Glossary of GaGraduationTest-Science

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Grad Test Study: Do I need to know much about the metric system?
Try none
Grad Test Study: How do I read a question?
NOTE such words as 'BUT and IF and NEVER or NOT and IF and SOME
Grad Test Study: Prefix "omni~"

(Think of the Omni in Atlanta)
Grad Test Study: Prefix ''Sperm~''?
Anything "sperm" is male
Grad Test Study: Prefix ''cyto~''
Anything with the prefix "cyto" has to do with with cells
Grad Test Study: Prefix of ''Aero~''?
Oxygen using, as in aerobics
Grad Test Study: Prefix: '' trans~''?
Movement e.g., trans-portation
Grad Test Study: Prefix: ''Ova~''?
"Ova" anything is related to the female
Grad Test Study: Prefix: ''endo~''?

Opposite of ''ex'' as in ''exit''
Grad Test Study: Prefix: ''ex~'' ?
"Out of" e.g., exit (Opposite of the prefix ''endo")
Grad Test Study: Prefix: ''hyper~''?
Very active e.g., hyperactive
Grad Test Study: Prefix: ''hypo~'' ?
Grad Test Study: Prefix: ''trans~'' ?
Movement e.g., transportation
Grad Test Study: Terms used with these cards e.g.,
For example i.e., means "that is...."
Grad Test Study: Testing: Grad Test Tips
Know going in how to use what is given in your test booklet

for example the Periodic Table, formulas needed, and what do you remember where on previous tests The Grad Test changes little if at all each time it is given
Grad Test Study: Testing: How can I guess better?
Read each answer Then eliminate wrong answers, NOT trying just to pick the right answr
Grad Test Study: Testing: Multiple Choice Questions
You are given 4 possible answers, one of which has to be right! The more wrong answers you can find the better your chances of guessing right Answers with numbers will run from low to high, so when guessing start with the middle number to see if you are right or too low or not high enough
Grad Test Study: Will I be penalized for wrong answers?
Unlike with the SAT, no! Therefore, answer each qt There are NO trick questions on the Grd Test
Grad Test: Prefix: "Bio~"
Living e.g., biology
Atoms: Periodic Table

Elements can all be classified as metals, nonmetals, metalloids or noble gases depending on where they are located in the Periodic Table.


Metals make up the majority of the periodic table and are located on the left side. Hydrogen is the only exception. Although it is in the IA family, it is a gas at room temperature and not considered a metal. Most metal


Nonmetals are on the right side of the Periodic Ttable. Nonmetals are usually gases or dull, brittle solids at room temperature.


The Rows (aka Periods) of the of the Periodic Tables are arranged according to the atomic number of the elements

Atomic Number is the Number of Protons an Element has


The columns of the table are grouped by common properties into groups or families. Elements in the same family always have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.


The elements diagonally between the metals and the nonmetals are called metalloids. These elements have properties of both metals and nonmetals. Metalloids are used in computer chip applications and superconductors. Th
Atoms: Which is the smallest particle of sugar that still has all the properties of sugar?

NOTE: an Atom is smallest unit possible of an Element, while a molecule is the smallest unit possible of different Atoms making up a compound, e.g., water is H20: Hydrogen & Oxygen
Atoms: Atom's Nucleus?
'Heart'' of an Atom: Cluster of Protons (+) & Neutrons (NO charge)
Atoms: Atomic Mass?
AVERAGE # of Protons (+) & Neutrons an element has in its nucleus

Therefore, usually the number that is NOT a whole number on the Periodic Table in your test booklet
Atoms: Atomic Number?
Number of Protons (+) an element has -- First # shown on the Periodic Table in your test booklet

Proton # determines the location of the element in the Periodic Table
Atoms: I-so-tope?
An Element with a different # of neutrons SAME Element, BUT which acts slightly differently than the normal Element
Atoms: If an Element has 3 electrons, and the max # of electrons for the ''K'' ring is 2, where does the 3d electron go?
''L'' ring or cloud -- the cloud after the ''K'' ring
Atoms: Ion?
An Element with a DIFFERENT # of electrons -- Makes an Element act differently than normal -- BUT STILL THE SAME Element

