppe -> desert -> temperate
pre-colonial African states successful b/c:
1)complementarity: E-W and N-S comp.; metallic minerals (gold); located btwn desert and mtns-surrounded by rivers and forests
2)stimulus of Islam: presence in lands in North
Europe viewed Africa as problem b/c:
1)lack of harbors
2)narrow coastal plain
4)ignorance of Europeans
5)resistance by Africans
Different colonial models for controlling Africa by 4 main powers
1) Great Britain: "indirect rule"- brits oversea and assign lower level assignments to locals
2) France: "direct rule"- everything becomes French
3) Belgium: "paternalism"- Africans are kids that need to be educated
4) Portugal: "assimilation"- more active than French; believed Portuguese = best.
Impacts of colonial experience on Africa:
1)imposed boundaries: divided people/groups- mismatched polit and ethnic boundaries-created for frivolous reasons
2)state identity problems
3)regional fragmentation
4)national economies oriented to colonial purposes
Africa's 3 post-colonial challenges
1)econ. development
3)polit. issues
Africa's post-colonial challenges of econ. development: (3)
1) reorientation of trade
2) restructuring of natl. economies (going from cash crop to balanced agric; export to growth; primary sector to 2ndary sector; no middle class to large middle class)
3)build on resource strength (metallic minerals; oil/gas)
Challenges of pop/health in Africa:
1)health/nutrition related to per capita income (has 20/23 lowest income countries in world)
2)also related to Africa's location on Earth (btwn tropics)
Challenges of political issues in Africa caused by inter-group disputes (3 types):
1)cross-boundary issues (Uganda and Sudan; Rwanda and the Congo)
2)within-state dominance (Rwanda and Burundi; Sudan and Darfur)
3)irredentism -majority of 1 country helping minority in another (Somalia and Ethiopia)
Challenges of state identity in Africa reflected in:
Nigeria (2 ways to solve it)
1)formed new administrative units
2)moving capital from Lagos to Abuja (compromise capital)
2 main themes of N. Africa/SW Asia Realm
1)absolute importance of resources in realm
2)realm's geog. fxn as "crossroads"
near-absolute deficiency of 3 main things in realm:
1)water; 2)wood; 3)metallic minerals; some water below surface-but can't be replenished if taken from underground; puts more pressure on other resources
Middle East experiencing "water stress" which is:
min. amt of clean water per capita necessary to support public health and development
Middle East has great abundance of:
petroleum (oil) and natural gas (few countries have abundance of both oil and water -except Iraq)
Middle East's crossroads fxn:
1)"confusion of cultures"
2)diffusion source (of 3 of world's major religions)
3)role as global pivot
Middle East's confusion of cultures has 3 patterns:
1)spatial patterns- bordered by 5 other realms; cultures carried into and thru realm
2)temporal patterns- culture moves from place to place over time
3)intra-category patterns
2 types of expansion diffusion:
1)contagious diffusion- spreads by personal contact like illnes (ex: language, religion)
2)hierarchical diffusion- affecting top of hierarchy allows easy diffusion to smaller places
language diffusion tells us:
where ppl came from; where ideas originated; all indo-european langs may have originated and spread from SW Asia; lang diffusion suggest timing and pattern of culture spread
2 culture hearths of Middle East
1)Mesopotamia (around Tigris/Euphrates Rivers)
2)Nile Valley
Middle East is a global pivot b/c:
Islam/Judaism/Christianity all consider the same place in this region to be sacred

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