Glossary of Genetics Problems
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- Where is DNA found?
- In the nucleus
- Where is tRNA found?
- In the cytoplasm
- Where is mRNA found?
- Both in nucleus and cytoplasm
- Gene =
- Part of a DNA molecule that codes for a specific trait
- Probability =
- The mathematical chance that an event will occur
- What is the probability of rolling a 6 on a dice?
- What is the probability of rolling a 3 on a dice?
- What is the probability of rolling a 3 or a 6?
- 1/3 (1/6 + 1/6 - add probability of each event)
- Alleles =
- The different forms of a gene. Alleles occupy the position on chromosomes.
- Dominant trait =
- A trait expressed preferentially over another trait. Capital Letter
- Recessive trait.
- The opposite of dominant. A trait that is masked if paired with dominant gene. Lower case letter
- Heterozygous =
- Differing alleles for a trait in an individual, such as Yy.
- Homozygous =
- Both alleles for a trait are the same in an individual. They can be homozygous dominant (YY), or homozygous recessive (yy).
- Hybrid =
- heterozygous; Yy
- Genotype =
- The genetic makeup of an organism for a trait. Yy
- Phenotype =
- The physical appearance of an organism with respect to a trait, i.e. yellow (Y) or green (y) seeds in garden peas.
- TT Tt tt – which are homozygous?
- TT tt
- TT Tt tt – which are heterozygous?
- TT Tt tt -Which genotypes will express the dominant trait?
- TT Tt
- TT Tt tt – Which genotypes will express the recessive trait?
- TT Tt tt – which is hybrid?
- Is brown hair a genotype or phenotype?
- Is Bb a genotype or phenotype?
- Autosomal Gene or Trait =
- Trait on on any chromosome but a sex chromosome. Not sex-linked.
- Co-dominant alleles =
- Two different alleles are responsible for different phenotypes, and both alleles affect the phenotype of the heterozygote. Example: Blood Types
- F1 generation =
- Offspring of a cross between true breeding plants (P generation), homozygous for the trait
- F2 generation =
- Offspring of a cross involving the F1 generation.
- Incomplete dominance =
- Intermediate phenotype, get blended appearance in hybrids. Red flowers x white flowers = pink flowers
- Mendel's law of independent assortment of alleles =
- Alleles of different genes are assorted independently of one another during the formation of gametes.
- Mendel's law of segregation
- Alleles segregate from one another during the formation of gametes.
- Mutation =
- Change in the DNA sequence of a gene
- Sex chromosomes =
- Pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of the off-spring.
- sex-linked gene or trait =
- A gene coded on a sex chromosome, such as the X-chromosome linked genes of flies and man.
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