For example a human will still be a human left or right handed
Atoms: Kinetic Molecular Theory?
Atoms and molecules are ALWAYS in motion -- The reason we CANNOT see this is because of the super smallness of it all
Atoms: Matter that cannot be further broken down into simpler substances is a(n)
Element or Atom
Atoms: Periodic Table's Noble Gases?
Like Neon These gases light up, but do NOT burn or react See the right side of the Periodic Table
Atoms: on the Periodic Table in your test booklet: the whole Number located in TOP-MIDDLE indicates?
The Atomic Number Number of Protons TIP: MUST be a whole number
Atoms: Periodic Table: Letter(s) in the middle of an Element indicates?
The abbreviation of the Element

NOTE: because some Elements begin with the same letter, one way around this is use the abbreviation for the word in Latin
Atoms: The ''K'' Electron Cloud's maximum # is how many?
Atoms: The 1st electron shell is what letter?
''K'' ring or cloud
Atoms: The main characteristic of the Elements at the bottom of the Periodic Table'?
"Fat, ''squashy,'' with electrons--very radioactive

NOTE in lower left corner of EACH Element the large # of electrons, thus these Elements are very radioactive the lower down you go on the table"
Atoms: What do the electron shells in the Electron Cloud Model represent?
Electrons circle (moon like) around the nucleus (earth like), BUT in random patterns WITHIN the circle the electron occupies -- thus, cloud like"
Atoms: What is the max # of electrons allowed in the ''L'' electron's ring or cloud?
Biology: A cow eats grass, storing what?
Biology: A word ending in ''-ase'' is probably what?
A protein
Biology: Bi-lateral Symmetry
one side of the body (or parts) mirrors the other e.g., your hands

NOTE: the "bi" prefix means 2
Biology: Charles Darwin?
Father of Evolution
Biology: Complex carbohydrates break down into what?
Biology: Complex Carbonhydrates break down into what?
Simple Sugars
Biology: Digestion starts in the mouth with the aid of what enzyme?
Biology: Doctor Lansteiner
Discovered Blood Typing
Biology: Herma-phro-dites
Male/Female in the same body

A she-male
Biology: Hyphae
Tubes making up the Hyphae (body) of the fungus
Biology: Labr-ium v. Lab-ium
With Insects: LaBRium: the UPPER Lip

LaBium: the BOTOOM Lip
Biology: Linneaus?
Father of Biology Classification System
Biology: Man-di-bles?
Jaws for crushing food
Biology: Maxillae
Two mouths used for holding food
Biology: Meta-mor-pho-sis
The insect going through these stages of reproduction: Egg ==> Larva ==> Pupa (Chry-sa-lis) ==> Adult
Biology: Miller and Urey?
First to make organic compounds from inorganic material (non-life Material, e.g., dirt)
Biology: My-ce-li-um
Fungus body
Biology: Nares
External openings to the Olfactory (smell) nerves on the Amphibia class (e.g., frogs)
Biology: Nema-to-cyst
What causes the stinging from a sting ray fish
Biology: Neph-ri-di-a?
Body organs located on the OUTSIDE of a worm
Biology: Non-vascular?
Lacking connective or supportive tissue e.g., the mosses
Biology: Noto-chord
Fish spine Uses: stability
Biology: Nymphs?
The stage of insect reproduction where the bug has the features of an adult but NOT much else Runs like this: Egg==>Nymph==>Adult
Biology: Order in classifying animal life?
Families of animals related in key areas
Biology: Os-tei-chthyes
Boney fish

