Glossary of Geo Midterm - Michael 1

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Millennium Development Goals
1. Eradicate Poverty and Hunger; 2. Education 3. Gender Equality; 4. Reduce Child Mortality; 5. Maternal Health; 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; 7. Environmental Sustainability; 8. Global Partnership for Development.
Head Count Index
the proportion of total population below some given poverty line.
Gross Domestic Product
total national output.
Gross National Product
Resident output plus output of entities that are in other countries.
any way that people measure poverty, prosperity, education, etc; GDP, GNP, literacy rates, poverty (people living on less than $1/day), hunger (underweight children under age 5), employment (employment-to-population ratio).
Purchasing Power Parity
indicator of development in relation to another country; adds to the GDP as an indicator.
Gini coefficient
a measure of how equal or unequal wealth distribution is; 1= perfectly unequal, one person owns everything; 0=perfectly equal, everybody is equally wealthy.
Chronic Poverty (Report)
measured poverty depth (distance below poverty line), duration (can people get out of poverty?), and breadth (how do different people experience different kinds of poverty?).
Corruption Index (Transparency International)
measures how corrupt a country is based on bribery, patronage politics, education for people, allyship and political agreements.
World Trade Organization; an international organization that exists to liberalize international trade.
World Bank
provides leveraged loans to developing countries.
Gender empowerment measure
percent of women and men represented in government; women vs. men in terms of income, job/career type; measure of education of women.
Modernization Theory
Rostow; society, preconditions, takeoff, drive to maturity, age of high mass consumption, beyond mass consumption, utopia?
Human Poverty Index
measures poverty levels based on mortality rates, life expectancy at birth, income per capita, and homelessness.
frames, measures, discursive meanings; knowledge is power: regimes of truth; power through discourses, institutions, and culture; governmentality: presenting discourses to manipulate opinions.
Foucault; the sum of many discourses and institutions has a governmental effect on people.
Transformationalist theory
globalization is real; new forms of government are needed; David Held.

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