Glossary of Genetics Problems

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Where is DNA found?
In the nucleus
Where is tRNA found?
In the cytoplasm
Where is mRNA found?
Both in nucleus and cytoplasm
Gene =
Part of a DNA molecule that codes for a specific trait
Probability =
The mathematical chance that an event will occur
What is the probability of rolling a 6 on a dice?
What is the probability of rolling a 3 on a dice?
What is the probability of rolling a 3 or a 6?
1/3 (1/6 + 1/6 - add probability of each event)
Alleles =
The different forms of a gene. Alleles occupy the position on chromosomes.
Dominant trait =
A trait expressed preferentially over another trait. Capital Letter
Recessive trait.
The opposite of dominant. A trait that is masked if paired with dominant gene. Lower case letter
Heterozygous =
Differing alleles for a trait in an individual, such as Yy.
Homozygous =
Both alleles for a trait are the same in an individual. They can be homozygous dominant (YY), or homozygous recessive (yy).
Hybrid =
heterozygous; Yy
Genotype =
The genetic makeup of an organism for a trait. Yy
Phenotype =
The physical appearance of an organism with respect to a trait, i.e. yellow (Y) or green (y) seeds in garden peas.
TT Tt tt – which are homozygous?
TT tt
TT Tt tt – which are heterozygous?
TT Tt tt -Which genotypes will express the dominant trait?
TT Tt tt – Which genotypes will express the recessive trait?
TT Tt tt – which is hybrid?
Is brown hair a genotype or phenotype?
Is Bb a genotype or phenotype?
Autosomal Gene or Trait =
Trait on on any chromosome but a sex chromosome. Not sex-linked.
Co-dominant alleles =
Two different alleles are responsible for different phenotypes, and both alleles affect the phenotype of the heterozygote. Example: Blood Types
F1 generation =
Offspring of a cross between true breeding plants (P generation), homozygous for the trait
F2 generation =
Offspring of a cross involving the F1 generation.
Incomplete dominance =
Intermediate phenotype, get blended appearance in hybrids. Red flowers x white flowers = pink flowers
Mendel's law of independent assortment of alleles =
Alleles of different genes are assorted independently of one another during the formation of gametes.
Mendel's law of segregation
Alleles segregate from one another during the formation of gametes.
Mutation =
Change in the DNA sequence of a gene
Sex chromosomes =
Pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of the off-spring.
sex-linked gene or trait =
A gene coded on a sex chromosome, such as the X-chromosome linked genes of flies and man.

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