Prefix "Osteo" indicates bones

Suffix "ichthys: fish
Biology: Ostia
a mouthlike opening in a body organ
Biology: Ovi-positor
a specialized organ (as of an insect) for depositing eggs
Biology: Pectorial Girdle
A bony structure supporting the front legs e.g., frogs
Biology: Pelvic Girdle
A bony structure supporting the hind legs e.g., frog group of animals
Biology: Pharynx
Where a mouth meets the Esophagus (food tube)
Biology: Pheromones
A chemical substance that is produced by an animal and serves especially as a stimulus to other individuals of the same species for one or more behavioral responses and with insects the death of the mate attracted
Biology: Photo-period
Light triggering the breeding urge in an animal
Biology: Placenta-ls
Animals whose babies develop inside of their mothers
Biology: Planaria
One of the flatworm types
Biology: Plankton?
Organisms floating on or near the surface of the ocean
Biology: Polyps
Tube-like lumps
Biology: Porifera
An invertebrate
Biology: Posterior
Back of or over
Biology: Pro-gest-e-rone
Female hormone
Biology: Pro-sto-mi-um
Small lip covering the mouth of a worm
Biology: Provides stability to the fish
Biology: Ptyalin
An enzyme in spit that will break down starch into simple sugars
Biology: Pupa
The stage of development when an insect forms a cacoon
Biology: Radial Symmetry
Body parts circle around a central area e.g., Hydra and Jelly Fish
Biology: Radula
Mollusks' teethy tongue
Biology: Sapro-phytes
Fungus -- Decompose matter they consume
Biology: Seminal Receptacles
Sack holding sperm
Biology: Sessile
Permanently attached or established : not free to move about
Biology: Setae
Bristle on a worm to help movement
Biology: Symbiotic Relationship
2 organisms needing the other to survive
Biology: Taxonomy?
Classification of LIVING things
Biology: The Nematoda phylum include what type of worm?
Biology: The classification of non-living things is Tax-o-no-my?

Living things only
Biology: Tube Feet
Small suction organs on the underside of such animals as Starfish that are used for holding and moving
Biology: What Molecules are considered the building blocks of the cell?
Proteins They are like the letters of the alphabet you use to write a paragraph
Biology: What are the ''grasses of the sea''?
Algae & Protozoans e.g., like grass, they nourish animals (fish) that nourish us, and make oxygen
Biology: What is an easy way to control the intake of dangerous bacteria?
Hand washing
Biology: Zoology?
Animal study
Biology: an Open Circulatory System
Blood flow NOT contained within vessels e.g., insects
Blood's pH or Acidity?
7.5 -- Midway between Total Acid (0) & Not Acid (14)
Botany: Angio-sperms?
Plants with their seeds in a flower
Botany: Asexual Plant Reproduction?
One parent
Botany: Botany?
Plant study
Botany: Bry-o-phytes?
Simplest plant form
Botany: Conifers?
Cone-bearing plants
Botany: Cotyl-e-don
A seed leaf providing food for the plant embryo in the seed
Botany: Cuticles
The Waxy stuff covering leafs
Botany: De-cid-u-ous?
Yearly leaf loss
Botany: De-hydrated?
Water loss -- e.g., Wilting
Botany: Dicots
Flowering plants with two seed leaves
Botany: Diffusion?
Moving into e.g., to dye something
Botany: Flowering plants store their seed in what? Cones or Fruit
Botany: Germination?
Plant's form of ''birth'' Technically, a seed splits and a new plant sprouts
Botany: Mono-cots
Flowering plants with only one seed leaf
Botany: Nitrogen-fixing
How plants get Nitrogen from the air
Botany: Nodules
Part of a plant root that converts the Nitrogen in the air to a solid (Nitrates)
Botany: Parts of a Flowering Plant
The Flower==>Leafs==>Stem==>Seeds
Botany: Phloem
Part of the system plants use to move sugar from the leaves to the roots to be converted to starch
Botany: Photo-synthesis
The green of a plant using sunlight to convert into energy
Botany: Pis-til?
Plant female sexual organ
Botany: Plant Grafting is what type of plant reproduction?

NO parents

Skin grafting is the same concept
Botany: Plas-mol-ysis
Plant wilting
Botany: Plas-tids?
Part of plant cells dedicated to nourishment -- Animal cells do NOT have
Botany: Rhi-zoid?
Botany: Root Cap
End of a root
Botany: Root Hairs
Small hairs used for additional absorbion by the root
Botany: Roots do 3-things:

Take in nutrients
and store starches
Botany: Stamen?
Plant penis
Botany: Stomata
Tiny openings under leaves used for "breathing"
Botany: Stomata are found on the plant's what? Leaves or Flowers
Leaves -- (The microscopic pores found on the under-surface of leaves and on stems -- The stomata are important for the exchange of gases by diffusion between the outside air and intercellular spaces for respiration (breathing) and also for the evaporation
Botany: The Plant Kingdom is divided into two broad types...What are they?
Nonvascular (e.g., mosses) Vascular (which is divided down 2 more ways): Spore bearing plants (ferns) Seed bearing, which is farther divided down into Coniferss (having cones) and Flowering
Botany: Vascular Tissues
Tissue veins ==> Xy-lem and the Phloem
Botany: What are the 3-forms of Asexual reproduction?
From Spores Budding Binary Fission
Botany: What is the male sex organ in a plant?
Stamen (Pistil is the female sex organ in a plant)
Botany: What type of plant are tea and cotton?
Angiosperms -- Seeds are in fruit or hulls
Botany: What type of plant is a pine?
Botany: c.f., Deciduous & Evergreen Trees?
Latter CONSTANTLY are sheding & regrowing Year round -- Deciduous, yearly
Botany: c.f., Gym-no-sperm seeds vs. Angio-sperm
Former's seed has NO protection and is exposed
Cell: Secretion
Natural releases within a cell or organism
Cells Cy-to-Kinesis?
Cell divides in half in reproduction Mi-to-sis is the cell's nucleus (center) diving in half -- iI.e., Mitosis==>then Cy-to-ki-ne-sis = Reproduction
Cells: 2 basic differences between the cells of animal and plants?
Plant cells have cell walls (for structure) & plastids (for nutrition)
Cells: 2 examples of Nucleic Acid?
Cells: Basic parts of a cell?
Membrane (''hull'') Nucleus (''heart'') Organelles (organs--parts other than the nucleus) Cytoplasm (''goo'') where all the parts of a cell float Basic cells may NOT have a Nucleus or Organelles (organs)
Cells: Carbo-hydrates?
Nutrients (food) containing carbon
Cells: Cell Deivison relating to reproduction?
Cells: Cell Membrane?
The ''hull'' or covering of a cell Main material: lipids (fats)
Cells: Cell Pores?
These are a Cell's ''windows'' and ''doors'' to let food in and waste out
Cells: Cell Theory
(1) All living things are made of cells (2) All cells come from other living cells of the same kind
Cells: Cell?
Like a super small size submarine -- Self-contained -- Life--animal or plant--consist of zillions of these ''subs'' with their ''hulls'' made mainly of Lipids
Cells: Cy-to-plasm?
The goo inside of a cell -- Where a cell's parts float about
Cells: Cytosol?
Gel-like fluid that supports the Cell's Organelles or Cell Organs
Cells: En-do-plasmic Re-ti-cu-lum (ER)?
the ER Organelle (cell organ) is the Cell's ''transportation'' system to carry nurishments between other Organelles (Cell Organs)
Cells: Endo-cy-to-sis?
Cell taking nutrients INTO itself
Cells: Enzymes?
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in a life form
Cells: Ex-o-cy-to-sis?
Cell getting rid of waste -- NOTE: ''ex'' as in ''exit''
Cells: Flagella & cilia?
Whip-like things a cell uses for locomotion
Cells: Glucose?
A simple sugar made by the body from carbohydrates in food Glucose is the body's main source of energy
Cells: Gol-gi bodies (or Apparatus)?
This Organelle (a cell organ) is the cell's ''shipping'' dept: putting the finishing touches on proteins and lipids (fats) for the cell's use and then ''mailing'' or sending this to the right places in a cell for it to be used by other Organelle (i.e., cell's organs)
Cells: Hierarchy of cells?
Cell ==> Tissues (group of cells)==>form Organs==> 2 or more organs acting together ==> Organ system: Group of organs acting together
Cells: Hom-e-o-stasis?
Your relatively constant internal body environment
Cells: How does a Cell maintain Homeo-statis?
the NORMAL Fluid flow in and out of a cell
Cells: Hyper-tonic Solution?
Squeezing water out of a cell
Cells: Hypo-tonic Solution?
Swelling i.e., Water moving INTO a cell
Cells: Iso-tonic Solution?
Water is NEITHER moving into or out of a cell -- i.e., at rest
Cells: Lipid?

Lipids are the main material of a cell's ''hull'' or covering or membrane
Cells: Lys-o-somes?
Small sacks containing Enzymes to digest lipids (fats) and old molecules
Cells: Meiosis?
Cell Division relating to reproduction
Cells: Mi-to-sis?
Body Cell Division -- (Meiosis is Sexual Reproduction for this)
Cells: Mitosis vs. Meiosis?
Mi-to-sis is the division of NON-sex cells
Cells: Organ-elles?
the ''Organs'' of a cell
Cells: Os-mo-sis?
Water moving INTO a cell
Cells: Osmosis
The effortless movement of a solvent into and out of a cell to equalize the concentrations of solute on the two sides of the membrane of a cell
Cells: Plas-moly-sis
Shrinking of the cytoplasm away from the wall of a living cell due to outward osmotic flow of water
Cells: Protein?
Composed of ''building blocks'' or sub-units called amino acid Memory Tip: A protein is like a paragraph, composed of ''letters'' (e.g., amino acids)
Cells: Robert Hook
The word "cell" was named for him
Cells: The 2-basic types of cells?
(1) Pro-kar-y-ote (NO nucleus or center, thus these types of cells are very, very basic, e.g., bacteria) (2) Eu-kar-y-ote, e.g., YOUr cell type
Cells: The Cell's Mito-chon-dria?
A Cell's ''power plant''
Cells: Uni-Cellular?
One cell life
Cells: What are 2-methods of Passive Transport (i.e., ways to get stuff into and out of) in a Cell?
1) Diffusion, e.g., dying something (2) Osmosis: MovElement of water into and out of a cell NOTE: the cell just sits there, letting things slosh in/out"
Cells: What are 3 ways for Osmosis to work?
(1) Hypo-tonic Solution (more water into a cell) (2) Hyper-tonic Solution: More water out… (3) Iso-tonic Solution, balanced flow into and out"
Cells: What are the ''organs'' of a cell called as a group?
Organelles (Or-gan-el-les)
Cells: What are the 2-ways of for a Cell to have Active Transport of material into or out it?
Ex-o-cytosis or Endo-cytosis -- NOTE: Active Transport means the Cell is doing something, NOT just simply sitting there (Passive Transport)
Cells: What carries waste from the cell & helps excrete iT From the body?
Cells: What is the main ingredient of a cell?
Cells: When a sperm and an egg combine, what type of cell is formed?
Cells: c.f., Endo-cytosis and Ex-o-cytosis
The former is a cell taking in nutrients, while the latter is the cell getting rid of waste
Chemistry Catalyst
The addition of a catalyst to reactants will cause the reaction time between the reactants to speed up. At the end of the chemical change, the catalyst can be recovered without having been changed.
Chemistry: Base?
Not acid e.g., Milk of Magnesia Alkaline is another name for Base Opposite of an Acid
Chemistry: Chemical Formula?
a Group of Symbols showing the makeup of a molecule i.e., how two or more elements are working together
Chemistry: Compound?
A liquid or any material that does NOT have to be shaken or stirred before use, e.g., regular milk Mixtures will settle out over time, e.g., butter milk
Chemistry: Condensation Point?
Temp in which a gas becomes a liquid e.g., fog"
Chemistry: Covalent Bonds?
2 or more elements share electrons to create a more stable outer electron structure
Chemistry: Density indicates?
Whether something will float in water We float because we have Density
Chemistry: Dis-tillation?
Purifying liquid by boiling and then collecting the vapor, turning this into a liquid Used in making liquor
Chemistry: Fermentation?
Desired rottening, e.g., making beer
Chemistry: Give some Examples to show the differences betwen Physical v. Chemical Changes
(If you may need to expand this screen, do so upper right corner) PHYSICAL CHANGE: Melting ice Beating an egg Freezing water Stirring chocolate in milk Dissolving salt in water Bending wire CHEMICAL CHANGE: Souring milk Baking a cake Mixing baking soda and vinegar Burning a candle Rusting iron Making wine
Chemistry: Hetero-geneous Mixtures ?
Mixtures in which the composition is NOT uniform, (chunky), e.g., grabbing a handful of coins, NOT worrying about amount With a HOMO-geneous grab, you would Now you think of an example…
Chemistry: Homo-geneous Mixture?
(a.k.a., Solutions) Mixtures in which the composition is uniform -- e.g., the air, regular milk, Coke, grabbing a SPECIFIC AMOUNT of coins
Chemistry: How does a Mixture differ from a Pure Substance?
A mixture is a combination of Elements (I.e., Pure Substances)
Chemistry: How should I pick up a hot piece of glass?
Chemistry: Ionic Bonds?
Result of electrons from one Atom (Element) moving from one atom to another
Chemistry: Mixture
Compound: A liquid or any material that does NOT have to be shaken or stirred before use, e.g., regular milk

Mixtures will settle out over time, e.g., butter milk
Chemistry: Mixture?
A liquid or material that has to be shaken or stirred before use, e.g., butter milk
Chemistry: Nitrates
Nitrogen related
Chemistry: Solute?
What is added to a Solvent If salt (Solute) is mixed with water (Solvent), then you have a SOLUTION of salty water"
Chemistry: Solvent?
The liquid something is mixed into or added to, e.g., water
Chemistry: Sub-limation?
Fancy name for Evaporation Solid going to gas e.g., perfume, ice in the sun, moth balls, etc.
Chemistry: T F Grains of sugar will dissolve faster than a cube of sugar
True The greater the surface area of the reactant substances, the faster the reaction between these substances will take place
Chemistry: T F The greater the surface area of the reactant substances, the faster the reaction between these substances will take place.
Chemistry: T F Isotopes are Atoms that have the same number of protons but a DIFFERENT number of Neutrons
Chemistry: T F a Chemical Equation expresses a Chemical Reaction
Chemistry: The Universal Solvent?
Water Solute is what is poured into the water to be mixed
Chemistry: Vapor-ization?
Change of a substance from a liquid to a gas -- e.g., boiling water
Chemistry: Water flows how?
High to low Also, remember with air it is high-to-low
Chemistry: Water's pH?
7, or midway (Total Acid = 0 while a base = 14)
Chemistry: What solution would you use to tesT For sugar?
Benedict's solution -- Way to test to see if a food item really is sugar-free
Chemistry: pH line or Chart?
How Acid (acidity) or Base (NOT acid) something is -- Runs from 0 to 14 ==> Total Acid to Total Base or Alkaline
Chemistry: Re-actants
those parts of a chemical reaction undergoing the chemical change—are called reactants. The result of the reactionare called Products.
Compound Machine (CM) or Simple Machine (SM) Wheel and Axle
Compound Machine (CM) or Simple Machine (SM): Lawn Mower
Ecology: Abi-otic v. Biotic
Living v. inorganic
Ecology: Acid Rain is caused by what mainly?
sulfur oxides
Ecology: Bio-me?
An area with SIMILAR plants
Ecology: Bio-sphere?
Life supporting area
Ecology: Characteristic of the Piedmont Region of Georgia
Hard rocks, rolling hills, fall line, water falls and rapids Flora (plant life) are pines, magnolia, and dogwoods
Ecology: Eco-system
The relationship of the biotic (alive) and ab-iotic (inorganic)
Ecology: Ecology?
Interaction of life to the environment
Ecology: Food Chain
Who eats whom The small feed on the big
Ecology: Food Chain?
The bigger eat the little
Ecology: Food Web
The interconnecting Food ChainS in an area
Ecology: Greenhouse Effect?
Carbon dioxide build-up
Ecology: Habitat?
Where an animal lives
Ecology: Name the 3-region types Georgia has:
Mtns Coastal plains Piedmont
Ecology: Niche?
A living object's benefit to a community
Ecology: Nutrient Cycle
The recycling of substances necessary for life
Ecology: Nutrient cycle?
Life support stuff is re-used, e.g., water, air, etc.
Ecology: Primary Succession
Animals and plants living well together in a location
Ecology: Rain Forest
Area that is swamp like
Ecology: Secondary Seccession
The Natural act of reclaiming an area
Ecology: Succession
Changes in an Eco-system
Ecology: Succession Community?
A community in a state of change leading ultimately to a Climax Community
Ecology: Suffix: -otic
of, relating to, or characterized by a (specified) action, process, or condition e.g., symbiotic and biotic
Ecology: Sym-bi-o-tic Relationships?
2 or more organisms needing the other for survival
Ecology: What is the following an example of: An area is abandoned and trees and plants naturally return
Secondary Secession
Electrical: Ammeter?
Measures Current (Amperes)
Electrical: Amperes?
Amount of electricity e.g., like the amount of water in a hose
Electrical: An ''Open'' Electrical Circuit is in what state?
an Off condition, e.g., what a switch or fuse can do

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